Changeset 2699 for TI07-MOLES


Ignore:
Timestamp:
04/07/07 10:34:07 (12 years ago)
Author:
ko23
Message:

Fix for #799, and update examples

Location:
TI07-MOLES/trunk
Files:
7 edited

Legend:

Unmodified
Added
Removed
  • TI07-MOLES/trunk/Examples/StubB/NDG-ActStubB-example.xml

    r2583 r2699  
    27612761                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    27622762                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    2763                         <localIdentifier>dpt_116291244849226</localIdentifier> 
    2764                     </dgMetadataID> 
    2765                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    2766                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    2767                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    2768                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    2769                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_1162912448419227</localIdentifier> 
    2770                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    2771                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-07</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    2772                         <abstract> 
    2773                             <abstractText>The radiosonde is a lightweight, balloon-borne instrument that measures profiles of pressure, temperature and humidity from the ground to approximately 40km.The radiosonde is equipped with a radio transmitter for sending the measurements to the observing station.</abstractText> 
    2774                         </abstract> 
    2775                         <descriptionSection> 
    2776                             <dgDescriptionText>The radiosonde is a lightweight, balloon-borne instrument that measures profiles of pressure, temperature and humidity from the ground to approximately 40km. As the balloon carrying the instrument package ascends through the atmosphere, the radiosonde transmits data via a radio link to a ground receiving station. Data from a radiosonde are standard meteorological quantities such as pressure, temperature and humidity. Typically the balloon will ascend to altitudes of about 40 km before it bursts.</dgDescriptionText> 
    2777                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    2778                         </descriptionSection> 
    2779                         <descriptionSection> 
    2780                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    2781                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    2782                                     <name>URI</name> 
    2783                                     <URI/> 
    2784                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    2785                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    2786                         </descriptionSection> 
    2787                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    2788                     <name>Radiosonde</name> 
     2763                        <localIdentifier>obs_1163075118089430</localIdentifier> 
     2764                    </dgMetadataID> 
     2765                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     2766                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     2767                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     2768                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     2769                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_1163075118099431</localIdentifier> 
     2770                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     2771                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-09</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     2772                        <abstract> 
     2773                            <abstractText/> 
     2774                        </abstract> 
     2775                        <descriptionSection> 
     2776                            <dgDescriptionText/> 
     2777                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     2778                        </descriptionSection> 
     2779                        <descriptionSection> 
     2780                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     2781                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     2782                                    <name>URI</name> 
     2783                                    <URI/> 
     2784                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     2785                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     2786                        </descriptionSection> 
     2787                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     2788                    <name>Global Radiosonde Network</name> 
    27892789                    <abbreviation/> 
    27902790                </observationstation> 
     
    27932793                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    27942794                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    2795                         <localIdentifier>dpt_1162913493029258</localIdentifier> 
    2796                     </dgMetadataID> 
    2797                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    2798                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    2799                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    2800                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    2801                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_1162913493029259</localIdentifier> 
     2795                        <localIdentifier>obs_116291488219354</localIdentifier> 
     2796                    </dgMetadataID> 
     2797                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     2798                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     2799                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     2800                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     2801                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_116291488219355</localIdentifier> 
    28022802                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
    28032803                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-07</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    28042804                        <abstract> 
    2805                             <abstractText>An automatic weather station (AWS) is an automated version of the traditional weather station, either to save human labour or to enable measurements from remote areas. The system may report in near real time via ARGOS and the Global telecommunications system, or save the data for later recovery.</abstractText> 
    2806                         </abstract> 
    2807                         <descriptionSection> 
    2808                             <dgDescriptionText>An automatic weather station (AWS) is an automated version of the traditional weather station, either to save human labour or to enable measurements from remote areas. The system may report in near real time via ARGOS and the Global telecommunications system, or save the data for later recovery. 
    2809 &lt;br&gt;&lt;br&gt; 
    2810 Most automatic weather stations have 
    2811 &lt;br&gt;&lt;br&gt; 
    2812 - Thermometer for measuring temperature&lt;br&gt;  
    2813 - Anemometer for measuring wind &lt;br&gt; 
    2814 - Hygrometer for measuring humidity&lt;br&gt;  
    2815 - Barometer for measuring pressure  
    2816 &lt;br&gt;&lt;br&gt; 
    2817 Some of them even have&lt;br&gt;&lt;br&gt; 
    2818  
    2819 - Ceilometer for measuring cloud height&lt;br&gt;  
    2820 - Rain gauge for measuring rainfall&lt;br&gt;  
    2821 - Present weather sensor and/or visibility sensor&lt;br&gt; 
    2822   
    2823 &lt;br&gt;Unlike manual weather stations, automatic weather stations cannot report the class and amount of clouds. Also the rainfall measurements are a bit problematic, especially for snow, as the gauge must empty itself between observations. For present weather, all phenomena which do not touch the sensor (say fog patches) remain unobserved. 
    2824 &lt;br&gt;&lt;br&gt; 
    2825 The first AWS's were often placed where electricity and communication lines were available. Nowadays, the solar panel, wind-generator and cellphone technology have made wireless AWS's easier to place. 
    2826 &lt;br&gt;&lt;br&gt; 
    2827 The configuration of an AWS may vary due to the purpose of the system but typically consists of: 
    2828 &lt;br&gt;&lt;br&gt; 
    2829 - A weather-proof enclosure containing the data logger, rechargeable battery and telemetry (optional); &lt;br&gt; 
    2830 - Meteorological sensors;&lt;br&gt;  
    2831 - Solar panel or wind generator;&lt;br&gt;  
    2832 - Mast;</dgDescriptionText> 
    2833                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    2834                         </descriptionSection> 
    2835                         <descriptionSection> 
    2836                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    2837                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    2838                                     <name>URI</name> 
    2839                                     <URI/> 
    2840                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    2841                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    2842                         </descriptionSection> 
    2843                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    2844                     <name>Automatic Weather Station (AWS)</name> 
    2845                     <abbreviation>AWS</abbreviation> 
     2805                            <abstractText>global weather stations as used by MIDAS.</abstractText> 
     2806                        </abstract> 
     2807                        <descriptionSection> 
     2808                            <dgDescriptionText/> 
     2809                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     2810                        </descriptionSection> 
     2811                        <descriptionSection> 
     2812                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     2813                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     2814                                    <name>URI</name> 
     2815                                    <URI/> 
     2816                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     2817                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     2818                        </descriptionSection> 
     2819                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     2820                    <name>Global Weather Stations</name> 
     2821                    <abbreviation>Global Weather Stations</abbreviation> 
    28462822                </observationstation> 
    28472823                <observationstation> 
     
    28492825                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    28502826                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    2851                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11684459278112305</localIdentifier> 
    2852                     </dgMetadataID> 
    2853                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    2854                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    2855                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    2856                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    2857                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11684459278112306</localIdentifier> 
     2827                        <localIdentifier>obs_11684024756912285</localIdentifier> 
     2828                    </dgMetadataID> 
     2829                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     2830                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     2831                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     2832                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     2833                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_1168402475712286</localIdentifier> 
    28582834                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
    28592835                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-10</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    28602836                        <abstract> 
    2861                             <abstractText>The Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) is one of 3 sub-instruments of the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) system flown on successive spacecraft in the TIROS-N/NOAA series of Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES) since 1978. MSU measures thermal microwave radiation in the 4 regions of the oxygen emission spectrum at around 50GHz.</abstractText> 
    2862                         </abstract> 
    2863                         <descriptionSection> 
    2864                             <dgDescriptionText>The Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) is part of the TOVS instrument suite flown onboard the TIROS_N and NOAA 6 through NOAA 14 satellites. 
    2865 &lt;P&gt; 
    2866 The MSU is a passive scanning microwave spectrometer with four channels in the 5.5 micron oxygen region. The MSU consists of two four-inch diameter antennas, each having an angular Instantaneous Field of View (IFOV) of 7.5 degrees. Assuming a nominal altitude of 833 km, ground resolution is 124 km at the subpoint, while the distance between adjacent scan lines is 168.1 km at nadir. Data from the four channels are at 12 bit precision and may be converted into brightness temperatures using the calibration information which is appended but not applied. Latitudes and longitudes for each of the Earth FOVs in each scan are included as are time tags.</dgDescriptionText> 
    2867                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    2868                         </descriptionSection> 
    2869                         <descriptionSection> 
    2870                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    2871                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    2872                                     <name>URI</name> 
    2873                                     <URI>www2.ncdc.noaa.gov/docs/podug/html/c4/sec4-3.htm</URI> 
    2874                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    2875                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    2876                         </descriptionSection> 
    2877                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    2878                     <name>TOVS - Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU)</name> 
    2879                     <abbreviation>tovs_msu</abbreviation> 
     2837                            <abstractText>Global Radiosonde stations network as used in MIDAS.</abstractText> 
     2838                        </abstract> 
     2839                        <descriptionSection> 
     2840                            <dgDescriptionText/> 
     2841                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     2842                        </descriptionSection> 
     2843                        <descriptionSection> 
     2844                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     2845                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     2846                                    <name>URI</name> 
     2847                                    <URI/> 
     2848                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     2849                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     2850                        </descriptionSection> 
     2851                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     2852                    <name>MIDAS Global Radiosonde Network</name> 
     2853                    <abbreviation>Midas_gbl_radios_ntwk</abbreviation> 
    28802854                </observationstation> 
    28812855                <observationstation> 
     
    28832857                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    28842858                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    2885                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11684454184912301</localIdentifier> 
    2886                     </dgMetadataID> 
    2887                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    2888                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    2889                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    2890                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    2891                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_1168445418512302</localIdentifier> 
     2859                        <localIdentifier>obs_11684436686512293</localIdentifier> 
     2860                    </dgMetadataID> 
     2861                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     2862                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     2863                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     2864                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     2865                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11684436686912294</localIdentifier> 
    28922866                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
    28932867                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-10</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    28942868                        <abstract> 
    2895                             <abstractText>The Stratospheric Sounding Unit (SSU) is one of 3 sub-instruments of the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) system flown on successive spacecraft in the TIROS-N/NOAA series of Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES) since 1978. SSU uses the technique of pressure modulation radiometry to measure radiation emitted by CO2 3 channels in the infra-red. This instrument has the highest vertical resolution in the stratosphere.</abstractText> 
    2896                         </abstract> 
    2897                         <descriptionSection> 
    2898                             <dgDescriptionText>The Stratospheric Sounding Unit (SSU) is part of the TOVS instrument suite flown onboard the TIROS-N and NOAA 6 through NOAA 14 satellites. 
    2899 &lt;P&gt; 
    2900 The SSU is a step-scanned infrared spectrometer employing a selective absorption technique to make measurements at the top of the Earth's atmosphere in three channels in the 15 micron carbon dioxide absorption band. The three SSU channels have the same frequency but different cell pressures. The 10.0 degree angular Instantaneous Field of View (IFOV) gives a resolution of 147.3 km at nadir. The distance between adjacent scan lines is 62.3 km at nadir. Data are from three channels at 12 bit precision and may be converted into brightness temperatures using the calibration information which is appended but not applied. Latitudes and longitudes for each of the eight Earth FOVs in each scan are included as are time tags.</dgDescriptionText> 
    2901                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    2902                         </descriptionSection> 
    2903                         <descriptionSection> 
    2904                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    2905                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    2906                                     <name>URI</name> 
    2907                                     <URI>www2.ncdc.noaa.gov/docs/podug/html/c4/sec4-2.htm</URI> 
    2908                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    2909                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    2910                         </descriptionSection> 
    2911                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    2912                     <name>TOVS - Stratospheric Sounder Unit (SSU)</name> 
    2913                     <abbreviation>tovs_ssu</abbreviation> 
     2869                            <abstractText>The Polar Orbiting Environmental satellites consist of a polar orbiter series of satellites from TIROS-N, NOAA-6 through NOAA-14. The POES system includes the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS).</abstractText> 
     2870                        </abstract> 
     2871                        <descriptionSection> 
     2872                            <dgDescriptionText>The Polar Orbiting Environmental series of satellites commenced with TIROS-N (launched in October 1978) and continued with NOAA-A (launched in June 1979 and renamed NOAA-6), NOAA-C (launched in June 1981 and renamed NOAA-7), NOAA-E (launched in March 1983 and renamed NOAA-8), NOAA-F (launched in December 1984 and renamed NOAA-9), NOAA-G (launched in September 1986 and renamed NOAA-10), NOAA-H (launched in September 1988 and renamed NOAA-11), NOAA-D (launched in May 1991 and renamed NOAA-12), NOAA-I (launched in August 1993 and renamed NOAA-13) and NOAA-J (launched in December 1994 and renamed NOAA-14).  
     2873&lt;br&gt; 
     2874The POES satellite system offers the advantage of daily global coverage, by making nearly polar orbits roughly 14.1 times daily. Since the number of orbits per day is not an integer the sub orbital tracks do not repeat on a daily basis, although the local solar time of each satellite's passage is essentially unchanged for any latitude. The POES system includes the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS).  
     2875&lt;br&gt; 
     2876Because of the polar orbiting nature of the POES series satellites, these satellites are able to collect global data on a daily basis for a variety of land, ocean, and atmospheric applications. Data from the POES series supports a broad range of environmental monitoring applications including weather analysis and forecasting, climate research and prediction, global sea surface temperature measurements, atmospheric soundings of temperature and humidity, ocean dynamics research, volcanic eruption monitoring, forest fire detection, global vegetation analysis, search and rescue, and many other applications.</dgDescriptionText> 
     2877                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     2878                        </descriptionSection> 
     2879                        <descriptionSection> 
     2880                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     2881                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     2882                                    <name>URI</name> 
     2883                                    <URI>goespoes.gsfc.nasa.gov/poes/index.html</URI> 
     2884                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     2885                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     2886                        </descriptionSection> 
     2887                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     2888                    <name>NASA Polar Orbiting environmental satellites (POES)</name> 
     2889                    <abbreviation>NASA_POES</abbreviation> 
    29142890                </observationstation> 
    29152891                <observationstation> 
     
    29172893                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    29182894                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    2919                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11684460946212309</localIdentifier> 
    2920                     </dgMetadataID> 
    2921                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    2922                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    2923                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    2924                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    2925                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11684460946312310</localIdentifier> 
    2926                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    2927                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-10</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    2928                         <abstract> 
    2929                             <abstractText>The High-Resolution Infrared Sounder (HRIS) is one of 3 sub-instruments of the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) system flown on successive spacecraft in the TIROS-N/NOAA series of Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES) since 1978.HRIS makes measurements in 19 regions of the infrared spectrum between 3.7 and 15 microns.</abstractText> 
    2930                         </abstract> 
    2931                         <descriptionSection> 
    2932                             <dgDescriptionText>The High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) is part of the TOVS instrument suite flown onboard the TIROS-N and NOAA 6 through NOAA 14 satellites. 
    2933 &lt;P&gt; 
    2934 The HIRS is a step-scanned multi-channel spectrometer with 20 channels, 19 of which are in the infrared region of the spectrum with the remaining channel in the visible region. The HIRS Level 1b data include 13 bit precision data values from these 20 spectral channels. The visible data values (Channel 20) may be converted into albedos and the IR data (Channels 1-19) may be converted into brightness temperatures using the calibration information which is appended but not applied to each scan line. Latitudes and longitudes for each of the 56 Earth FOVs in each scan are included as are time tags.</dgDescriptionText> 
    2935                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    2936                         </descriptionSection> 
    2937                         <descriptionSection> 
    2938                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    2939                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    2940                                     <name>URI</name> 
    2941                                     <URI/> 
    2942                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    2943                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    2944                         </descriptionSection> 
    2945                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    2946                     <name>TOVS - High-Resolution Infrared Sounder (HRIS)</name> 
    2947                     <abbreviation>tovs_hris</abbreviation> 
     2895                        <localIdentifier>obs_11680401668812094</localIdentifier> 
     2896                    </dgMetadataID> 
     2897                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     2898                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     2899                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     2900                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     2901                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11680401668812095</localIdentifier> 
     2902                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     2903                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-05</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     2904                        <abstract> 
     2905                            <abstractText>Rothamsted is a weather station part of the Met Office UK network of meteorological weather stations. It is located in Hertfordshire, UK.</abstractText> 
     2906                        </abstract> 
     2907                        <descriptionSection> 
     2908                            <dgDescriptionText/> 
     2909                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     2910                        </descriptionSection> 
     2911                        <descriptionSection> 
     2912                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     2913                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     2914                                    <name>URI</name> 
     2915                                    <URI/> 
     2916                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     2917                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     2918                        </descriptionSection> 
     2919                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     2920                    <name>Met Office: Rothamsted</name> 
     2921                    <abbreviation>Rothamsted</abbreviation> 
    29482922                </observationstation> 
    29492923                <observationstation> 
     
    29512925                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    29522926                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    2953                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11680410668112118</localIdentifier> 
    2954                     </dgMetadataID> 
    2955                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    2956                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    2957                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    2958                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    2959                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11680410668112119</localIdentifier> 
     2927                        <localIdentifier>obs_11680403698812098</localIdentifier> 
     2928                    </dgMetadataID> 
     2929                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     2930                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     2931                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     2932                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     2933                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11680403698812099</localIdentifier> 
    29602934                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
    29612935                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-05</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    29622936                        <abstract> 
    2963                             <abstractText>Air temperature recording instrument at the Met Office Rothamsted station in Hertfordshire, UK.</abstractText> 
     2937                            <abstractText>Malvern is a weather station part of the Met Office UK network of meteorological weather stations. It is located in Hereford and Worcester, UK.</abstractText> 
    29642938                        </abstract> 
    29652939                        <descriptionSection> 
     
    29762950                        </descriptionSection> 
    29772951                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
    2978                     <name>Rothamsted temperature sensor</name> 
    2979                     <abbreviation>Rothamsted_temp</abbreviation> 
     2952                    <name>Met Office: Malvern</name> 
     2953                    <abbreviation>Malvern</abbreviation> 
    29802954                </observationstation> 
    29812955                <observationstation> 
     
    29832957                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    29842958                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    2985                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11680411767312122</localIdentifier> 
    2986                     </dgMetadataID> 
    2987                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    2988                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    2989                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    2990                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    2991                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11680411767312123</localIdentifier> 
     2959                        <localIdentifier>obs_11680404852912102</localIdentifier> 
     2960                    </dgMetadataID> 
     2961                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     2962                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     2963                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     2964                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     2965                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11680404852912103</localIdentifier> 
    29922966                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
    29932967                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-05</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    29942968                        <abstract> 
    2995                             <abstractText>Air temperature recording instrument at the Met Office Malvern station in Hereford and Worcester, UK.</abstractText> 
     2969                            <abstractText>Squires Gate is a weather station part of the Met Office UK network of meteorological weather stations. It is located in Lancashire, UK.</abstractText> 
    29962970                        </abstract> 
    29972971                        <descriptionSection> 
     
    30082982                        </descriptionSection> 
    30092983                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3010                     <name>Malvern temperature sensor</name> 
    3011                     <abbreviation>malvern_temp</abbreviation> 
     2984                    <name>Met Office: Squires Gate</name> 
     2985                    <abbreviation>Squires Gate</abbreviation> 
    30122986                </observationstation> 
    30132987                <observationstation> 
     
    30152989                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    30162990                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3017                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11680412462912126</localIdentifier> 
    3018                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3019                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3020                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3021                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3022                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3023                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_1168041246312127</localIdentifier> 
     2991                        <localIdentifier>obs_11680406367112110</localIdentifier> 
     2992                    </dgMetadataID> 
     2993                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     2994                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     2995                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     2996                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     2997                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11680406367112111</localIdentifier> 
    30242998                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
    30252999                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-05</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    30263000                        <abstract> 
    3027                             <abstractText>Air temperature recording instrument at the Met Office Squires Gate station in Lancashire, UK.</abstractText> 
     3001                            <abstractText>Stonyhurst is a weather station part of the Met Office UK network of meteorological weather stations. It is located in Lancashire, UK.</abstractText> 
    30283002                        </abstract> 
    30293003                        <descriptionSection> 
     
    30403014                        </descriptionSection> 
    30413015                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3042                     <name>Squires Gate Temperature sensor</name> 
    3043                     <abbreviation>Squires_Gate_temp</abbreviation> 
     3016                    <name>Met Office: Stonyhurst</name> 
     3017                    <abbreviation>Stonyhurst</abbreviation> 
    30443018                </observationstation> 
    30453019                <observationstation> 
     
    30473021                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    30483022                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3049                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11680414098912134</localIdentifier> 
    3050                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3051                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3052                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3053                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3054                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3055                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11680414098912135</localIdentifier> 
     3023                        <localIdentifier>obs_11680407944912114</localIdentifier> 
     3024                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3025                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3026                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3027                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3028                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3029                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11680407944912115</localIdentifier> 
    30563030                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
    30573031                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-05</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    30583032                        <abstract> 
    3059                             <abstractText>Air temperature recording instrument at the Met Office Rothamsted station in Lancashire, UK.</abstractText> 
     3033                            <abstractText>Unknown set of stations used by Manley, in the triangular area between Preston, Bristol and London to produce monthly series of Central England Temperature.</abstractText> 
    30603034                        </abstract> 
    30613035                        <descriptionSection> 
     
    30723046                        </descriptionSection> 
    30733047                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3074                     <name>Stonyhurst temperature sensor</name> 
    3075                     <abbreviation>stonyhurst_temp</abbreviation> 
     3048                    <name>unknown set of UK stations</name> 
     3049                    <abbreviation>unknown UK stations</abbreviation> 
    30763050                </observationstation> 
    30773051                <observationstation> 
     
    30793053                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    30803054                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3081                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11680414684612138</localIdentifier> 
    3082                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3083                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3084                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3085                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3086                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3087                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11680414684612139</localIdentifier> 
     3055                        <localIdentifier>obs_11680405652212106</localIdentifier> 
     3056                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3057                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3058                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3059                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3060                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3061                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11680405652212107</localIdentifier> 
    30883062                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
    30893063                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-05</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    30903064                        <abstract> 
    3091                             <abstractText/> 
     3065                            <abstractText>Ringway is a weather station part of the Met Office UK network of meteorological weather stations. It is located in Greater Manchester, UK.</abstractText> 
    30923066                        </abstract> 
    30933067                        <descriptionSection> 
     
    31043078                        </descriptionSection> 
    31053079                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3106                     <name>Met Office station temperature sensor</name> 
    3107                     <abbreviation>ukmo_temp</abbreviation> 
     3080                    <name>Met Office: Ringway</name> 
     3081                    <abbreviation>Ringway</abbreviation> 
    31083082                </observationstation> 
    31093083                <observationstation> 
     
    31113085                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    31123086                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3113                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11680413221812130</localIdentifier> 
    3114                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3115                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3116                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3117                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3118                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3119                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11680413221912131</localIdentifier> 
    3120                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    3121                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-05</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    3122                         <abstract> 
    3123                             <abstractText>Air temperature recording instrument at the Met Office Ringway station in Greater Manchester, UK.</abstractText> 
    3124                         </abstract> 
    3125                         <descriptionSection> 
    3126                             <dgDescriptionText/> 
    3127                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    3128                         </descriptionSection> 
    3129                         <descriptionSection> 
    3130                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3131                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    3132                                     <name>URI</name> 
    3133                                     <URI/> 
    3134                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    3135                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3136                         </descriptionSection> 
    3137                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3138                     <name>Ringway temperature sensor</name> 
    3139                     <abbreviation>ringway_temp</abbreviation> 
     3087                        <localIdentifier>obs_11686406722112381</localIdentifier> 
     3088                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3089                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3090                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3091                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3092                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3093                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11686406722212382</localIdentifier> 
     3094                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3095                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-12</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3096                        <abstract> 
     3097                            <abstractText>Set of global radiosonde stations used to compile the HadAT dataset.</abstractText> 
     3098                        </abstract> 
     3099                        <descriptionSection> 
     3100                            <dgDescriptionText>Set of global radiosonde stations to compile the HadAT dataset. The set of radiosonde stations is a merge between the following network: 
     3101&lt;br&gt; 
     3102- 737 radiosonde stations from CLIMAT TEMP - monthly archives on 9 pressure levels on the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) - from the Met Office Hadley Centre, 
     3103&lt;br&gt; 
     3104- 87 global radiosonde stations compiled by Lanzante, Klein and Siedel (LKS) available for the period 1958-1997. 
     3105&lt;br&gt; 
     3106- 152 stations from GUAN - Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Upper Air Network from 1958 to 2001. 
     3107&lt;br&gt; 
     3108- 2129 stations from MONADS - MONthly Aerological Data Set from NCDC for the period 1958-2005. MONADS is now replaced by IGRA (Integrated Global Radiosonde archive) to present time.</dgDescriptionText> 
     3109                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3110                        </descriptionSection> 
     3111                        <descriptionSection> 
     3112                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3113                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3114                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3115                                    <URI/> 
     3116                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3117                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3118                        </descriptionSection> 
     3119                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3120                    <name>HadAT radiosonde network</name> 
     3121                    <abbreviation>hadat radiosondes</abbreviation> 
    31403122                </observationstation> 
    31413123                <observationstation> 
     
    31433125                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    31443126                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3145                         <localIdentifier>dpt_1169483817812667</localIdentifier> 
    3146                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3147                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3148                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3149                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3150                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3151                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_1169483817812668</localIdentifier> 
    3152                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    3153                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-22</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    3154                         <abstract> 
    3155                             <abstractText>Climate Data Loggers (CDL) of a number of different designs have been installed at a number of sites during the 1990s; most record the main synoptic and climate parameters and there is a facility for polling the data remotely.</abstractText> 
    3156                         </abstract> 
    3157                         <descriptionSection> 
    3158                             <dgDescriptionText>A typical Met Office CDL includes the following sensors: 
    3159 &lt;P&gt; 
    3160 - Temperature - thermistor temperature probe mounted inside an unaspirated radiation shield.  
    3161 &lt;BR&gt; 
    3162 - Pressure - barometric pressure sensor.  
    3163 &lt;BR&gt; 
    3164 - Relative humidity - temperature and relative humidity probe (from which only the humidity measurements are used) mounted inside an unaspirated radiation shield. 
    3165 &lt;BR&gt; 
    3166 - Rainfall - tipping bucket raingauge. Note that occasional build-up of fungus within the inlet tube can impede or even completely inhibit the flow of rain into the instrument. This makes the rain data the least reliable of the surface meteorological measurements.  
    3167 &lt;BR&gt; 
    3168 - Downwelling shortwave radiation - thermopile pyranometer (WMO second class).  
    3169 &lt;P&gt; 
    3170 The raingauge is located on the ground. All other sensors are mounted on a post approximately 1 m above the ground. 
    3171 &lt;P&gt; 
    3172 The data logger initially samples the atmospheric temperature, pressure and humidity sensors at 5 s intervals. Mean values are calculated over each 60 s and the outputs from the logger represent minima, means and maxima of these 60 s means over each 10 minute sample period. 
    3173 &lt;P&gt; 
    3174 The data logger initially samples the tipping bucket raingauge every 1 s and records a tip for each 0.20 mm accumulation of rain. The output from the logger represents the total accumulation of rain over the each 10 minute sample period. 
    3175 &lt;P&gt; 
    3176 The data logger initially samples the pyranometer every 5 s and records the downwelling radiation (within a hemispheric field of view) with a flat response in the spectral range 305 - 2800 nm. The output from the logger represents the accumulation of energy per unit area within each 10 minute sample period. The measured radiation is compared with that predicted for the logger's latitude and longitude, and for the time of year and the time of day (assuming clear sky conditions). A sunshine priod is defined as one in which the ratio excedes 0.4 and the output from the logger represents the accumulated sunshine duration within each 10 minute sample period. Note that this is an estimated product, which is not derived according to the WMO definition of sunshine duration. 
    3177 &lt;P&gt; 
    3178 The data logger records the instantaneous battery voltage and internal temperature at the end of each 10 minute sample period for performance checking purposes.</dgDescriptionText> 
    3179                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    3180                         </descriptionSection> 
    3181                         <descriptionSection> 
    3182                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3183                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    3184                                     <name>URI</name> 
    3185                                     <URI/> 
    3186                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    3187                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3188                         </descriptionSection> 
    3189                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3190                     <name>Met Office Climate Data Loggers (CDL)</name> 
    3191                     <abbreviation>ukmo_cdl</abbreviation> 
     3127                        <localIdentifier>obs_11686405444112377</localIdentifier> 
     3128                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3129                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3130                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3131                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3132                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3133                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11686405444312378</localIdentifier> 
     3134                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3135                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-12</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3136                        <abstract> 
     3137                            <abstractText>Set of 200 worldwide radiosonde stations used to compile the HadRT dataset.</abstractText> 
     3138                        </abstract> 
     3139                        <descriptionSection> 
     3140                            <dgDescriptionText>Radiosonde observations are taken from the Met Office archive of monthly CLIMAT TEMP reports received in near-real time. 
     3141&lt;P&gt;For a detailed description of the production process of this dataset, please refer to: 
     3142&lt;P&gt;D.E.Parker, Gordon, M., Cullum, D.P.N., Sexton, D.M.H., Folland, C.K., and Rayner, N. 1997: 'A New Gridded Radiosonde Temperature Data Base and Recent Temperature Trends'. Geophys. Res. Letters, 24, 1499-150</dgDescriptionText> 
     3143                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3144                        </descriptionSection> 
     3145                        <descriptionSection> 
     3146                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3147                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3148                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3149                                    <URI/> 
     3150                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3151                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3152                        </descriptionSection> 
     3153                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3154                    <name>HadRT Radiosonde network</name> 
     3155                    <abbreviation>hadrt_radios</abbreviation> 
    31923156                </observationstation> 
    31933157                <observationstation> 
     
    31953159                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    31963160                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3197                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11693424269612594</localIdentifier> 
    3198                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3199                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3200                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3201                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3202                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3203                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11693424269612595</localIdentifier> 
    3204                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    3205                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-21</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    3206                         <abstract> 
    3207                             <abstractText>The instrument measures the resistance of platinum which depends on temperature according to a quadratic relationship.</abstractText> 
    3208                         </abstract> 
    3209                         <descriptionSection> 
    3210                             <dgDescriptionText>Electrical thermometry is now in widespread use; its main virtue lies in the ability to automate the measurement process. Electrical resistance thermometers (ERT) first came into regular use in the early 1980s at the fully automatic SAWS stations, and since then have been introduced at all Met Office synoptic stations. The instrument measures the resistance of platinum which depends on temperature according to a quadratic relationship. As is the case for liquid-in-glass thermometers, calibration is performed at regular intervals by the QA Lab. &lt;P&gt; 
    3211  
    3212 Screen level temperature 
    3213 &lt;br&gt; 
    3214 The standard exposure for thermometers for measuring the dry, wet-bulb, maximum and minimum temperatures is at 1.25m above the ground in a louvered white screen of wooden construction. This design allows a free circulation of air around the thermometers while shielding them from precipitation and external radiation. 
    3215 &lt;P&gt; 
    3216 Grass and concrete minimum 
    3217 &lt;br&gt; 
    3218 The grass minimum temperature is the lowest temperature reached overnight by a thermometer freely exposed to the sky with its bulb just touching the tips of short grass (25 to 50 mm above the ground). Normally the thermometer is exposed at the last hour before sunset and the reading is taken next morning. However, at stations where an observer is not available near sunset, such as at Ordinary Climatological Stations, the thermometer is often exposed throughout the day. When snow covers the ground the thermometer should be supported immediately above the surface of the snow without actually touching it, though this is only possible at manned stations. Doubtful readings, such as might occur where snow falls overnight, are not normally reported. Long grass and other characteristics of a poorly maintained site will cause inaccurate measurements. 
    3219 &lt;br&gt; 
    3220 The concrete minimum thermometer is exposed at the centre of, and in contact with, a concrete slab which should be cleared of any snow. At some climate stations in the first half of this century readings were taken over bare soil but these values have never been stored in MIDAS. 
    3221 &lt;P&gt; 
    3222 Soil temperature 
    3223 &lt;br&gt; 
    3224 At many stations temperatures below the surface are measured at various depths. The depths used today are 5, 10, 20, 30 and 100cm, although measurements are not necessarily made at all these depths at a station and exceptionally measurements may be made at other depths. When imperial units were in general use, typically before 1961, the normal depths of measurement were 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 inches.</dgDescriptionText> 
    3225                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    3226                         </descriptionSection> 
    3227                         <descriptionSection> 
    3228                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3229                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    3230                                     <name>URI</name> 
    3231                                     <URI/> 
    3232                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    3233                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3234                         </descriptionSection> 
    3235                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3236                     <name>Met Office - Electrical resistance thermometers (ERT or PRT)</name> 
    3237                     <abbreviation>Metoffice_ert</abbreviation> 
     3161                        <localIdentifier>obs_11686428030412391</localIdentifier> 
     3162                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3163                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3164                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3165                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3166                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3167                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11686428030412392</localIdentifier> 
     3168                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3169                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-12</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3170                        <abstract> 
     3171                            <abstractText>The UK High Resolution radiosonde station network consists of about 17 stations, some of which are not operational anymore: albemarle, aughton, beaufort_park, boulmer, camborne, castor_bay, crawley, dunkeswell, eskdalemuir, hemsby, herstmonceux, hillsborough, lerwick, shanwell, stornoway, watnall, and woodvale.</abstractText> 
     3172                        </abstract> 
     3173                        <descriptionSection> 
     3174                            <dgDescriptionText/> 
     3175                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3176                        </descriptionSection> 
     3177                        <descriptionSection> 
     3178                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3179                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3180                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3181                                    <URI/> 
     3182                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3183                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3184                        </descriptionSection> 
     3185                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3186                    <name>UK High Resolution Radiosonde Network</name> 
     3187                    <abbreviation>uk_high_res_radios</abbreviation> 
    32383188                </observationstation> 
    32393189                <observationstation> 
     
    32413191                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    32423192                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3243                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11693422647112590</localIdentifier> 
    3244                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3245                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3246                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3247                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3248                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3249                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11693422647112591</localIdentifier> 
    3250                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    3251                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-21</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    3252                         <abstract> 
    3253                             <abstractText>A liquid-in-glass thermometer, having a surrounding glass sheath, has been the normal means of measuring temperature since the earliest days of observing.</abstractText> 
    3254                         </abstract> 
    3255                         <descriptionSection> 
    3256                             <dgDescriptionText>A liquid-in-glass thermometer, having a surrounding glass sheath, has been the normal means of measuring temperature since the earliest days of observing. The liquid is generally mercury, except for minimum thermometers in which ethanol is used. Maximum and minimum thermometers are reset after the reading has been taken, by a vigorous shake in the case of the maximum, and by tilting upright in the case of minimum. 
    3257 &lt;P&gt; 
    3258 Screen level temperature 
    3259 &lt;br&gt; 
    3260 The standard exposure for thermometers for measuring the dry, wet-bulb, maximum and minimum temperatures is at 1.25m above the ground in a louvered white screen of wooden construction. This design allows a free circulation of air around the thermometers while shielding them from precipitation and external radiation. 
    3261 &lt;P&gt; 
    3262 Grass and concrete minimum 
    3263 &lt;br&gt; 
    3264 The grass minimum temperature is the lowest temperature reached overnight by a thermometer freely exposed to the sky with its bulb just touching the tips of short grass (25 to 50 mm above the ground). Normally the thermometer is exposed at the last hour before sunset and the reading is taken next morning. However, at stations where an observer is not available near sunset, such as at Ordinary Climatological Stations, the thermometer is often exposed throughout the day. When snow covers the ground the thermometer should be supported immediately above the surface of the snow without actually touching it, though this is only possible at manned stations. Doubtful readings, such as might occur where snow falls overnight, are not normally reported. Long grass and other characteristics of a poorly maintained site will cause inaccurate measurements. 
    3265 &lt;BR&gt; 
    3266 The concrete minimum thermometer is exposed at the centre of, and in contact with, a concrete slab which should be cleared of any snow. At some climate stations in the first half of this century readings were taken over bare soil but these values have never been stored in MIDAS. 
    3267 &lt;P&gt; 
    3268 Soil temperature 
    3269 &lt;BR&gt; 
    3270 At many stations temperatures below the surface are measured at various depths. The depths used today are 5, 10, 20, 30 and 100cm, although measurements are not necessarily made at all these depths at a station and exceptionally measurements may be made at other depths. When imperial units were in general use, typically before 1961, the normal depths of measurement were 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 inches.</dgDescriptionText> 
    3271                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    3272                         </descriptionSection> 
    3273                         <descriptionSection> 
    3274                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3275                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    3276                                     <name>URI</name> 
    3277                                     <URI/> 
    3278                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    3279                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3280                         </descriptionSection> 
    3281                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3282                     <name>Met Office - Liquid-in-glass thermometers</name> 
    3283                     <abbreviation>meto_liquidinglass_thermometer</abbreviation> 
     3193                        <localIdentifier>obs_11686432316912395</localIdentifier> 
     3194                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3195                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3196                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3197                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3198                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3199                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11686432316912396</localIdentifier> 
     3200                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3201                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-12</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3202                        <abstract> 
     3203                            <abstractText>Gibraltar North Front weather station is located in Gibraltar, a UK territory located at 36.15N 5.35W, and at an altitude of 3m. It includes a high-resolution radiosonde station.</abstractText> 
     3204                        </abstract> 
     3205                        <descriptionSection> 
     3206                            <dgDescriptionText/> 
     3207                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3208                        </descriptionSection> 
     3209                        <descriptionSection> 
     3210                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3211                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3212                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3213                                    <URI/> 
     3214                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3215                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3216                        </descriptionSection> 
     3217                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3218                    <name>Gibraltar North Point station</name> 
     3219                    <abbreviation>gibraltar</abbreviation> 
    32843220                </observationstation> 
    32853221                <observationstation> 
     
    32873223                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    32883224                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3289                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11693433944312598</localIdentifier> 
    3290                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3291                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3292                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3293                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3294                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3295                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11693433944312599</localIdentifier> 
    3296                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    3297                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-21</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    3298                         <abstract> 
    3299                             <abstractText/> 
    3300                         </abstract> 
    3301                         <descriptionSection> 
    3302                             <dgDescriptionText>Almost all observations of surface humidity have been made using a wet bulb thermometer though some recent automatic stations have a relative humidity sensor fitted. The wet bulb is exposed alongside the dry bulb in the meteorological screen with no additional ventilation other than that provided by the natural flow of air. The wet bulb is kept moist through the capillary action of water up a muslin wick. Where ERT thermometers are used, such as in any automatic station, the siting of instruments is the same. On occasions when air temperatures fall below zero, the wet bulb should be covered by a thin film of ice, this being ensured by the observer at manned sites each time a reading is taken. Conversion to a dew point uses values of saturated vapour pressure with respect to a ice covered surface.</dgDescriptionText> 
    3303                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    3304                         </descriptionSection> 
    3305                         <descriptionSection> 
    3306                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3307                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    3308                                     <name>URI</name> 
    3309                                     <URI/> 
    3310                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    3311                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3312                         </descriptionSection> 
    3313                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3314                     <name>Met Office - Humidity Sensor</name> 
    3315                     <abbreviation>meto_humidity</abbreviation> 
     3225                        <localIdentifier>obs_11686432758612399</localIdentifier> 
     3226                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3227                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3228                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3229                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3230                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3231                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11686432758612400</localIdentifier> 
     3232                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3233                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-12</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3234                        <abstract> 
     3235                            <abstractText>Bottoms wood weather station is located in St Helena, a UK territory located at 15.933S, 5.667W, and at an altitude of 435m. It includes a high-resolution radiosonde station.</abstractText> 
     3236                        </abstract> 
     3237                        <descriptionSection> 
     3238                            <dgDescriptionText/> 
     3239                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3240                        </descriptionSection> 
     3241                        <descriptionSection> 
     3242                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3243                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3244                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3245                                    <URI/> 
     3246                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3247                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3248                        </descriptionSection> 
     3249                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3250                    <name>Saint Helena Bottoms wood station</name> 
     3251                    <abbreviation>st_helena</abbreviation> 
    33163252                </observationstation> 
    33173253                <observationstation> 
     
    33193255                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    33203256                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3321                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11693420460812586</localIdentifier> 
    3322                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3323                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3324                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3325                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3326                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3327                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11693420460812587</localIdentifier> 
    3328                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    3329                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-21</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    3330                         <abstract> 
    3331                             <abstractText>A Laser Cloud Base Recorder is an instrument used on the Met Office network to measure cloud amount and height at different layers up to 25000ft.</abstractText> 
    3332                         </abstract> 
    3333                         <descriptionSection> 
    3334                             <dgDescriptionText>Where Laser Cloud Base Recorders have since been installed, measurements are available of cloud amount and height at different layers up to a maximum of 25000 ft. Cloud amounts are obtained by processing data over time and are of limited accuracy; orographically forced cloud, not advected over the instrument, will not be recorded. At the manned stations the LCBR is used as an observing aid, while at automatic stations amounts and heights with missing cloud types are reported in the SYNOP message.</dgDescriptionText> 
    3335                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    3336                         </descriptionSection> 
    3337                         <descriptionSection> 
    3338                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3339                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    3340                                     <name>URI</name> 
    3341                                     <URI/> 
    3342                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    3343                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3344                         </descriptionSection> 
    3345                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3346                     <name>Met Office - Laser Cloud Base Recorder (LCBR)</name> 
     3257                        <localIdentifier>obs_11686433000512403</localIdentifier> 
     3258                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3259                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3260                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3261                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3262                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3263                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11686433000512404</localIdentifier> 
     3264                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3265                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-12</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3266                        <abstract> 
     3267                            <abstractText>Mount Pleasant weather station is located in the Falklands at 51.817S, 58.45W, and at an altitude of 73m. It includes a high-resolution radiosonde station.</abstractText> 
     3268                        </abstract> 
     3269                        <descriptionSection> 
     3270                            <dgDescriptionText/> 
     3271                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3272                        </descriptionSection> 
     3273                        <descriptionSection> 
     3274                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3275                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3276                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3277                                    <URI/> 
     3278                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3279                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3280                        </descriptionSection> 
     3281                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3282                    <name>Mount Pleasant station, Falkland Isl.</name> 
     3283                    <abbreviation>mount_pleasant_falkland</abbreviation> 
     3284                </observationstation> 
     3285                <observationstation> 
     3286                    <dgMetadataID> 
     3287                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3288                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3289                        <localIdentifier>obs_11694810984712643</localIdentifier> 
     3290                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3291                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3292                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3293                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3294                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3295                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11694810984712644</localIdentifier> 
     3296                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3297                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-22</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3298                        <abstract> 
     3299                            <abstractText>The purpose of the climate network is to enable the climate of the United Kingdom to be determined and monitored and thereby meeting the requirements for international exchange, commercial applications and research. The minimum observing requirement at a climate station is the daily measurement of maximum temperature, minimum temperature and rainfall amount though many stations make a wider range of observations.</abstractText> 
     3300                        </abstract> 
     3301                        <descriptionSection> 
     3302                            <dgDescriptionText>The purpose of the climate network is to enable the climate of the United Kingdom to be determined and monitored and thereby meeting the requirements for international exchange, commercial applications and research. The minimum observing requirement at a climate station is the daily measurement of maximum temperature, minimum temperature and rainfall amount though many stations make a wider range of observations. The current climate network is made up of the following sub-networks: 
     3303&lt;P&gt; 
     3304    * Principal Climatological Stations (PCS). These are manned or automatic stations at which hourly reading are taken. Their spacing over the UK is around the WMO recommended value of 30 km. Most are part of the synoptic network and provide their observations in real time. 
     3305&lt;P&gt; 
     3306    * Reference Climatological Stations (RCS). These stations are designated to meet the UK needs for climate monitoring. All have a long observational record spanning at least 30 years and their distribution aims to be representative of the major climatological areas unaffected by environmental changes such as urbanisation. Hourly observations are desirable from these stations and most, but not all, are included in the PCS network. 
     3307&lt;P&gt; 
     3308    * Ordinary Climatological Stations. These are climatological stations at which observations, made at least once a day, include readings of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation amount. The observation time is normally 0900 UTC. There are some 500 stations in the network run both by authorities with an interest in the weather (e.g. National Trust, Forestry Commission, educational and agricultural institutions and local authorities), and by private individuals. In recent years a small number of Climate Data Loggers (CDL) have been added to the network. Observational data are usually returned at the end of the month. 
     3309&lt;P&gt; 
     3310    * WMO Climate Stations. All WMO members identify a number of climate stations from which monthly CLIMAT reports are generated each month for international exchange. The surface CLIMAT message contains monthly mean values of such elements as rainfall, sunshine, and temperature as well as long term climatological averages. 20 UK stations have been identified as WMO Reference Stations most of which belong to the RCS network. 
     3311    * GCOS Climate Stations. A subset of the WMO Climate Stations provide a contribution to the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) which is specifically aimed at meeting the needs of research and monitoring of climate change. At present 6 UK stations are part of the GCOS surface network. 
     3312&lt;P&gt; 
     3313    * Health Resort Stations. These stations are part of the network of Ordinary Climatological Stations but report daily at 1700 local clock time. Although originally set up last century to publicise the healthy benefits of coastal resorts, their main use today is for the daily weather summaries that appear in local and national press. These stations do not necessarily meet the standards expected of the stations of the other climate networks.</dgDescriptionText> 
     3314                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3315                        </descriptionSection> 
     3316                        <descriptionSection> 
     3317                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3318                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3319                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3320                                    <URI/> 
     3321                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3322                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3323                        </descriptionSection> 
     3324                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3325                    <name>Met Office Climate network</name> 
     3326                    <abbreviation>ukmo_climate_ntwk</abbreviation> 
     3327                </observationstation> 
     3328                <observationstation> 
     3329                    <dgMetadataID> 
     3330                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3331                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3332                        <localIdentifier>obs_11694814613412651</localIdentifier> 
     3333                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3334                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3335                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3336                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3337                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3338                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11694814613412652</localIdentifier> 
     3339                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3340                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-22</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3341                        <abstract> 
     3342                            <abstractText>Although many of the requirements for the measurement of precipitation amount may be met by the stations in the climate network, it is important for some applications to be able to resolve detail on smaller space scales. Point to point variability, and therefore the interpolation error between two neighbouring stations, is larger for rainfall than for most other climate elements. In terms of station numbers, the rainfall network is largest having some 5000 stations currently open across the UK. Radar rainfall sites are not included in this network. The current rainfall network is made up of 3 sub-networks:.</abstractText> 
     3343                        </abstract> 
     3344                        <descriptionSection> 
     3345                            <dgDescriptionText>Although many of the requirements for the measurement of precipitation amount may be met by the stations in the climate network, it is important for some applications to be able to resolve detail on smaller space scales. Point to point variability, and therefore the interpolation error between two neighbouring stations, is larger for rainfall than for most other climate elements. In terms of station numbers, the rainfall network is largest having some 5000 stations currently open across the UK. Radar rainfall sites are not included in this network. The current rainfall network is made up of the following sub-networks:. 
     3346&lt;P&gt; 
     3347    * Stations providing sub-hourly data. Solid State Event Recorder (SSER) logging devices have been in operation at some 50-60 stations since about 1986 (see 4.8). Some Water Authorities operate loggers but sub hourly data from these devices are not stored in MIDAS. 
     3348&lt;P&gt;    * Stations providing hourly data. Most stations in the Basic Synoptic Network report hourly rainfall as a SREW message transmitted in real time. Many stations have a record of hourly rainfall observations stretching back to 1959 or, in some cases, earlier. A number of CDL stations are equipped to provide real time hourly amounts. 
     3349&lt;P&gt;    * Daily rainfall stations. Daily rainfall, measured at 0900 UTC, is provided from all stations of the Climate network. These are augmented by almost 4000 stations where rainfall is the sole observation made. The vast majority of stations in England and Wales are managed by the Environment Agency, while many of those in Scotland and Northern Ireland are managed by other government bodies. Although daily reading are preferred from these sites, some may only report weekdays, weekly, monthly or at some infrequent intervals. Data are returned monthly.</dgDescriptionText> 
     3350                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3351                        </descriptionSection> 
     3352                        <descriptionSection> 
     3353                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3354                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3355                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3356                                    <URI/> 
     3357                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3358                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3359                        </descriptionSection> 
     3360                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3361                    <name>Met Office Rainfall network</name> 
     3362                    <abbreviation>ukmo_raingauge_ntwk</abbreviation> 
     3363                </observationstation> 
     3364                <observationstation> 
     3365                    <dgMetadataID> 
     3366                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3367                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3368                        <localIdentifier>obs_11694816123812655</localIdentifier> 
     3369                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3370                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3371                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3372                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3373                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3374                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11694816123912656</localIdentifier> 
     3375                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3376                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-22</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3377                        <abstract> 
     3378                            <abstractText>Stations in this network provide measurements of solar and terrestrial electromagnetic radiation and the duration of bright sunshine.</abstractText> 
     3379                        </abstract> 
     3380                        <descriptionSection> 
     3381                            <dgDescriptionText>Stations in this network provide measurements of solar and terrestrial electromagnetic radiation and the duration of bright sunshine. 
     3382&lt;P&gt; 
     3383The routine measurement of solar radiation was started in the UK at Kew Observatory in 1908. Daily measurements of the direct solar irradiance were taken at noon when conditions allowed and this practice was continued for the next 40 years. Regular measurements of global and diffuse irradiance began at Kew in 1946, at Lerwick and Eskdalemuir in 1952, and at Aberporth, Cambridge and London in 1957. The network in UK was further enlarged by the addition of co-operating stations making solar radiation measurements for their own purposes and by 1975 the network consisted of 29 stations with at least 5 years continuous recording of global radiation. At the present time (1996) the network consists of 11 Met Office manned stations and 20 unmanned stations (ESAWS) plus 17 co-operating stations. 
     3384&lt;P&gt; 
     3385Stations at present measuring radiation and sunshine may be assigned to any of 5 sub networks designed to meet specific user requirements: 
     3386&lt;P&gt; 
     3387    * Climatological Radiation Network. A network of stations that will allow the climatology of radiation in the UK to be maintained. 
     3388&lt;P&gt;    * Climatological Sunshine Network. A network of stations that is required to maintain the climatology of sunshine in the UK. 
     3389&lt;P&gt;    * Synoptic Radiation Network. A network of stations that is required to provide solar and terrestrial radiation in support of numerical weather prediction and associated products. 
     3390&lt;P&gt;    * Synoptic Sunshine Network. A network of stations that is required to provide sunshine data in support of media enquiries and products. 
     3391&lt;P&gt;    * Reference Radiation Network. A network of stations that is required to provide high quality reference solar and terrestrial radiation measurements in support of research and development.</dgDescriptionText> 
     3392                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3393                        </descriptionSection> 
     3394                        <descriptionSection> 
     3395                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3396                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3397                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3398                                    <URI/> 
     3399                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3400                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3401                        </descriptionSection> 
     3402                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3403                    <name>Met Office Sunshine and Radiation network</name> 
     3404                    <abbreviation>ukmo_sun_rad_ntwk</abbreviation> 
     3405                </observationstation> 
     3406                <observationstation> 
     3407                    <dgMetadataID> 
     3408                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3409                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3410                        <localIdentifier>obs_11694808474912639</localIdentifier> 
     3411                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3412                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3413                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3414                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3415                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3416                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11694808474912640</localIdentifier> 
     3417                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3418                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-22</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3419                        <abstract> 
     3420                            <abstractText>The synoptic network meets the requirements of forecasting, nowcasting, NWP and international exchange for real time observations taken at intervals between 1 and 3 hours. The observed elements include weather, cloud, temperature, humidity, wind, visibility, pressure etc. contained in the SYNOP message.</abstractText> 
     3421                        </abstract> 
     3422                        <descriptionSection> 
     3423                            <dgDescriptionText>The synoptic network meets the requirements of forecasting, nowcasting, NWP and international exchange for real time observations taken at intervals between 1 and 3 hours. The observed elements include weather, cloud, temperature, humidity, wind, visibility, pressure etc. contained in the SYNOP message. Most synoptic stations also report hourly rain in the SREW message as well as observations which meet more general climate requirements in the HCM and NCM messages. The current synoptic network has an average station spacing of less than 50 km; it is made up of the following sub-networks: 
     3424&lt;P&gt; 
     3425    * Regional Basic Synoptic Network (RBSN). The RBSN consists of some 30 stations, fully manned by professional observers, which produce hourly observations. A high level of accuracy and reporting reliability is expected. 3-hourly observations from these stations are exchanged in real time internationally on the GTS. 
     3426&lt;P&gt; 
     3427     * Basic Synoptic Network. This consists of some 85 stations, many automated or semi-automated, which provide the same hourly observations as from the RBSN. At semi-automatic stations visual input from an observer is available only at certain times of the day; typically weekday working hours. 
     3428&lt;P&gt; 
     3429     * Supplementary Network. This network of some 110 stations has a more irregular spacing and reporting frequency than the Basic Synoptic Network and is designed to sample a wider range of environments (e.g. coastal, upland, urban) for specific specialised business needs. Some stations are automatic and some are manned by auxiliary observers whose work may be in some weather related sector (e.g. coastguards). The observing schedule at auxiliary stations may be irregular and receipt of observations at any hour is not guaranteed. 
     3430&lt;P&gt; 
     3431     * Aviation Network. Some 130 stations of the Aviation Network, based at airfields, produce half hourly METAR observations for the requirements of short period aviation forecasting. There is considerable overlap with stations in the Basic Synoptic Network.</dgDescriptionText> 
     3432                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3433                        </descriptionSection> 
     3434                        <descriptionSection> 
     3435                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3436                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3437                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3438                                    <URI/> 
     3439                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3440                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3441                        </descriptionSection> 
     3442                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3443                    <name>Met Office Synoptic network</name> 
     3444                    <abbreviation>ukmo_synop_ntwk</abbreviation> 
     3445                </observationstation> 
     3446                <observationstation> 
     3447                    <dgMetadataID> 
     3448                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3449                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3450                        <localIdentifier>obs_1169481298512647</localIdentifier> 
     3451                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3452                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3453                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3454                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3455                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3456                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_1169481298512648</localIdentifier> 
     3457                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3458                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-22</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3459                        <abstract> 
     3460                            <abstractText>Observations of wind are required from the synoptic network to meet the real time needs of forecasting and NWP and have usually always been based on 10-minute averages. The climatological requirement for wind measurement is more varied and observations using a wider range of averaging periods have been made. Although some wind-only sites exist, observations of wind are usually collocated with observations of other meteorological elements. The wind network is made up of 3 sub-networks.</abstractText> 
     3461                        </abstract> 
     3462                        <descriptionSection> 
     3463                            <dgDescriptionText>Observations of wind are required from the synoptic network to meet the real time needs of forecasting and NWP and have usually always been based on 10-minute averages. The climatological requirement for wind measurement is more varied and observations using a wider range of averaging periods have been made. Although some wind-only sites exist, observations of wind are usually collocated with observations of other meteorological elements. The current wind network is made up of the following sub-networks: 
     3464&lt;P&gt; 
     3465    * Synoptic wind network. All stations in the synoptic network report wind in the SYNOP message; most are measured 10-minute means but visual estimates are made at some auxiliary stations. Stations with recording devices report values over the last three minutes prior to the observation time if there has been a significant change during the last ten minutes. 
     3466&lt;P&gt;    * Climatological wind network. Mean hourly winds are also reported from many stations in the synoptic network, either in real time in the HCM message or, as was generally the practice in the past, from an manual analysis of the anemograph record performed at the end of the month and returned on Form 6910. Some stations in the climatological network report a run of wind for a 24-hour period which is converted to a mean wind speed on storage in MIDAS. 
     3467&lt;P&gt;    * DALE network. Between 1980 and 1984 a DALE wind logging equipment was installed at some 75 stations across the UK. 1-minute averages of wind are stored on magnetic tape and returned to Bracknell at the end of the month for processing. With the introduction of SAMOS, DALE sites are gradually being phased out.</dgDescriptionText> 
     3468                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3469                        </descriptionSection> 
     3470                        <descriptionSection> 
     3471                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3472                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3473                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3474                                    <URI/> 
     3475                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3476                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3477                        </descriptionSection> 
     3478                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3479                    <name>Met Office Wind network</name> 
     3480                    <abbreviation>ukmo_wind_ntwk</abbreviation> 
     3481                </observationstation> 
     3482                <observationstation> 
     3483                    <dgMetadataID> 
     3484                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3485                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3486                        <localIdentifier>obs_1169512185912789</localIdentifier> 
     3487                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3488                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3489                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3490                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3491                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3492                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_1169512185912790</localIdentifier> 
     3493                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3494                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-23</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3495                        <abstract> 
     3496                            <abstractText>Set of synoptic AWS stations across Europe.</abstractText> 
     3497                        </abstract> 
     3498                        <descriptionSection> 
     3499                            <dgDescriptionText/> 
     3500                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3501                        </descriptionSection> 
     3502                        <descriptionSection> 
     3503                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3504                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3505                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3506                                    <URI/> 
     3507                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3508                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3509                        </descriptionSection> 
     3510                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3511                    <name>European Synoptic Network</name> 
     3512                    <abbreviation>euro_synop_ntwk</abbreviation> 
     3513                </observationstation> 
     3514                <observationstation> 
     3515                    <dgMetadataID> 
     3516                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3517                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3518                        <localIdentifier>obs_1162914944329366</localIdentifier> 
     3519                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3520                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3521                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3522                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3523                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3524                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_1162914944339367</localIdentifier> 
     3525                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3526                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-07</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3527                        <abstract> 
     3528                            <abstractText>From 1972 to 2001 the Meteorological Research Flight (MRF) operated a C-130 aircraft which was comprehensively equipped to make a wide variety of atmospheric observations. It had been heavily modified for this role and was one of the most sophisticated 'flying laboratories' for atmospheric research in the world. The long striped probe on the nose allows sensitive instruments to make measurements, for example of turbulence, in a region outside the influence of the aircraft itself; it also gives the aircraft its nickname of 'Snoopy'.</abstractText> 
     3529                        </abstract> 
     3530                        <descriptionSection> 
     3531                            <dgDescriptionText>A description of the aircraft and its capabilities is available at:  
     3532&lt;a href="http://badc.nerc.ac.uk/data/mrf/mrf_help.html"&gt;http://badc.nerc.ac.uk/data/mrf/mrf_help.html&lt;/a&gt;</dgDescriptionText> 
     3533                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3534                        </descriptionSection> 
     3535                        <descriptionSection> 
     3536                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3537                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3538                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3539                                    <URI/> 
     3540                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3541                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3542                        </descriptionSection> 
     3543                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3544                    <name>Met Office C-130 Hercules Aircraft</name> 
     3545                    <abbreviation>c130</abbreviation> 
     3546                </observationstation> 
     3547                <observationstation/> 
     3548                <observationstation> 
     3549                    <dgMetadataID> 
     3550                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3551                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3552                        <localIdentifier>obs_11704677916413823</localIdentifier> 
     3553                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3554                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3555                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3556                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3557                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3558                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11704677916413824</localIdentifier> 
     3559                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3560                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-02-03</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3561                        <abstract> 
     3562                            <abstractText>Global weather stations in MIDAS, including stations in Africa, Europe, Antarctica, North, Central, and South America, Asia, and South-west Pacific.</abstractText> 
     3563                        </abstract> 
     3564                        <descriptionSection> 
     3565                            <dgDescriptionText/> 
     3566                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3567                        </descriptionSection> 
     3568                        <descriptionSection> 
     3569                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3570                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3571                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3572                                    <URI/> 
     3573                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3574                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3575                        </descriptionSection> 
     3576                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3577                    <name>MIDAS Global weather stations</name> 
     3578                    <abbreviation>midas_glbl_stations</abbreviation> 
     3579                </observationstation> 
     3580                <observationstation> 
     3581                    <dgMetadataID> 
     3582                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3583                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3584                        <localIdentifier>obs_11637744147611510</localIdentifier> 
     3585                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3586                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3587                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3588                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3589                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3590                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11637744147611511</localIdentifier> 
     3591                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3592                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-17</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3593                        <abstract> 
     3594                            <abstractText/> 
     3595                        </abstract> 
     3596                        <descriptionSection> 
     3597                            <dgDescriptionText>More details to follow</dgDescriptionText> 
     3598                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3599                        </descriptionSection> 
     3600                        <descriptionSection> 
     3601                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3602                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3603                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3604                                    <URI/> 
     3605                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3606                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3607                        </descriptionSection> 
     3608                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3609                    <name>Met office supercomputer (Exeter)</name> 
    33473610                    <abbreviation/> 
    33483611                </observationstation> 
     
    33513614                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    33523615                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3353                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11693417692812582</localIdentifier> 
    3354                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3355                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3356                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3357                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3358                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3359                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11693417692812583</localIdentifier> 
    3360                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    3361                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-21</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    3362                         <abstract> 
    3363                             <abstractText>A visiometer is an instrument to aid the estimation of visibility at a meteorological station.</abstractText> 
    3364                         </abstract> 
    3365                         <descriptionSection> 
    3366                             <dgDescriptionText>Hand-held Gold visibility meters have been available for many years to aid the estimation of visibility, but it was not until the 1990s that visiometers have been widely installed at stations in the synoptic network for the automation of the measurement. Visiometers measure the transmissivity of a sample volume of air, expressed as the Meteorological Optical Range (MOR), which is converted for observational use into a visibility and coded directly into the SYNOP message at automatic stations. Where the station is manned the visiometer measurement may be altered by the observer if, in his judgement, it is in error or unrepresentative of the conditions obtaining at the time.</dgDescriptionText> 
    3367                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    3368                         </descriptionSection> 
    3369                         <descriptionSection> 
    3370                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3371                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    3372                                     <name>URI</name> 
    3373                                     <URI/> 
    3374                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    3375                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3376                         </descriptionSection> 
    3377                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3378                     <name>visiometer</name> 
    3379                     <abbreviation>visiometer</abbreviation> 
     3616                        <localIdentifier>obs_1163081935869602</localIdentifier> 
     3617                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3618                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3619                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3620                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3621                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3622                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_1163081935879603</localIdentifier> 
     3623                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3624                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-09</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3625                        <abstract> 
     3626                            <abstractText/> 
     3627                        </abstract> 
     3628                        <descriptionSection> 
     3629                            <dgDescriptionText>Site for Met Office radar and also a link transmitter owned by CCUK. The site is located at Dunnockshaw, Lancashire, UK.</dgDescriptionText> 
     3630                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3631                        </descriptionSection> 
     3632                        <descriptionSection> 
     3633                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3634                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3635                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3636                                    <URI/> 
     3637                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3638                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3639                        </descriptionSection> 
     3640                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3641                    <name>Hameldon Hill, UK</name> 
     3642                    <abbreviation>hameldon_hill</abbreviation> 
    33803643                </observationstation> 
    33813644                <observationstation> 
     
    33833646                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    33843647                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3385                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11693415849312578</localIdentifier> 
    3386                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3387                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3388                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3389                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3390                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3391                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11693415849312579</localIdentifier> 
    3392                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    3393                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-21</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    3394                         <abstract> 
    3395                             <abstractText>The Campbell-Stokes recorder is a sunshine recording instrument.</abstractText> 
    3396                         </abstract> 
    3397                         <descriptionSection> 
    3398                             <dgDescriptionText>The routine measurement of sunshine was started in London, in 1853 by J.F.Campbell. His instrument was modified in 1880 by Stokes into the ubiquitous Campbell-Stokes recorder which is still the official sunshine recording method in UK. The instrument has a mounted glass sphere which focuses the suns rays onto a thick card, burning a hole when the sun is shining. The passage of the sun across the sky translates into a linear burn pattern along the card which may be analysed by the observer to give measurements of sunshine duration.</dgDescriptionText> 
    3399                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    3400                         </descriptionSection> 
    3401                         <descriptionSection> 
    3402                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3403                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    3404                                     <name>URI</name> 
    3405                                     <URI/> 
    3406                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    3407                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3408                         </descriptionSection> 
    3409                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3410                     <name>Campbell-Stokes recorder</name> 
     3648                        <localIdentifier>obs_11635961800911397</localIdentifier> 
     3649                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3650                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3651                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3652                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3653                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3654                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11635961801311398</localIdentifier> 
     3655                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3656                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-15</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3657                        <abstract> 
     3658                            <abstractText/> 
     3659                        </abstract> 
     3660                        <descriptionSection> 
     3661                            <dgDescriptionText>Station in the UK rain radar network, located at Flauden near Amersham, UK.</dgDescriptionText> 
     3662                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3663                        </descriptionSection> 
     3664                        <descriptionSection> 
     3665                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3666                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3667                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3668                                    <URI/> 
     3669                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3670                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3671                        </descriptionSection> 
     3672                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3673                    <name>Chenies, UK</name> 
     3674                    <abbreviation>chenies</abbreviation> 
     3675                </observationstation> 
     3676                <observationstation> 
     3677                    <dgMetadataID> 
     3678                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3679                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3680                        <localIdentifier>obs_11635006583111193</localIdentifier> 
     3681                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3682                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3683                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3684                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3685                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3686                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11635006583111194</localIdentifier> 
     3687                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3688                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-14</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3689                        <abstract> 
     3690                            <abstractText/> 
     3691                        </abstract> 
     3692                        <descriptionSection> 
     3693                            <dgDescriptionText>Station in the UK rain radar network, located at Huntsham, near Tiverton in Devon (South-West UK).</dgDescriptionText> 
     3694                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3695                        </descriptionSection> 
     3696                        <descriptionSection> 
     3697                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3698                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3699                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3700                                    <URI/> 
     3701                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3702                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3703                        </descriptionSection> 
     3704                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3705                    <name>Cobbacombe Cross, UK</name> 
     3706                    <abbreviation>cobbacombe_cross</abbreviation> 
     3707                </observationstation> 
     3708                <observationstation> 
     3709                    <dgMetadataID> 
     3710                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3711                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3712                        <localIdentifier>obs_11635006355411189</localIdentifier> 
     3713                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3714                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3715                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3716                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3717                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3718                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11635006355511190</localIdentifier> 
     3719                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3720                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-14</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3721                        <abstract> 
     3722                            <abstractText/> 
     3723                        </abstract> 
     3724                        <descriptionSection> 
     3725                            <dgDescriptionText>Station in the UK rain radar network.</dgDescriptionText> 
     3726                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3727                        </descriptionSection> 
     3728                        <descriptionSection> 
     3729                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3730                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3731                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3732                                    <URI/> 
     3733                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3734                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3735                        </descriptionSection> 
     3736                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3737                    <name>Wardon Hill, UK</name> 
     3738                    <abbreviation>wardon_hill</abbreviation> 
     3739                </observationstation> 
     3740                <observationstation> 
     3741                    <dgMetadataID> 
     3742                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3743                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3744                        <localIdentifier>obs_11721885975115444</localIdentifier> 
     3745                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3746                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3747                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3748                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3749                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3750                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11721885975515445</localIdentifier> 
     3751                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3752                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-02-22</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3753                        <abstract> 
     3754                            <abstractText/> 
     3755                        </abstract> 
     3756                        <descriptionSection> 
     3757                            <dgDescriptionText>Station in the UK rain radar network, located near Ruan Mayor, The Lizard, Cornwall, South-West UK.</dgDescriptionText> 
     3758                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3759                        </descriptionSection> 
     3760                        <descriptionSection> 
     3761                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3762                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3763                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3764                                    <URI/> 
     3765                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3766                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3767                        </descriptionSection> 
     3768                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3769                    <name>Predannack, UK</name> 
     3770                    <abbreviation>predannack</abbreviation> 
     3771                </observationstation> 
     3772                <observationstation> 
     3773                    <dgMetadataID> 
     3774                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3775                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3776                        <localIdentifier>obs_11721886966415448</localIdentifier> 
     3777                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3778                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3779                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3780                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3781                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3782                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11721886966515449</localIdentifier> 
     3783                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3784                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-02-22</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3785                        <abstract> 
     3786                            <abstractText/> 
     3787                        </abstract> 
     3788                        <descriptionSection> 
     3789                            <dgDescriptionText>Station in the UK rain radar network, located at La Moye, Jersey, Channel Islands</dgDescriptionText> 
     3790                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3791                        </descriptionSection> 
     3792                        <descriptionSection> 
     3793                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3794                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3795                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3796                                    <URI/> 
     3797                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3798                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3799                        </descriptionSection> 
     3800                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3801                    <name>Jersey radar station, Channel Islands</name> 
     3802                    <abbreviation>jersey_radar</abbreviation> 
     3803                </observationstation> 
     3804                <observationstation> 
     3805                    <dgMetadataID> 
     3806                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3807                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3808                        <localIdentifier>obs_11695942629112828</localIdentifier> 
     3809                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3810                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3811                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3812                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3813                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3814                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11695942629212829</localIdentifier> 
     3815                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3816                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-23</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3817                        <abstract> 
     3818                            <abstractText/> 
     3819                        </abstract> 
     3820                        <descriptionSection> 
     3821                            <dgDescriptionText/> 
     3822                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3823                        </descriptionSection> 
     3824                        <descriptionSection> 
     3825                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3826                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3827                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3828                                    <URI>www.metoffice.gov.uk</URI> 
     3829                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3830                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3831                        </descriptionSection> 
     3832                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3833                    <name>Met Office Computer network</name> 
     3834                    <abbreviation>ukmo_machine_network</abbreviation> 
     3835                </observationstation> 
     3836                <observationstation> 
     3837                    <dgMetadataID> 
     3838                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3839                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3840                        <localIdentifier>obs_11637722766411491</localIdentifier> 
     3841                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3842                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3843                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3844                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3845                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3846                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11637722766511492</localIdentifier> 
     3847                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3848                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-17</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3849                        <abstract> 
     3850                            <abstractText>The Met Research Unit, located at Cardington in Bedfordshire (52o 06' N, 00o 25' W, 29m amsl), maintains a suite of surface-based and mast-mounted instrumentation. The main purpose of this instrumentation site, which is logged 24 hours a day, is to provide data for atmospheric processes research, and for the testing and validation of numerical model output and performance.</abstractText> 
     3851                        </abstract> 
     3852                        <descriptionSection> 
     3853                            <dgDescriptionText/> 
     3854                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3855                        </descriptionSection> 
     3856                        <descriptionSection> 
     3857                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3858                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3859                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3860                                    <URI>badc.nerc.ac.uk/data/cardington/instr_v7/index.html</URI> 
     3861                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3862                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3863                        </descriptionSection> 
     3864                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3865                    <name>Cardington Met Office research unit</name> 
     3866                    <abbreviation>Cardington</abbreviation> 
     3867                </observationstation> 
     3868                <observationstation> 
     3869                    <dgMetadataID> 
     3870                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3871                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3872                        <localIdentifier>obs_11636892863911419</localIdentifier> 
     3873                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3874                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3875                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3876                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3877                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3878                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11636892864111420</localIdentifier> 
     3879                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3880                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-16</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3881                        <abstract> 
     3882                            <abstractText>Met office observation station, Camborne, Cornwall, UK.  Location of Windprofiler and radiosonde launches.</abstractText> 
     3883                        </abstract> 
     3884                        <descriptionSection> 
     3885                            <dgDescriptionText>Latitude: 50.130° N Longitude: 5.1° W Height: 88 m</dgDescriptionText> 
     3886                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3887                        </descriptionSection> 
     3888                        <descriptionSection> 
     3889                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3890                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3891                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3892                                    <URI/> 
     3893                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3894                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3895                        </descriptionSection> 
     3896                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3897                    <name>Camborne</name> 
    34113898                    <abbreviation/> 
    34123899                </observationstation> 
     
    34153902                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    34163903                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3417                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11693411413212570</localIdentifier> 
    3418                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3419                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3420                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3421                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3422                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3423                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11693411413212571</localIdentifier> 
    3424                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    3425                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-21</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    3426                         <abstract> 
    3427                             <abstractText>A so-called ordinary raingague is a funnel-type raingauge that has been in use for all manual measurements on the Met Office networks since the earliest days of observing.</abstractText> 
    3428                         </abstract> 
    3429                         <descriptionSection> 
    3430                             <dgDescriptionText>An ordinary funnel-type raingauge has been in use for all manual measurements since the earliest days of observing. The design has varied over the years but today the Met Office strongly encourages conformity in order to maximise comparability of readings across the network. The standard design has a rim of diameter 5 in (127 mm) standing 12 in (30 cm) above the ground. Raingauges based on the standard design are adapted to meet specific needs; there is a version having a capacity to hold a large volume of rain which is used in remote sites where readings may only be taken once a month. Exposure of the gauge should be on open ground distant from the effects of sheltering objects. At a few windy sites, established a number of years ago, there may be a surrounding turf wall of diameter 3 m and height 30 cm which shields the gauge from the extreme effects of strong winds. Systematic differences as large as 12% have been noted between an unsheltered gauge and one within a turf wall. It is not the present practice to build turf walls at new stations.</dgDescriptionText> 
    3431                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    3432                         </descriptionSection> 
    3433                         <descriptionSection> 
    3434                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3435                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    3436                                     <name>URI</name> 
    3437                                     <URI/> 
    3438                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    3439                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3440                         </descriptionSection> 
    3441                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3442                     <name>Met Office - Ordinary raingauge</name> 
    3443                     <abbreviation>metoffice_ordinary_raingauge</abbreviation> 
    3444                 </observationstation> 
    3445                 <observationstation> 
    3446                     <dgMetadataID> 
    3447                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3448                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3449                         <localIdentifier>dpt_1162913389019254</localIdentifier> 
    3450                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3451                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3452                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3453                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3454                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3455                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_1162913389019255</localIdentifier> 
    3456                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    3457                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-07</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    3458                         <abstract> 
    3459                             <abstractText>The tipping bucket raingauge is particularly suitable for the automation of rainfall measurement</abstractText> 
    3460                         </abstract> 
    3461                         <descriptionSection> 
    3462                             <dgDescriptionText>The tipping bucket raingauge is particularly suitable for the automation of rainfall measurement but it does not perform well in freezing conditions. It is based on a small container or bucket which, when filled with rain, tips and empties while recording the event electronically. The size of bucket used widely across the UK network holds 0.2 mm of rain. A larger 0.5 mm bucket is in use at some Environment Agency stations though only those at some remote or high level locations send readings to the Met Office. Bucket tip times may be stored directly by a data logger (such as the Met Office SSER system in use since the early 1980s) or converted locally to a rainfall accumulation by systems such as SAMOS, ESAWS or CDL.</dgDescriptionText> 
    3463                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    3464                         </descriptionSection> 
    3465                         <descriptionSection> 
    3466                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3467                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    3468                                     <name>URI</name> 
    3469                                     <URI/> 
    3470                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    3471                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3472                         </descriptionSection> 
    3473                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3474                     <name>Met Office - Telemetered tipping bucket raingauges</name> 
    3475                     <abbreviation>ukmo_tipping_bucket</abbreviation> 
    3476                 </observationstation> 
    3477                 <observationstation> 
    3478                     <dgMetadataID> 
    3479                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3480                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3481                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11693413245812574</localIdentifier> 
    3482                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3483                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3484                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3485                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3486                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3487                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11693413245812575</localIdentifier> 
    3488                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    3489                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-21</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    3490                         <abstract> 
    3491                             <abstractText>The tilting siphon raingauge, used on the Met Office networks, produces an autographic record of rainfall accumulation from a pen attached to a float in the rainfall chamber of the instrument.</abstractText> 
    3492                         </abstract> 
    3493                         <descriptionSection> 
    3494                             <dgDescriptionText>The tilting siphon raingauge produces an autographic record of rainfall accumulation from a pen attached to a float in the rainfall chamber of the instrument. The rainfall chart is analysed to give hourly accumulation as well as duration of precipitation where this exceeds 0.1mm/hour.</dgDescriptionText> 
    3495                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    3496                         </descriptionSection> 
    3497                         <descriptionSection> 
    3498                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3499                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    3500                                     <name>URI</name> 
    3501                                     <URI/> 
    3502                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    3503                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3504                         </descriptionSection> 
    3505                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3506                     <name>Met Office - Tilting siphon raingauge</name> 
    3507                     <abbreviation>metoffice_tilting_siphon_raing</abbreviation> 
    3508                 </observationstation> 
    3509                 <observationstation> 
    3510                     <dgMetadataID> 
    3511                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3512                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3513                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11694844581612671</localIdentifier> 
    3514                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3515                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3516                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3517                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3518                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3519                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11694844581612672</localIdentifier> 
    3520                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    3521                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-22</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    3522                         <abstract> 
    3523                             <abstractText>A pyranometer is an instrument used to measure broadband solar irradiance on a planar surface. 
    3524  
    3525 In other words: a pyranometer is a sensor that is designed to measure the solar radiation flux density (in watts per metre square) from a field of view of 180 degrees.</abstractText> 
    3526                         </abstract> 
    3527                         <descriptionSection> 
    3528                             <dgDescriptionText>Pyranometers are frequently used in meteorology, climatology, solar energy studies and building physics. They can be seen in many meteorological stations - typically installed horizontally and next to solar panels - typically mounted with the sensor surface in the plane of the panel. Pyranometers are standardised according to the ISO 9060 standard, that is also adopted by WMO, the World Meteorological Organisation. This standard discriminates three classes. The best is (confusingly) called "secondary standard", the second best "first class" and the last one "second class".</dgDescriptionText> 
    3529                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    3530                         </descriptionSection> 
    3531                         <descriptionSection> 
    3532                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3533                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    3534                                     <name>URI</name> 
    3535                                     <URI/> 
    3536                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    3537                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3538                         </descriptionSection> 
    3539                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3540                     <name>Met Office Pyranometer</name> 
    3541                     <abbreviation>ukmo_pyranometer</abbreviation> 
    3542                 </observationstation> 
    3543                 <observationstation> 
    3544                     <dgMetadataID> 
    3545                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3546                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3547                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11693439917512606</localIdentifier> 
    3548                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3549                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3550                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3551                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3552                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3553                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11693439917512607</localIdentifier> 
    3554                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    3555                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-21</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    3556                         <abstract> 
    3557                             <abstractText>The Dines pressure tube anemometer is an instrument used by the Met Office network to measure wind speed and direction.</abstractText> 
    3558                         </abstract> 
    3559                         <descriptionSection> 
    3560                             <dgDescriptionText>Consisting essentially of a Head Assembly, a Velocity Recorder and a Direction Recorder, the Dines pressure tube anemometer records wind speed and wind direction simultaneously on a single chart. An important feature of the Dines, is that it records not only average wind velocity over a given time, but also variations in wind force, with the strength and frequency of gusts, providing valuable data on the internal structure of the wind.Dines pressure tube anemometers, having a better response at low wind speeds than the Munro, were installed at a number of stations in the early years of observing, but few of these instruments have remained in use in recent years.</dgDescriptionText> 
    3561                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    3562                         </descriptionSection> 
    3563                         <descriptionSection> 
    3564                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3565                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    3566                                     <name>URI</name> 
    3567                                     <URI/> 
    3568                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    3569                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3570                         </descriptionSection> 
    3571                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3572                     <name>Met Office - Dines pressure tube anemometers</name> 
    3573                     <abbreviation>meto_dines_anemometer</abbreviation> 
    3574                 </observationstation> 
    3575                 <observationstation> 
    3576                     <dgMetadataID> 
    3577                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3578                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3579                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11693438583412602</localIdentifier> 
    3580                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3581                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3582                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3583                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3584                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3585                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11693438583412603</localIdentifier> 
    3586                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    3587                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-21</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    3588                         <abstract> 
    3589                             <abstractText>The Munro anemometer is an intrument used on the Met Office network to measure wind speed and direction.</abstractText> 
    3590                         </abstract> 
    3591                         <descriptionSection> 
    3592                             <dgDescriptionText>The Munro cup anemometer and vane have been the basic instrumental method for measuring wind in the UK for many years. Traditionally it has been connected to an anemograph and/or dial, but with the advent of automatic systems it has been attached various processing devices, e.g. the DALE logger. The cup has a large inertia and therefore has a relatively slow response time, but of more concern is the high start-up speed, which in the case of the Mk4 is about 6 knots. In 1998 a project began for the replacement of Munros by a lightweight anemometer with better response characteristics.</dgDescriptionText> 
    3593                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    3594                         </descriptionSection> 
    3595                         <descriptionSection> 
    3596                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3597                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    3598                                     <name>URI</name> 
    3599                                     <URI/> 
    3600                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    3601                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3602                         </descriptionSection> 
    3603                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3604                     <name>Met Office - Munro anemometer</name> 
    3605                     <abbreviation>meto_munro</abbreviation> 
    3606                 </observationstation> 
    3607                 <observationstation> 
    3608                     <dgMetadataID> 
    3609                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3610                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3611                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11694832067812659</localIdentifier> 
    3612                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3613                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3614                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3615                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3616                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3617                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11694832067812660</localIdentifier> 
    3618                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    3619                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-22</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    3620                         <abstract> 
    3621                             <abstractText>Met Office Enhanced Synoptic Automatic Weather Station (ESAWS). An automatic weather station (AWS) is an automated version of the traditional weather station, either to save human labour or to enable measurements from remote areas. The system may report in near real time via ARGOS and the Global telecommunications system, or save the data for later recovery.</abstractText> 
    3622                         </abstract> 
    3623                         <descriptionSection> 
    3624                             <dgDescriptionText>The Synoptic Automatic Weather Station (SAWS) was the first fully automated observing system deployed in any number by the Met Office. The system operated at many remotes sites and provided hourly SYNOP messages from the mid 1980s. It was later replaced by the Enhanced SAWS (ESAWS) which is capable of producing hourly climate messages (HCM) and 12-hourly national climate messages (NCM) in addition to the SYNOP. 
    3625 &lt;P&gt;Most automatic weather stations have 
    3626 &lt;P&gt; 
    3627 - Thermometer for measuring temperature 
    3628 &lt;br&gt;- Anemometer for measuring wind 
    3629 &lt;br&gt;- Hygrometer for measuring humidity 
    3630 &lt;br&gt;- Barometer for measuring pressure 
    3631 &lt;p&gt; 
    3632 Some of them even have 
    3633 &lt;P&gt; 
    3634 - Ceilometer for measuring cloud height 
    3635 &lt;br&gt;- Rain gauge for measuring rainfall 
    3636 &lt;br&gt;- Present weather sensor and/or visibility sensor 
    3637 &lt;P&gt; 
    3638 Unlike manual weather stations, automatic weather stations cannot report the class and amount of clouds. Also the rainfall measurements are a bit problematic, especially for snow, as the gauge must empty itself between observations. For present weather, all phenomena which do not touch the sensor (say fog patches) remain unobserved. 
    3639 &lt;P&gt; 
    3640 The first AWS's were often placed where electricity and communication lines were available. Nowadays, the solar panel, wind-generator and cellphone technology have made wireless AWS's easier to place. 
    3641 &lt;P&gt; 
    3642 The configuration of an AWS may vary due to the purpose of the system but typically consists of: 
    3643 &lt;P&gt; 
    3644 - A weather-proof enclosure containing the data logger, rechargeable battery and telemetry (optional); 
    3645 &lt;br&gt;- Meteorological sensors; 
    3646 &lt;br&gt;- Solar panel or wind generator; 
    3647 &lt;br&gt;- Mast;</dgDescriptionText> 
    3648                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    3649                         </descriptionSection> 
    3650                         <descriptionSection> 
    3651                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3652                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    3653                                     <name>URI</name> 
    3654                                     <URI/> 
    3655                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    3656                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3657                         </descriptionSection> 
    3658                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3659                     <name>Met Office ESAWS</name> 
    3660                     <abbreviation>ukmo_esaws</abbreviation> 
    3661                 </observationstation> 
    3662                 <observationstation> 
    3663                     <dgMetadataID> 
    3664                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3665                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3666                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11694836108612663</localIdentifier> 
    3667                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3668                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3669                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3670                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3671                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3672                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11694836108612664</localIdentifier> 
    3673                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    3674                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-22</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    3675                         <abstract> 
    3676                             <abstractText>Met Office Severe Icing Environment Synoptic Automatic Weather Station (SIESAWS) is an ESAWS version designed to operate in severe icing environments and has been installed at a few high level locations.</abstractText> 
    3677                         </abstract> 
    3678                         <descriptionSection> 
    3679                             <dgDescriptionText/> 
    3680                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    3681                         </descriptionSection> 
    3682                         <descriptionSection> 
    3683                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3684                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    3685                                     <name>URI</name> 
    3686                                     <URI/> 
    3687                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    3688                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3689                         </descriptionSection> 
    3690                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3691                     <name>Met Office SIESAWS</name> 
    3692                     <abbreviation>ukmo_siesaws</abbreviation> 
    3693                 </observationstation> 
    3694                 <observationstation> 
    3695                     <dgMetadataID> 
    3696                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3697                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3698                         <localIdentifier>dpt_1169511372212773</localIdentifier> 
    3699                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3700                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3701                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3702                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3703                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3704                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_1169511372212774</localIdentifier> 
    3705                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    3706                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-23</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    3707                         <abstract> 
    3708                             <abstractText>Observer reporting daily and hourly specific weather parameters which cannot be measured by an instrument e.g. cloud type, cloud amount, present and past weather and state of ground.</abstractText> 
    3709                         </abstract> 
    3710                         <descriptionSection> 
    3711                             <dgDescriptionText>Until recent years all surface observing has been performed manually; the observer reads the instruments, makes visual estimates of visibility, cloud, present weather and the state of ground, records the observation on paper, and, if the station produces SYNOP and NCM messages, encodes the report and transmits it.</dgDescriptionText> 
    3712                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    3713                         </descriptionSection> 
    3714                         <descriptionSection> 
    3715                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3716                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    3717                                     <name>URI</name> 
    3718                                     <URI/> 
    3719                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    3720                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3721                         </descriptionSection> 
    3722                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3723                     <name>Met Office station observer - NCM message</name> 
    3724                     <abbreviation>ukmo_observer_ncm</abbreviation> 
    3725                 </observationstation> 
    3726                 <observationstation> 
    3727                     <dgMetadataID> 
    3728                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3729                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3730                         <localIdentifier>dpt_1169511066612769</localIdentifier> 
    3731                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3732                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3733                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3734                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3735                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3736                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_1169511066612770</localIdentifier> 
    3737                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    3738                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-23</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    3739                         <abstract> 
    3740                             <abstractText>Observer reporting hourly specific weather parameters which cannot be measured by an instrument e.g. cloud type, cloud amount, present and past weather and state of ground. Observations are made following the WMO code.</abstractText> 
    3741                         </abstract> 
    3742                         <descriptionSection> 
    3743                             <dgDescriptionText>Until recent years all surface observing has been performed manually; the observer reads the instruments, makes visual estimates of visibility, cloud, present weather and the state of ground, records the observation on paper, and, if the station produces SYNOP and NCM messages, encodes the report and transmits it.</dgDescriptionText> 
    3744                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    3745                         </descriptionSection> 
    3746                         <descriptionSection> 
    3747                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3748                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    3749                                     <name>URI</name> 
    3750                                     <URI/> 
    3751                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    3752                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3753                         </descriptionSection> 
    3754                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3755                     <name>International Met Station Observer</name> 
    3756                     <abbreviation>observer_synop</abbreviation> 
    3757                 </observationstation> 
    3758                 <observationstation> 
    3759                     <dgMetadataID> 
    3760                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3761                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3762                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11695124821412799</localIdentifier> 
    3763                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3764                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3765                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3766                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3767                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3768                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11695124821412800</localIdentifier> 
    3769                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    3770                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-23</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    3771                         <abstract> 
    3772                             <abstractText>The tipping bucket raingauge is particularly suitable for the automation of rainfall measurement.</abstractText> 
    3773                         </abstract> 
    3774                         <descriptionSection> 
    3775                             <dgDescriptionText>The tipping bucket raingauge is particularly suitable for the automation of rainfall measurement but it does not perform well in freezing conditions. It is based on a small container or bucket which, when filled with rain, tips and empties while recording the event electronically.</dgDescriptionText> 
    3776                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    3777                         </descriptionSection> 
    3778                         <descriptionSection> 
    3779                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3780                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    3781                                     <name>URI</name> 
    3782                                     <URI/> 
    3783                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    3784                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3785                         </descriptionSection> 
    3786                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3787                     <name>Telemetered Tipping bucket raingauge</name> 
    3788                     <abbreviation>tele_tip_bucket_raingauge</abbreviation> 
    3789                 </observationstation> 
    3790                 <observationstation> 
    3791                     <dgMetadataID> 
    3792                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3793                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3794                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11697448914912989</localIdentifier> 
    3795                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3796                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3797                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3798                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3799                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3800                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_1169744891512990</localIdentifier> 
    3801                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    3802                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-01-25</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    3803                         <abstract> 
    3804                             <abstractText>The C-130 aircraft carried various of instrumentation for research purposes. The large capacity and long endurance of this platform made it ideal for atmospheric research in the areas of cloud physics, atmospheric radiation, atmospheric chemistry, satellite activities, mesoscale meteorology and boundary layer studies.</abstractText> 
    3805                         </abstract> 
    3806                         <descriptionSection> 
    3807                             <dgDescriptionText>The C-130 carries the following sensors: 
    3808 &lt;br&gt; 
    3809 &lt;li&gt;- Temperature, humidity, pressure 
    3810 &lt;li&gt;- Gustprobes 
    3811 &lt;li&gt;- Aerosol and Cloud Physics Instrumentation 
    3812 &lt;li&gt;- Radiometers (Visible, Infrared, and microwave wavelengths) 
    3813 &lt;li&gt;- Remote Radiometric Surface Temperature 
    3814 &lt;li&gt;- Video (Still photography is available via Hand-held camera) 
    3815 &lt;li&gt;- Atmospheric Trace Gases 
    3816 &lt;li&gt;- 3 cm Weather Radar 
    3817 &lt;P&gt; 
    3818 which can be used for the following applications: 
    3819 &lt;br&gt; 
    3820 &lt;li&gt;- Experiments requiring versatile measurement capability at short notice over land and sea around the UK 
    3821 &lt;li&gt;- Campaigns in the UK and abroad requiring intensive measurement periods or long endurance 
    3822 &lt;li&gt;- Short notice campaigns overseas 
    3823 &lt;li&gt;- Radiative Transfer Studies in clear and cloudy air 
    3824 &lt;li&gt;- Cloud Physics and Dynamic Studies 
    3825 &lt;li&gt;- Dynamics of mesoscale weather systems 
    3826 &lt;li&gt;- Boundary Layer studies 
    3827 &lt;li&gt;- Tropospheric Chemistry measurements 
    3828 &lt;li&gt;- Remote sensing: verification of ground based instruments 
    3829 &lt;li&gt;- Satellite Ground Truth - Radiometric measurements and winds 
    3830 &lt;li&gt;- Satellite Instrument test-bed 
    3831 &lt;li&gt;- Radar ducting studies 
    3832 &lt;P&gt;Full details of the instrumentation on board can be found at: &lt;a href="http://badc.nerc.ac.uk/data/mrf/Summary_of_Capability.html"&gt;http://badc.nerc.ac.uk/data/mrf/Summary_of_Capability.html&lt;/a&gt;</dgDescriptionText> 
    3833                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    3834                         </descriptionSection> 
    3835                         <descriptionSection> 
    3836                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3837                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    3838                                     <name>URI</name> 
    3839                                     <URI>badc.nerc.ac.uk/data/mrf/Summary_of_Capability.html</URI> 
    3840                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    3841                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3842                         </descriptionSection> 
    3843                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3844                     <name>MRF - C-130 aircraft in-situ Instrumentation</name> 
    3845                     <abbreviation>c130_instruments</abbreviation> 
    3846                 </observationstation> 
    3847                 <observationstation> 
    3848                     <dgMetadataID> 
    3849                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3850                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3851                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11634276893510542</localIdentifier> 
    3852                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3853                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3854                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3855                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3856                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3857                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11634276893510543</localIdentifier> 
    3858                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    3859                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-13</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    3860                         <abstract> 
    3861                             <abstractText/> 
    3862                         </abstract> 
    3863                         <descriptionSection> 
    3864                             <dgDescriptionText/> 
    3865                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    3866                         </descriptionSection> 
    3867                         <descriptionSection> 
    3868                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3869                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    3870                                     <name>URI</name> 
    3871                                     <URI/> 
    3872                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    3873                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3874                         </descriptionSection> 
    3875                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3876                     <name>FAAM/BAE systems or other aircraft: Flight log</name> 
    3877                     <abbreviation>flight-log</abbreviation> 
    3878                 </observationstation> 
    3879                 <observationstation> 
    3880                     <dgMetadataID> 
    3881                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3882                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3883                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11634276895610546</localIdentifier> 
    3884                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3885                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3886                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3887                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3888                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3889                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11634276895610547</localIdentifier> 
    3890                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    3891                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-13</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    3892                         <abstract> 
    3893                             <abstractText/> 
    3894                         </abstract> 
    3895                         <descriptionSection> 
    3896                             <dgDescriptionText/> 
    3897                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    3898                         </descriptionSection> 
    3899                         <descriptionSection> 
    3900                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3901                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    3902                                     <name>URI</name> 
    3903                                     <URI/> 
    3904                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    3905                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3906                         </descriptionSection> 
    3907                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3908                     <name>FAAM/BAE systems or other aircraft: Flight summary</name> 
    3909                     <abbreviation>flight-sum</abbreviation> 
    3910                 </observationstation> 
    3911                 <observationstation> 
    3912                     <dgMetadataID> 
    3913                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3914                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3915                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11703751553213699</localIdentifier> 
    3916                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3917                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3918                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3919                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3920                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3921                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11703751553213700</localIdentifier> 
    3922                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    3923                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-02-02</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    3924                         <abstract> 
    3925                             <abstractText>Processing used by the Met Office Hadley Centre to produce the HadISST dataset.</abstractText> 
    3926                         </abstract> 
    3927                         <descriptionSection> 
    3928                             <dgDescriptionText>Processing used by the Met Office Hadley Centre to produce the HadISST dataset. The SST data are taken from the Met Office Marine Data Bank (MDB), which from 1982 onwards also includes data received through the Global Telecommunications System (GTS). In order to enhance data coverage, monthly median SSTs for 1871-1995 from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) were also used where there were no MDB data. HadISST temperatures are reconstructed using a two stage reduced-space optimal interpolation procedure, followed by superposition of quality-improved gridded observations onto the reconstructions to restore local detail.  
    3929 &lt;P&gt; 
    3930 The data processing is detailed at: http://hadobs.metoffice.com/hadisst/HadISST_paper.pdf</dgDescriptionText> 
    3931                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    3932                         </descriptionSection> 
    3933                         <descriptionSection> 
    3934                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3935                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    3936                                     <name>URI</name> 
    3937                                     <URI>hadobs.metoffice.com/hadisst/HadISST_paper.pdf</URI> 
    3938                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    3939                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3940                         </descriptionSection> 
    3941                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3942                     <name>HadISST Sea Surface Temperature data processing</name> 
    3943                     <abbreviation>hadisst_processing</abbreviation> 
    3944                 </observationstation> 
    3945                 <observationstation> 
    3946                     <dgMetadataID> 
    3947                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3948                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3949                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11703738441813693</localIdentifier> 
    3950                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3951                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3952                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3953                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3954                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3955                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11703738441913694</localIdentifier> 
    3956                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    3957                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-02-01</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    3958                         <abstract> 
    3959                             <abstractText>Process used to create the ice content of the Hadisst dataset from various sources of digitized charts.</abstractText> 
    3960                         </abstract> 
    3961                         <descriptionSection> 
    3962                             <dgDescriptionText>Process used to create the ice content of the Hadisst dataset from various sources of digitized charts including: 
    3963 &lt;ul&gt; 
    3964 &lt;li&gt;Walsh Northern hemisphere sea ice concentration charts (1901-1995)&lt;br&gt; 
    3965 &lt;li&gt;Great Lake fields produced by the Environment Canada, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory and the US Coast Guard (1960-1979)&lt;br&gt; 
    3966 &lt;li&gt;Calendar monthly sea ice extent climatology for 1929-1939 published by the Deutsches Hydrographisches Insitute&lt;br&gt; 
    3967 &lt;li&gt;Russian expeditions logs (Tolstikov, 1966) between 1947 and 1962.&lt;br&gt; 
    3968 &lt;li&gt;National Ice Center Charts for both hemispheres (1973-1994)&lt;br&gt; 
    3969 &lt;li&gt;GSFC data for both hemispheres (SMMR - SSM/I data for 1978 to 1996)&lt;br&gt; 
    3970 &lt;li&gt;NCEP data for both hemispheres (SSM/I data for 1997 to present)&lt;br&gt; 
    3971 &lt;li&gt;Bristol Algorithm Data for the Antarctic (1987-present). 
    3972 &lt;/ul&gt; 
    3973 &lt;P&gt;The sea ice fields are made more homogeneous by compensating satellite microwave-based sea ice concentrations for the impact of surface melt effects on retrievals in the Arctic and for algorithm deficiencies in the Antarctic, and by making the historical in situ concentrations consistent with the satellite data.  
    3974 &lt;P&gt;A detailed description of the production process is available at: http://hadobs.metoffice.com/hadisst/HadISST_paper.pdf</dgDescriptionText> 
    3975                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    3976                         </descriptionSection> 
    3977                         <descriptionSection> 
    3978                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3979                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    3980                                     <name>URI</name> 
    3981                                     <URI>hadobs.metoffice.com/hadisst/HadISST_paper.pdf</URI> 
    3982                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    3983                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    3984                         </descriptionSection> 
    3985                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    3986                     <name>HadISST Digitized Sea Ice charts and satellite data processing</name> 
    3987                     <abbreviation>HadISST_ice_processing</abbreviation> 
    3988                 </observationstation> 
    3989                 <observationstation> 
    3990                     <dgMetadataID> 
    3991                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3992                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3993                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11704355368513712</localIdentifier> 
    3994                     </dgMetadataID> 
    3995                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    3996                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    3997                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    3998                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    3999                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11704355368613713</localIdentifier> 
    4000                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4001                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-02-02</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4002                         <abstract> 
    4003                             <abstractText>HadSST2 is produced by taking in-situ measurements of SST from ships and buoys, rejecting measurements which fail quality checkes, converting the measurements to anomalies by substracting climatological values from the measurements, and calculating a robust average of the resulting anomalies on a 5 deg by 5 deg monthly grid.</abstractText> 
    4004                         </abstract> 
    4005                         <descriptionSection> 
    4006                             <dgDescriptionText>The SST data are taken from the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set, ICOADS, from 1850 to 1997 and from the NCEP-GTS from 1998 to present. 
    4007 &lt;P&gt; 
    4008 HadSST2 is produced by taking in-situ measurements of SST from ships and buoys, rejecting measurements which fail quality checkes, converting the measurements to anomalies by substracting climatological values from the measurements, and calculating a robust average of the resulting anomalies on a 5 deg by 5 deg monthly grid. 
    4009 &lt;P&gt; 
    4010 After gridding the anomalies, bias corrections are applied to remove tspurious trends caused by changes in SST measuring practices before 1942. The uncertainties due to under-sampling have been calculated for the gridded monthly data as have the uncertainties on the bias corrections following the procedures described in the following paper: 
    4011 &lt;P&gt; 
    4012     Rayner, N.A., P.Brohan, D.E.Parker, C.F.Folland, J.J.Kennedy, M.Vanicek, T.Ansell and S.F.B. Tett 2006: Improved analyses of changes and uncertainties in sea surface temperature measured in situ since the mid-nineteeth century: the HadSST2 data set.. Journal of Climate.19(3) pp. 446-469.</dgDescriptionText> 
    4013                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4014                         </descriptionSection> 
    4015                         <descriptionSection> 
    4016                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4017                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4018                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4019                                     <URI>badc.nerc.ac.uk/data/hadsst2/hadsst2_paper.pdf</URI> 
    4020                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4021                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4022                         </descriptionSection> 
    4023                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4024                     <name>HadSST2 sea surface temperature anomalies data processing</name> 
    4025                     <abbreviation>hadsst2_processing</abbreviation> 
    4026                 </observationstation> 
    4027                 <observationstation> 
    4028                     <dgMetadataID> 
    4029                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4030                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4031                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11704358636613719</localIdentifier> 
    4032                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4033                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4034                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4035                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4036                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4037                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11704358636613720</localIdentifier> 
    4038                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4039                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-02-02</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4040                         <abstract> 
    4041                             <abstractText>Process used to create the GISST2.3b dataset.</abstractText> 
    4042                         </abstract> 
    4043                         <descriptionSection> 
    4044                             <dgDescriptionText>GISST describes data which are derived from MOHSST6. Sophisticated statistical methods are used to produce a global coverage of monthly one-degree-area sea surface temperatures: 
    4045 &lt;P&gt;Version 2.2 of the Global sea-Ice and Sea Surface Temperature data set, 1903-1994, by Rayner, N.A., Horton, E.B., Parker, D.E., Folland,C.K., and Hackett, R.B., 1996, CRTN 74, Available from Hadley Centre, Met Office, Bracknell, UK.</dgDescriptionText> 
    4046                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4047                         </descriptionSection> 
    4048                         <descriptionSection> 
    4049                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4050                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4051                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4052                                     <URI/> 
    4053                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4054                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4055                         </descriptionSection> 
    4056                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4057                     <name>GISST2.3b sea surface temperature data processing</name> 
    4058                     <abbreviation>gisst2.3b_processing</abbreviation> 
    4059                 </observationstation> 
    4060                 <observationstation> 
    4061                     <dgMetadataID> 
    4062                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4063                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4064                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11704359461813723</localIdentifier> 
    4065                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4066                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4067                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4068                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4069                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4070                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11704359461913724</localIdentifier> 
    4071                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4072                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-02-02</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4073                         <abstract> 
    4074                             <abstractText>Process used to create the GICE dataset.</abstractText> 
    4075                         </abstract> 
    4076                         <descriptionSection> 
    4077                             <dgDescriptionText>GICE describes data which are derived from a mixture of charts, satellite observations and statistical interpolations.  
    4078 &lt;br&gt;Sophisticated statistical methods are used to produce a global coverage of monthly one-degree-area sea-ice coverage:  
    4079 &lt;P&gt;Version 2.2 of the Global sea-Ice and Sea Surface Temperature data set, 1903-1994, by Rayner, N.A., Horton, E.B., Parker, D.E., Folland,C.K., and Hackett, R.B., 1996, CRTN 74, Available from Hadley Centre, Met Office, Bracknell, UK.  
    4080  
    4081 &lt;P&gt; 
    4082 Note that because there are very little ice data (if any) for the period 1871-1900, a climatology of 1901-30 was used to estimate the ice concentrations for 1871-1900.</dgDescriptionText> 
    4083                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4084                         </descriptionSection> 
    4085                         <descriptionSection> 
    4086                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4087                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4088                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4089                                     <URI>badc.nerc.ac.uk/data/gosta/paper3.html</URI> 
    4090                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4091                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4092                         </descriptionSection> 
    4093                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4094                     <name>GICE sea-ice content data processing</name> 
    4095                     <abbreviation>gice_processing</abbreviation> 
    4096                 </observationstation> 
    4097                 <observationstation> 
    4098                     <dgMetadataID> 
    4099                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4100                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4101                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11704359889113727</localIdentifier> 
    4102                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4103                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4104                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4105                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4106                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4107                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11704359889113728</localIdentifier> 
    4108                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4109                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-02-02</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4110                         <abstract> 
    4111                             <abstractText>Process used to create the MOHMATN4 dataset.</abstractText> 
    4112                         </abstract> 
    4113                         <descriptionSection> 
    4114                             <dgDescriptionText>Details of the data processing are available in the following paper: 
    4115 &lt;P&gt; 
    4116 Marine Surface Temperature: Observed variations and data requirements by D.E. Parker, C.K. Folland and M. Jackson, Climatic Change 31: 559-600, 1995.</dgDescriptionText> 
    4117                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4118                         </descriptionSection> 
    4119                         <descriptionSection> 
    4120                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4121                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4122                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4123                                     <URI/> 
    4124                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4125                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4126                         </descriptionSection> 
    4127                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4128                     <name>MOHMATN4 Night Marine Air temperature anomalies data processing</name> 
    4129                     <abbreviation>mohmatn4_processing</abbreviation> 
    4130                 </observationstation> 
    4131                 <observationstation> 
    4132                     <dgMetadataID> 
    4133                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4134                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4135                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11704360261313731</localIdentifier> 
    4136                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4137                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4138                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4139                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4140                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4141                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11704360261313732</localIdentifier> 
    4142                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4143                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-02-02</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4144                         <abstract> 
    4145                             <abstractText>Process used to create the MOHSST6 dataset.</abstractText> 
    4146                         </abstract> 
    4147                         <descriptionSection> 
    4148                             <dgDescriptionText>MOHSST is produced by taking in-situ measurements of SST from ships and buoys, rejecting measurements which which fail quality checks, converting the measurements to anomalies by subtracting climatological values from the measurements, and averaging the resulting anomalies on a 5 by 5 degree monthly grid. &lt;P&gt; 
    4149 Up to 1996 the measurements used are those in the U.K. Marine Data Bank; more recent years use data coming in through the GTS. MOHSST is updated in near-real-time; &lt;P&gt; 
    4150 After gridding the anomalies, bias corrections are applied to remove spurious trends caused by changes in SST measuring practices, and the data are smoothed to reduce noise.&lt;P&gt; 
    4151 The current version of the dataset is MOHSST6, which is described in Marine Surface Temperature: Observed variations and data requirements by D.E. Parker, C.K. Folland and M. Jackson, Climatic Change 31: 559-600, 1995.</dgDescriptionText> 
    4152                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4153                         </descriptionSection> 
    4154                         <descriptionSection> 
    4155                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4156                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4157                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4158                                     <URI>badc.nerc.ac.uk/data/gosta/paper3.html</URI> 
    4159                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4160                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4161                         </descriptionSection> 
    4162                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4163                     <name>MOHSST6 sea surface temperature anomalies data processing</name> 
    4164                     <abbreviation>mohsst6_processing</abbreviation> 
    4165                 </observationstation> 
    4166                 <observationstation> 
    4167                     <dgMetadataID> 
    4168                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4169                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4170                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11704369863113747</localIdentifier> 
    4171                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4172                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4173                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4174                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4175                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4176                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11704369863213748</localIdentifier> 
    4177                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4178                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-02-02</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4179                         <abstract> 
    4180                             <abstractText>Process used to create the GOSTA-7 dataset of the GostaPlus cd-rom. ATLAS-7 is an older version of ATLAS-8, with older corrections.</abstractText> 
    4181                         </abstract> 
    4182                         <descriptionSection> 
    4183                             <dgDescriptionText>Most of the sea surface temperature (SST) data and the night-time marine air temperature (NMAT) data used in this Atlas were taken from the Meteorological Office Main Marine Data Bank (MOMMDB) (Shearman 1983). The MOMMDB itself was mainly based on a data set termed TDF-11 from the US Climatological Center, Asheville, up to the early 1960s (National Climatic Data Center 1968), on records received via international exchanges as a result of WMO Resolution 35 from the 1960s until 1981 (World Meteorological Organization 1963), and on data received directly from the logbooks of British registered ships. However, as a result of failure to receive certain tapes of data, there were blank areas in the Pacific in the 1960s and early 1970s in the MOMMDB archive, and these were filled with analysed SSTs on a 5 deg. latitude X longitude space-scale using a marine data set from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), which had been derived from the Consolidated Data Set (CDS) assembled by the US Navy Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center (FNOC) at Monterey, California (Hsiung and Newell 1983). This was not done for NMAT because the MIT data set was in the form of gridded values based on observations for all hours combined. 
    4184 &lt;p&gt; 
    4185 The SST and NMAT anomalies for 1982 onwards were derived not from MOMMDB but from messages received from ships and buoys in near-real-time in Bracknell, United Kingdom, over the Global Telecommunication System (GTS). 
    4186 &lt;P&gt; 
    4187 The combined MOMMDB-MIT SST data set had, even in recent years, significant areas without data west of Chile, in much of the Southern Ocean, and in parts of the Arctic. To provide complete coverage of SST averages, which is essential for many purposes, information from the global SST climatology of Alexander and Mobley (1976), which includes estimates in data-sparse regions, was incorporated into the averages for 1951-80 presented in this Atlas. We recognize that their climatology is likely to be biased with respect to the true climatology for 1951-80, because it is based on analysis of data from a variety of earlier periods up to about the early 1960s, and these periods were, on a global average, probably colder (Folland, Parker and Kates 1984, Reynolds 1983). Further negative bias in their climatology is likely to have resulted from uncompensated changes of instrumentation, in particular the use of uninsulated canvas buckets until the 1940s (Folland, Parker and Kates 1984, Wright 1986), though the instrumental biases fortunately appear to be small in the Southern Ocean (Section 3(h)). We therefore merged their climatology into the MOMMDB-MIT climatology with their values adjusted to be consistent as far as possible with the MOMMDB-MIT climatology. 
    4188 &lt;P&gt; 
    4189 During the processing of marine data from the voluntary observing fleet, a variety of problems must be taken into account and, as far as possible, avoided, eliminated, or compensated for. In particular, it is necessary to allow for the systematic biases, individual inaccuracies, and irregular distribution in space and time, of marine observations.</dgDescriptionText> 
    4190                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4191                         </descriptionSection> 
    4192                         <descriptionSection> 
    4193                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4194                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4195                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4196                                     <URI>badc.nerc.ac.uk/data/gosta/atlas7help.html</URI> 
    4197                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4198                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4199                         </descriptionSection> 
    4200                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4201                     <name>ATLAS-7 or GOSTA-7 sea-surface temperature data processing</name> 
    4202                     <abbreviation>gosta-7 process</abbreviation> 
    4203                 </observationstation> 
    4204                 <observationstation> 
    4205                     <dgMetadataID> 
    4206                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4207                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4208                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11704370413913751</localIdentifier> 
    4209                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4210                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4211                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4212                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4213                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4214                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11704370413913752</localIdentifier> 
    4215                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4216                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-02-02</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4217                         <abstract> 
    4218                             <abstractText>Process used to create the GISST2.2 and GICE dataset of the GostaPlus cd-rom.</abstractText> 
    4219                         </abstract> 
    4220                         <descriptionSection> 
    4221                             <dgDescriptionText>GISST2.2 data are derived from MOHSST6 and Walsh Sea_Ice Concentration data (digitized maps). Sophisticated statistical methods are used to produce a global coverage of monthly 1° area sea surface temperatures and sea-ice coverage (see Version 2.2 of the Global sea-Ice and Sea Surface Temperature data set, 1903-1994, by Rayner, N.A., Horton, E.B., Parker, D.E., Folland,C.K., and Hackett, R.B., 1996, CRTN 74, Available from Hadley Centre, Met Office, Bracknell, UK. ).</dgDescriptionText> 
    4222                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4223                         </descriptionSection> 
    4224                         <descriptionSection> 
    4225                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4226                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4227                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4228                                     <URI>badc.nerc.ac.uk/data/gosta/paper3.html</URI> 
    4229                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4230                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4231                         </descriptionSection> 
    4232                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4233                     <name>GISST 2.2 SST and sea ice content  data processing</name> 
    4234                     <abbreviation>gisst2.2_processing</abbreviation> 
    4235                 </observationstation> 
    4236                 <observationstation> 
    4237                     <dgMetadataID> 
    4238                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4239                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4240                         <localIdentifier>dpt_1170437176313755</localIdentifier> 
    4241                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4242                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4243                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4244                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4245                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4246                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_1170437176313756</localIdentifier> 
    4247                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4248                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-02-02</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4249                         <abstract> 
    4250                             <abstractText>Process used to create the LANDSST dataset of the GostaPlus cd-rom.</abstractText> 
    4251                         </abstract> 
    4252                         <descriptionSection> 
    4253                             <dgDescriptionText>LandSST describes University of East Anglia 5° area land surface temperature anomalies combined with 5° area MOHSST6 sea surface temperature anomalies with respect to 1961 to 1990 climatology.  
    4254 &lt;P&gt; 
    4255 The dataset is based on work described by: 
    4256 &lt;ul&gt; 
    4257 &lt;li&gt;Notes and Correspondence: Hemispheric Surface Air Temperature Variations by P.D. Jones, 1994, J.Climate, 7, 11.  
    4258 &lt;li&gt;Marine Surface Temperature: Observed Variations and Data Requirements by D.E. Parker, C.K. Folland and M. Jackson, 1995,  Climatic Change, 31, 559-600.  
    4259 &lt;/ul&gt;</dgDescriptionText> 
    4260                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4261                         </descriptionSection> 
    4262                         <descriptionSection> 
    4263                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4264                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4265                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4266                                     <URI/> 
    4267                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4268                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4269                         </descriptionSection> 
    4270                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4271                     <name>LANDSST data processing</name> 
    4272                     <abbreviation>landsst_processing</abbreviation> 
    4273                 </observationstation> 
    4274                 <observationstation> 
    4275                     <dgMetadataID> 
    4276                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4277                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4278                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11703725150213685</localIdentifier> 
    4279                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4280                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4281                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4282                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4283                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4284                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11703725150213686</localIdentifier> 
    4285                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4286                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-02-01</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4287                         <abstract> 
    4288                             <abstractText>Process used to create the GOSTA-8 dataset of the GostaPlus cd-rom.</abstractText> 
    4289                         </abstract> 
    4290                         <descriptionSection> 
    4291                             <dgDescriptionText>Most of the sea surface temperature (SST) data and the night-time marine air temperature (NMAT) data used in this Atlas were taken from the Meteorological Office Main Marine Data Bank (MOMMDB) (Shearman 1983). The MOMMDB itself was mainly based on a data set termed TDF-11 from the US Climatological Center, Asheville, up to the early 1960s (National Climatic Data Center 1968), on records received via international exchanges as a result of WMO Resolution 35 from the 1960s until 1981 (World Meteorological Organization 1963), and on data received directly from the logbooks of British registered ships. However, as a result of failure to receive certain tapes of data, there were blank areas in the Pacific in the 1960s and early 1970s in the MOMMDB archive, and these were filled with analysed SSTs on a 5 deg. latitude X longitude space-scale using a marine data set from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), which had been derived from the Consolidated Data Set (CDS) assembled by the US Navy Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center (FNOC) at Monterey, California (Hsiung and Newell 1983). This was not done for NMAT because the MIT data set was in the form of gridded values based on observations for all hours combined. 
    4292 &lt;P&gt; 
    4293 The SST and NMAT anomalies for 1982 onwards were derived not from MOMMDB but from messages received from ships and buoys in near-real-time in Bracknell, United Kingdom, over the Global Telecommunication System (GTS). 
    4294 &lt;P&gt; 
    4295 The combined MOMMDB-MIT SST data set had, even in recent years, significant areas without data west of Chile, in much of the Southern Ocean, and in parts of the Arctic. To provide complete coverage of SST averages, which is essential for many purposes, information from the global SST climatology of Alexander and Mobley (1976), which includes estimates in data-sparse regions, was incorporated into the averages for 1951-80 presented in this Atlas. We recognize that their climatology is likely to be biased with respect to the true climatology for 1951-80, because it is based on analysis of data from a variety of earlier periods up to about the early 1960s, and these periods were, on a global average, probably colder (Folland, Parker and Kates 1984, Reynolds 1983). Further negative bias in their climatology is likely to have resulted from uncompensated changes of instrumentation, in particular the use of uninsulated canvas buckets until the 1940s (Folland, Parker and Kates 1984, Wright 1986), though the instrumental biases fortunately appear to be small in the Southern Ocean (Section 3(h)). We therefore merged their climatology into the MOMMDB-MIT climatology with their values adjusted to be consistent as far as possible with the MOMMDB-MIT climatology. 
    4296 &lt;P&gt; 
    4297 During the processing of marine data from the voluntary observing fleet, a variety of problems must be taken into account and, as far as possible, avoided, eliminated, or compensated for. In particular, it is necessary to allow for the systematic biases, individual inaccuracies, and irregular distribution in space and time, of marine observations.</dgDescriptionText> 
    4298                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4299                         </descriptionSection> 
    4300                         <descriptionSection> 
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    4307                         </descriptionSection> 
    4308                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4309                     <name>ATLAS-8 or GOSTA- 8 sea-surface temperature data processing</name> 
    4310                     <abbreviation>gosta8_processing</abbreviation> 
    4311                 </observationstation> 
    4312                 <observationstation> 
    4313                     <dgMetadataID> 
    4314                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4315                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4316                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11704654333313771</localIdentifier> 
    4317                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4318                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4319                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4320                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4321                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4322                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11704654333313772</localIdentifier> 
    4323                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4324                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-02-03</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4325                         <abstract> 
    4326                             <abstractText>Data processing used to produce the GMSLP dataset.</abstractText> 
    4327                         </abstract> 
    4328                         <descriptionSection> 
    4329                             <dgDescriptionText>This dataset has been constructed from a blend of existing gridded datasets provided by the UK Met. Office, NCAR, Scripps Institute of Oceanography (SIO), University of East Anglia (UEA) and CSIRO; plus observed data extracted from the UKMO Marine Data Bank, Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data set (COADS), UKMO monthly CLIMAT message archives and land station time series. 
    4330 &lt;P&gt;Details of the data processing are available in the following paper:&lt;br&gt; 
    4331 Development of the Global Mean Sea Level Pressure Data Set GMSLP2" by T.A. BAsnett and D.E.Parker, 1997.</dgDescriptionText> 
    4332                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4333                         </descriptionSection> 
    4334                         <descriptionSection> 
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    4336                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4337                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4338                                     <URI/> 
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    4340                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4341                         </descriptionSection> 
    4342                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4343                     <name>GMSLP data processing</name> 
    4344                     <abbreviation>gmslp_processing</abbreviation> 
    4345                 </observationstation> 
    4346                 <observationstation> 
    4347                     <dgMetadataID> 
    4348                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4349                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4350                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11704661156613775</localIdentifier> 
    4351                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4352                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4353                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4354                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4355                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4356                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11704661156613776</localIdentifier> 
    4357                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4358                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-02-03</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4359                         <abstract> 
    4360                             <abstractText>Data processing used to produce the HadSLP1 dataset.</abstractText> 
    4361                         </abstract> 
    4362                         <descriptionSection> 
    4363                             <dgDescriptionText>Marine observations were taken from the Met Office Marine Data Bank (MDB) and from the NOAA Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) (Woodruff et al, 1987). The MDB data were given priority in the blend, which is described in Basnett and Parker (1997). Land observations are a combination of data obtained from CSIRO (Australia), NIWA (New Zealand), CRU (University of East Anglia), GHCN, and operationally-received "CLIMAT" messages. The latter were used mainly for updating station series and for the Arctic.  
    4364 &lt;P&gt; 
    4365 HadSLP1 pressures are reconstructed using a reduced-space optimal interpolation procedure, followed by superposition of quality-improved gridded observations onto the reconstructions to restore local detail. 
    4366 &lt;P&gt; 
    4367 Details are available in the following paper: 
    4368 &lt;P&gt;Basnett, T. and Parker, D. (1997)  'Development of the Global Mean Sea Level Pressure Data Set GMSLP2', Climate Research Technical Note, Hadley Centre.</dgDescriptionText> 
    4369                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4370                         </descriptionSection> 
    4371                         <descriptionSection> 
    4372                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4373                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4374                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4375                                     <URI/> 
    4376                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4377                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4378                         </descriptionSection> 
    4379                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4380                     <name>HadSLP1 data processing</name> 
    4381                     <abbreviation>hadlsp1_processing</abbreviation> 
    4382                 </observationstation> 
    4383                 <observationstation> 
    4384                     <dgMetadataID> 
    4385                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4386                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4387                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11704770270713833</localIdentifier> 
    4388                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4389                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4390                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4391                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4392                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4393                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11704770270813834</localIdentifier> 
    4394                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4395                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-02-03</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4396                         <abstract> 
    4397                             <abstractText>Processing used by the Hadley Centre to produce the Northern Hemisphere Geopotential Height daily dataset.</abstractText> 
    4398                         </abstract> 
    4399                         <descriptionSection> 
    4400                             <dgDescriptionText/> 
    4401                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4402                         </descriptionSection> 
    4403                         <descriptionSection> 
    4404                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4405                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4406                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4407                                     <URI/> 
    4408                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4409                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4410                         </descriptionSection> 
    4411                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4412                     <name>Northern Hemisphere Geopotential Height  daily data processing</name> 
    4413                     <abbreviation>NH_height_daily_processing</abbreviation> 
    4414                 </observationstation> 
    4415                 <observationstation> 
    4416                     <dgMetadataID> 
    4417                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4418                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4419                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11704780402913840</localIdentifier> 
    4420                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4421                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4422                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4423                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4424                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4425                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11704780402913841</localIdentifier> 
    4426                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4427                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-02-03</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4428                         <abstract> 
    4429                             <abstractText>Processing used by the Hadley Centre to produce the Northern Hemisphere Geopotential Height monthly dataset.</abstractText> 
    4430                         </abstract> 
    4431                         <descriptionSection> 
    4432                             <dgDescriptionText/> 
    4433                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4434                         </descriptionSection> 
    4435                         <descriptionSection> 
    4436                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4437                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4438                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4439                                     <URI/> 
    4440                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4441                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4442                         </descriptionSection> 
    4443                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4444                     <name>Northern Hemisphere Geopotential Height  monthly data processing</name> 
    4445                     <abbreviation>NH_height_monthly_processing</abbreviation> 
    4446                 </observationstation> 
    4447                 <observationstation> 
    4448                     <dgMetadataID> 
    4449                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4450                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4451                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11704781646413844</localIdentifier> 
    4452                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4453                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4454                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4455                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4456                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4457                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11704781646413845</localIdentifier> 
    4458                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4459                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-02-03</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4460                         <abstract> 
    4461                             <abstractText>Processing used by the Hadley Centre to produce the Northern Hemisphere Mean Sea Level Pressure (MSLP) daily dataset.</abstractText> 
    4462                         </abstract> 
    4463                         <descriptionSection> 
    4464                             <dgDescriptionText/> 
    4465                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4466                         </descriptionSection> 
    4467                         <descriptionSection> 
    4468                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4469                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4470                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4471                                     <URI/> 
    4472                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4473                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4474                         </descriptionSection> 
    4475                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4476                     <name>Northern Hemisphere MSLP daily  data processing</name> 
    4477                     <abbreviation>NH_MSLP_daily_processing</abbreviation> 
    4478                 </observationstation> 
    4479                 <observationstation> 
    4480                     <dgMetadataID> 
    4481                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4482                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4483                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11704782434413848</localIdentifier> 
    4484                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4485                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4486                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4487                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4488                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4489                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11704782434413849</localIdentifier> 
    4490                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4491                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-02-03</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4492                         <abstract> 
    4493                             <abstractText>Processing used by the Hadley Centre to produce the Northern Hemisphere Mean Sea Level Pressure (MSLP) monthly dataset.</abstractText> 
    4494                         </abstract> 
    4495                         <descriptionSection> 
    4496                             <dgDescriptionText/> 
    4497                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4498                         </descriptionSection> 
    4499                         <descriptionSection> 
    4500                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4501                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4502                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4503                                     <URI/> 
    4504                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4505                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4506                         </descriptionSection> 
    4507                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4508                     <name>Northern Hemisphere MSLP monthly  data processing</name> 
    4509                     <abbreviation>NH_MSLP_monthly_processing</abbreviation> 
    4510                 </observationstation> 
    4511                 <observationstation> 
    4512                     <dgMetadataID> 
    4513                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4514                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4515                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11706936412313866</localIdentifier> 
    4516                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4517                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4518                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4519                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4520                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4521                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11706936412313867</localIdentifier> 
    4522                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4523                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-02-05</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4524                         <abstract> 
    4525                             <abstractText>The version of the Unified Model (UM) model currently being used for stratospheric data assimilation is the 50-level troposphere-stratosphere configuration. This model includes a scheme to represent forcing from a full spectrum of gravity wave phase speeds, and a simple representation of methane oxidation has been included to improve the simulation of water vapour.</abstractText> 
    4526                         </abstract> 
    4527                         <descriptionSection> 
    4528                             <dgDescriptionText>After favourable comparisons between the the Met Office stratospheric model which produced the output for this dataset and the extended operational NWP output, the former was suddenly turned off on 13/3/06.  
    4529 &lt;P&gt;For operational forecasting and climate modelling, the Unified Model (UM) currently uses a set of 38 levels, extending into the middle stratosphere; the vertical resolution used for the top few levels is quite coarse (typically 5 km). For middle atmosphere modelling, two special configuration of the Unified Model have been developed. The troposphere-stratosphere configuration has 50 levels, a vertical grid spacing of approximately 1.1 km in the lower stratosphere, and an upper boundary near the stratopause at about 63 km above the surface. The troposphere-stratosphere-mesosphere configuration uses a set of 60 levels and has an upper boundary at 85km near the mesopause. These extended configurations have a global domain with a horizontal resolution of 2.5° latitude by 3.75° longitude - the same as normally used for climate modelling.  
    4530 &lt;P&gt;The version of the model currently being used for stratospheric data assimilation is the 50-level troposphere-stratosphere configuration. This model includes a scheme to represent forcing from a full spectrum of gravity wave phase speeds, and a simple representation of methane oxidation has been included to improve the simulation of water vapour.</dgDescriptionText> 
    4531                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4532                         </descriptionSection> 
    4533                         <descriptionSection> 
    4534                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4535                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4536                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4537                                     <URI/> 
    4538                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4539                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4540                         </descriptionSection> 
    4541                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4542                     <name>Met Office Extended Operational NWP model</name> 
    4543                     <abbreviation>met_extended_UM_model</abbreviation> 
    4544                 </observationstation> 
    4545                 <observationstation> 
    4546                     <dgMetadataID> 
    4547                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4548                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4549                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11706926831713862</localIdentifier> 
    4550                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4551                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4552                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4553                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4554                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4555                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11706926831813863</localIdentifier> 
    4556                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4557                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-02-05</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4558                         <abstract> 
    4559                             <abstractText>Stratospheric data assimilation system used by the Met Office for the period 1991 to March 2006 to produce the Met Office Assimilated data.</abstractText> 
    4560                         </abstract> 
    4561                         <descriptionSection> 
    4562                             <dgDescriptionText>The original stratospheric data assimilation system used the Analysis Correction data assimilation scheme in conjunction with a 42-level configuration of the Unified Model. The stratospheric analyses were originally produced as "correlative data" for the NASA UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) project. Since late 1994, the stratospheric assimilation system has been run as part of the operational forecasting suite, and the separate UARS analyses were discontinued from October 1995.  
    4563 &lt;P&gt; 
    4564 In November 2000 a new stratospheric data assimilation system was implemented, based on the 3D variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system used for the standard global forecast suite. The 3DVAR stratospheric system includes the assimilation of radiances (rather than temperature retrievals) from the operational polar orbiter satellites.  
    4565 &lt;P&gt; 
    4566 In October 2003, the assimilation model was changed to use a new semi-Lagrangian dynamical core, usually referred to as "new dynamics". The model is a 50-level configuration of the Unified Model; the tropospheric levels are the same as those used in the 38-level global forecast model, but additional stratospheric levels have been introduced. This model configuration has been designed to help to demonstrate the benefit of additional stratospheric levels on the processing of satellite temperature soundings. 
    4567 &lt;P&gt; 
    4568 The stratosphere-troposphere data assimilation system uses essentially the same set of meteorological observations as are used for operational weather forecasting. In the stratosphere the most important observation types are temperature profiles from the NOAA polar orbiter satellites and radiosondes soundings of temperatures and winds (although the radiosondes only ascend as far as the lower stratosphere).</dgDescriptionText> 
    4569                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4570                         </descriptionSection> 
    4571                         <descriptionSection> 
    4572                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4573                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4574                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4575                                     <URI>badc.nerc.ac.uk/data/assim/assimhelp.html</URI> 
    4576                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4577                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4578                         </descriptionSection> 
    4579                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4580                     <name>Met Office Stratospheric Model</name> 
    4581                     <abbreviation>met_stratos_model</abbreviation> 
    4582                 </observationstation> 
    4583                 <observationstation> 
    4584                     <dgMetadataID> 
    4585                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4586                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4587                         <localIdentifier>dpt_116291392739290</localIdentifier> 
    4588                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4589                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4590                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4591                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4592                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4593                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_1162913927319291</localIdentifier> 
    4594                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4595                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-07</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4596                         <abstract> 
    4597                             <abstractText>UK C Band radar run by the Met Office and the Environment Agency.</abstractText> 
    4598                         </abstract> 
    4599                         <descriptionSection> 
    4600                             <dgDescriptionText>C band radars operate on a wavelength of 4-8 cm and a frequency of 4-8 GHz. Because of the wavelength and frequency, the dish size does not need to be very large. This makes C band radars affordable for TV stations. The signal is more easily attenuated, so this type of radar is best used for short range weather observation. The frequency allows C band radars to create a smaller beam width using a smaller dish. 
    4601 C band radars also do not require as much power as an S band radar.</dgDescriptionText> 
    4602                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4603                         </descriptionSection> 
    4604                         <descriptionSection> 
    4605                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4606                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4607                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4608                                     <URI/> 
    4609                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4610                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4611                         </descriptionSection> 
    4612                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4613                     <name>Met Office C-band radar</name> 
    4614                     <abbreviation>c-band radar</abbreviation> 
    4615                 </observationstation> 
    4616                 <observationstation> 
    4617                     <dgMetadataID> 
    4618                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4619                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4620                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11637742671911506</localIdentifier> 
    4621                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4622                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4623                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4624                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4625                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4626                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_1163774267211507</localIdentifier> 
    4627                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4628                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-17</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4629                         <abstract> 
    4630                             <abstractText>The Unified Model is the name given to the suite of atmospheric and oceanic numerical modelling software developed and used at the Met Office. The formulation of the model supports global and regional domains and is applicable to a wide range of temporal and spatial scales that allow it to be used for both numerical weather prediction and climate modelling as well as a variety of related research activities. The Unified Model was introduced into operational service in 1992. Since then, both its formulation and capabilities have been substantially enhanced.</abstractText> 
    4631                         </abstract> 
    4632                         <descriptionSection> 
    4633                             <dgDescriptionText>The UK unified global model outputs a number of variables onto a global grid for a number of vertical levels. The initial output is onto "model" vertival levels, and from these additional processing is used to produce another set of global variables on pressure levels in the atmosphere. For the past 6 years, the output resolution was fixed (432x325, 38 model levels, 38km top height). However, in December 2005, enhancements were made to the output, so that output is now available on a 640x481 grid, at 50 model levels, top level 65km . 
    4634 &lt;P&gt;The UK operational Mesoscale model uses a rotated latitude and longitude coordinate system in which the computational north pole is shifted to an actual position of 37.5 deg. N, 177.5 E. This is done to obtain fairly uniform horizontal resolution over the area of interest. The corners of the computational area are approximately in actual latitude/longitude: (60.1N, 16.6W; 60.2N, 10.7E; 46.6N, 12.7W; 46.7N, 7.1E). The grid-length is 0.15 deg. in each direction which is approximately 16.8 Km, giving 92x92 grid points running from the north - west corner. At the end of 2006, the UK Mesoscale model was retired.</dgDescriptionText> 
    4635                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4636                         </descriptionSection> 
    4637                         <descriptionSection> 
    4638                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4639                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4640                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4641                                     <URI>www.metoffice.gov.uk/research/nwp/numerical/unified_model/index.html</URI> 
    4642                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4643                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4644                         </descriptionSection> 
    4645                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4646                     <name>Met Office operational unified model (UM)</name> 
    4647                     <abbreviation>um</abbreviation> 
    4648                 </observationstation> 
    4649                 <observationstation> 
    4650                     <dgMetadataID> 
    4651                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4652                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4653                         <localIdentifier>dpt_1162913571289262</localIdentifier> 
    4654                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4655                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4656                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4657                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4658                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4659                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_1162913571289263</localIdentifier> 
    4660                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4661                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-07</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4662                         <abstract> 
    4663                             <abstractText>Coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) from the Hadley centre (Met Office).</abstractText> 
    4664                         </abstract> 
    4665                         <descriptionSection> 
    4666                             <dgDescriptionText>Coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models are the most complex models in use, consisting of an AGCM coupled to an OGCM. Some recent models include the biosphere, carbon cycle and atmospheric chemistry as well. AOGCMs can be used for the prediction and rate of change of future climate. They are also used to study the variability and physical processes of the coupled climate system. Global climate models typically have a resolution of a few hundred kilometres. Climate projections from the Hadley Centre make use of the HadCM2 AOGCM, developed in 1994, and its successor HadCM3 AOGCM, developed in 1998. Greenhouse-gas experiments with AOGCMs have usually been driven by specifying atmospheric concentrations of the gases, but if a carbon cycle model is included, the AOGCM can predict changes in carbon dioxide concentration, given the emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. At the Hadley Centre, this was first done in 1999. Similarly, an AOGCM coupled to an atmospheric chemistry model is able to predict the changes in concentration of other atmospheric constituents in response to climate change and to the changing emissions of various gases.</dgDescriptionText> 
    4667                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4668                         </descriptionSection> 
    4669                         <descriptionSection> 
    4670                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4671                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4672                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4673                                     <URI/> 
    4674                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4675                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4676                         </descriptionSection> 
    4677                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4678                     <name>Hadley Centre Coupled Model 3 (HadCM3)</name> 
    4679                     <abbreviation>HadCM3</abbreviation> 
    4680                 </observationstation> 
    4681                 <observationstation/> 
    4682                 <observationstation> 
    4683                     <dgMetadataID> 
    4684                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4685                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4686                         <localIdentifier>dpt_dpt_PUM</localIdentifier> 
    4687                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4688                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4689                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4690                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4691                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4692                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_dpt_desc_PUM</localIdentifier> 
    4693                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4694                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-03</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4695                         <abstract> 
    4696                             <abstractText>Certain versions of the Met Office Unified Model are made available as Ported Unified Model (PUM) releases once they have been accepted by internal users.</abstractText> 
    4697                         </abstract> 
    4698                         <descriptionSection> 
    4699                             <dgDescriptionText>The current PUM release (version 6.1 as in early 2007) includes the following features.  
    4700 &lt;ul&gt; 
    4701 &lt;li&gt;Standard experiments (low-resolution global atmosphere-only forecast, UK mesoscale forecast, global ocean forecast) and starting data sets.  
    4702 &lt;li&gt;On-line documentation written in HTML which may be viewed using a standard hypertext browser. Comprehensive documentation covering both technical and scientific aspects of the model is available in Postscript and PDF formats.  
    4703 &lt;li&gt;Conversion software to pass output to workstations.  
    4704 &lt;/ul&gt;</dgDescriptionText> 
    4705                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4706                         </descriptionSection> 
    4707                         <descriptionSection> 
    4708                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4709                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4710                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4711                                     <URI>www.metoffice.gov.uk/research/nwp/numerical/unified_model/external.html</URI> 
    4712                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4713                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4714                         </descriptionSection> 
    4715                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4716                     <name>Portable Unified Model (PUM)</name> 
    4717                     <abbreviation>PUM</abbreviation> 
    4718                 </observationstation> 
    4719                 <observationstation> 
    4720                     <dgMetadataID> 
    4721                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4722                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4723                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11740083289517810</localIdentifier> 
    4724                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4725                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4726                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4727                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4728                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4729                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11740083289617811</localIdentifier> 
    4730                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4731                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-03-16</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4732                         <abstract> 
    4733                             <abstractText>Visibility at the Cardington site is measured using a  Belfort model 6230A visibility sensor.</abstractText> 
    4734                         </abstract> 
    4735                         <descriptionSection> 
    4736                             <dgDescriptionText>This instrument is used for the determination of the visible range through the air. This is defined as the maximum distance, during daylight, at which it is possible to discern a prominent, dark object against the horizon. Visibility is limited by the presence of water vapour and particles in the atmosphere. 
    4737 &lt;P&gt; 
    4738 The Belfort 6230A visibility sensor is a forward scatter device, which measures the amount of light scattered from a xenon flash lamp. From this, the extinction coefficient (s) of the sample of air can be determined (it is assumed that s is the same as the scattering coefficient since the amount of light absobed over the path length of the sensor will be negligible) and a value for the visibility extrapolated. This measurement is valid for any scattering medium (eg, fog,dust,haze,rain). 
    4739 &lt;BR&gt; 
    4740 The sensor is mounted at a height of 2m above the ground and the size of the scattering volume is 0.02m3. Measurements are made at a rate of 2Hz, and a running mean over a period of one minute is output. Extinction coefficient measurements in the range of 579 Km -1 to 0.05 Km-1 can be achieved by the sensor, which corresponds to a visual range of 15 m to 59.6 km.</dgDescriptionText> 
    4741                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4742                         </descriptionSection> 
    4743                         <descriptionSection> 
    4744                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4745                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4746                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4747                                     <URI/> 
    4748                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4749                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4750                         </descriptionSection> 
    4751                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4752                     <name>Cardington: Belfort model 6230A visibility sensor</name> 
    4753                     <abbreviation>cardington_visibility</abbreviation> 
    4754                 </observationstation> 
    4755                 <observationstation> 
    4756                     <dgMetadataID> 
    4757                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4758                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4759                         <localIdentifier>dpt_1174007820017798</localIdentifier> 
    4760                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4761                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4762                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4763                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4764                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4765                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_1174007820017799</localIdentifier> 
    4766                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4767                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-03-16</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4768                         <abstract> 
    4769                             <abstractText>Volumetric soil moisture content measurements are made using  Delta-T ThetaProbes, located at depths of 10cm, 22cm, 57cm and 1.6m below the surface, at both the west and south sites of the Cardington Met Office Research Unit site.</abstractText> 
    4770                         </abstract> 
    4771                         <descriptionSection> 
    4772                             <dgDescriptionText>The ThetaProbe works on the principle that the volumetric soil moisture content is related to the apparent dielectric constant (e) of the soil, with there being a linear correlation between qv and the square root of e. This relationship has been shown to be valid for many different soil types. 
    4773 &lt;br&gt; 
    4774 The probe consists of a waterproof housing, containing the electronics, with four stainless steel spikes attached to one end, which are inserted into the soil. A 100MHz sinusoidal signal is applied to the spikes, and changes in the impedance between them, due to changes in the dielectric constant of the soil, are detected. The probe then outputs an analogue voltage between 0 and 1 V DC, which is virtually proportional to the soil moisture content. 
    4775 &lt;br&gt; 
    4776 The precise relationship between soil moisture content and the square-root of e is dependent on the soil type, but after carrying out tests on the soil at Cardington, it was decided to use the manufacterers generalisied calibration coefficients for a mineral soil. 
    4777 &lt;P&gt;The sensors were installed in the ground, by digging a large hole, and inserting the probes into the side wall of the hole at the desired depths. In this way, disturbance to the structure of the soil being measured, was kept to a minimum. The hole was then filled in, replacing the soil in the order that it came out, and the grass resown on top.</dgDescriptionText> 
    4778                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4779                         </descriptionSection> 
    4780                         <descriptionSection> 
    4781                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4782                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4783                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4784                                     <URI/> 
    4785                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4786                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4787                         </descriptionSection> 
    4788                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4789                     <name>Cardington: Delta-T ThetaProbe Soil Moisture Sensor</name> 
    4790                     <abbreviation>cardington_thetaprobe</abbreviation> 
    4791                 </observationstation> 
    4792                 <observationstation> 
    4793                     <dgMetadataID> 
    4794                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4795                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4796                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11740079476417802</localIdentifier> 
    4797                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4798                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4799                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4800                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4801                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4802                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11740079476417803</localIdentifier> 
    4803                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4804                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-03-16</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4805                         <abstract> 
    4806                             <abstractText>Water table depth below the surface is measured at the west and south Cardington sites. This is obtained using  Druck 1830 series pressure transducers, located inside boreholes in the ground.</abstractText> 
    4807                         </abstract> 
    4808                         <descriptionSection> 
    4809                             <dgDescriptionText/> 
    4810                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4811                         </descriptionSection> 
    4812                         <descriptionSection> 
    4813                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4814                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4815                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4816                                     <URI/> 
    4817                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4818                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4819                         </descriptionSection> 
    4820                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4821                     <name>Cardington: Druck 1830 series pressure transducer</name> 
     3904                        <localIdentifier>obs_11636899816711423</localIdentifier> 
     3905                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3906                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3907                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3908                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3909                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3910                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11636899816811424</localIdentifier> 
     3911                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3912                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-16</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3913                        <abstract> 
     3914                            <abstractText>Dunkeswell Airfield is a Met office site near Honiton in East Devon and is mainly used for light aircraft.  It is home to the Dunkeswell Radian LAP3000 windprofiler instrument.</abstractText> 
     3915                        </abstract> 
     3916                        <descriptionSection> 
     3917                            <dgDescriptionText>Latitude: 50.87°N Longitude: 3.23°E 
     3918Height: 253m</dgDescriptionText> 
     3919                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3920                        </descriptionSection> 
     3921                        <descriptionSection> 
     3922                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3923                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3924                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3925                                    <URI/> 
     3926                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3927                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3928                        </descriptionSection> 
     3929                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3930                    <name>Dunkeswell</name> 
    48223931                    <abbreviation/> 
    48233932                </observationstation> 
     
    48263935                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    48273936                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4828                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11740065032817766</localIdentifier> 
    4829                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4830                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4831                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4832                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4833                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4834                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11740065032817767</localIdentifier> 
    4835                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4836                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-03-16</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4837                         <abstract> 
    4838                             <abstractText>Three Gill Solent HS-50 ultrasonic anemometers are deployed at the cardington Met Office Research Unit site and they are used for making fast response wind measurements.</abstractText> 
    4839                         </abstract> 
    4840                         <descriptionSection> 
    4841                             <dgDescriptionText>Three Gill Solent HS-50 ultrasonic anemometers, are used for making fast response wind measurements, which can be used in eddy correlation calculations. A fast response temperature measurement is also generated. Measurements are made at heights of 10m, 25m and 50m.</dgDescriptionText> 
    4842                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4843                         </descriptionSection> 
    4844                         <descriptionSection> 
    4845                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4846                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4847                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4848                                     <URI/> 
    4849                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4850                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4851                         </descriptionSection> 
    4852                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4853                     <name>Cardington: Gill Solent HS-50 ultrasonic anemometer</name> 
    4854                     <abbreviation>cardington_gill_solent</abbreviation> 
     3937                        <localIdentifier>obs_11636901116811427</localIdentifier> 
     3938                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3939                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3940                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3941                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3942                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3943                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11636901116911428</localIdentifier> 
     3944                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3945                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-16</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3946                        <abstract> 
     3947                            <abstractText>Wattisham is an existing Met Office site at RAF Wattisham. The airfield is near Ipswich in Suffolk and is mainly used for helicopter training.</abstractText> 
     3948                        </abstract> 
     3949                        <descriptionSection> 
     3950                            <dgDescriptionText>Latitude: 52.70°N Longitude: 0.058°E 
     3951Height: 87m</dgDescriptionText> 
     3952                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3953                        </descriptionSection> 
     3954                        <descriptionSection> 
     3955                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3956                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3957                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3958                                    <URI/> 
     3959                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3960                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3961                        </descriptionSection> 
     3962                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3963                    <name>Wattisham</name> 
     3964                    <abbreviation/> 
    48553965                </observationstation> 
    48563966                <observationstation> 
     
    48583968                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    48593969                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4860                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11740075440617790</localIdentifier> 
    4861                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4862                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4863                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4864                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4865                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4866                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11740075440617791</localIdentifier> 
    4867                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4868                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-03-16</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4869                         <abstract> 
    4870                             <abstractText>Surface radiative temperature at the Cardington site is measured using a  Heitronics  KT15D Infrared radiation pyrometer pointed at the ground.</abstractText> 
    4871                         </abstract> 
    4872                         <descriptionSection> 
    4873                             <dgDescriptionText>The Infrared thermometer is used to measure the radiation temperature of the grass surface. With knowledge of the emissivity, the true temperature can be calculated. 
    4874 &lt;P&gt;The IRT is housed in a waterproof shield, and mounted on a mast at a height of 2.5m above the ground. It is tilted at an angle of approximately 20o to the vertical and the surface below is short grass, which is representative of the site as a whole. 
    4875  
    4876 The detector is a "type A" and an "M6" lens is used on the unit. This particular setup, this gives an effective target area on the ground of roughly 1 metre diameter.</dgDescriptionText> 
    4877                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4878                         </descriptionSection> 
    4879                         <descriptionSection> 
    4880                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4881                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4882                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4883                                     <URI/> 
    4884                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4885                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4886                         </descriptionSection> 
    4887                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4888                     <name>Cardington: Heitronics KT15D Infrared radiation pyrometer</name> 
    4889                     <abbreviation>cardington_ir_pyrometer</abbreviation> 
     3970                        <localIdentifier>obs_1162914508369306</localIdentifier> 
     3971                    </dgMetadataID> 
     3972                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     3973                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     3974                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     3975                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     3976                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_1162914508379307</localIdentifier> 
     3977                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     3978                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-07</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     3979                        <abstract> 
     3980                            <abstractText/> 
     3981                        </abstract> 
     3982                        <descriptionSection> 
     3983                            <dgDescriptionText/> 
     3984                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     3985                        </descriptionSection> 
     3986                        <descriptionSection> 
     3987                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3988                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     3989                                    <name>URI</name> 
     3990                                    <URI/> 
     3991                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     3992                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     3993                        </descriptionSection> 
     3994                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     3995                    <name>Capel Dewi, UK</name> 
     3996                    <abbreviation>capel_dewi</abbreviation> 
    48903997                </observationstation> 
    48913998                <observationstation> 
     
    48934000                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    48944001                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4895                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11740071405417786</localIdentifier> 
    4896                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4897                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4898                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4899                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4900                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4901                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11740071405417787</localIdentifier> 
    4902                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4903                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-03-16</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4904                         <abstract> 
    4905                             <abstractText>Two  Kipp &amp; Zonen   CG4 pyrgeometers are used at the Cardington site, for measuring the incoming and outgoing longwave irradiances (with a spectral range of 4.5 to about 40 mm.</abstractText> 
    4906                         </abstract> 
    4907                         <descriptionSection> 
    4908                             <dgDescriptionText>The CG4 pyrgeometers are used for the measurement of upwelling and downwelling components of LW irradiance (in W m-2). The instruments are sensitive to infrared radiation in a wavelength range of 4.5 to approx. 40mm, and have a field of view of 180o, with a cosine response. 
    4909 &lt;P&gt; 
    4910 The CG4 pyrgeometer measuring the downwelling LW irradiance, is mounted on a Kipp &amp; Zonen 2AP solar tracker. This tracks the sun through the sky, such that the dome is continuously shaded from the direct beam of the sun by a small black sphere. This reason for this is to eliminate any window heating affects as described above. 
    4911  
    4912 For measuring the upwelling LW irradiance from the ground, the CG4 pyrgeometer is mounted, facing downwards, at the end of a boom, clamped onto a mast at a height of 2m. The boom extends out about 1.5m in a southerly direction. The ground beneath the instrument, is short grass, and is representative of the whole of the site. 
    4913  
    4914 Both the instruments are ventilated by a fan which blows air across the domes. This prevents dew and rain droplets etc from collecting.</dgDescriptionText> 
    4915                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4916                         </descriptionSection> 
    4917                         <descriptionSection> 
    4918                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4919                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4920                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4921                                     <URI/> 
    4922                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4923                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4924                         </descriptionSection> 
    4925                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4926                     <name>Cardington: Kipp and Zonen CG4 pyrgeometer</name> 
    4927                     <abbreviation>cardington_pyrgeometer</abbreviation> 
     4002                        <localIdentifier>obs_11636901757611431</localIdentifier> 
     4003                    </dgMetadataID> 
     4004                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     4005                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     4006                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     4007                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     4008                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_11636901757711432</localIdentifier> 
     4009                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     4010                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-16</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     4011                        <abstract> 
     4012                            <abstractText>South Uist, in the Hebrides, Western Isles of Scotland is a Met office site and home to the Met Office 64MHz windprofiler.</abstractText> 
     4013                        </abstract> 
     4014                        <descriptionSection> 
     4015                            <dgDescriptionText>Latitude: 57.353° N Longitude: 7.375° W Height 4m</dgDescriptionText> 
     4016                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     4017                        </descriptionSection> 
     4018                        <descriptionSection> 
     4019                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     4020                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     4021                                    <name>URI</name> 
     4022                                    <URI/> 
     4023                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     4024                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     4025                        </descriptionSection> 
     4026                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     4027                    <name>South Uist</name> 
     4028                    <abbreviation/> 
    49284029                </observationstation> 
    49294030                <observationstation> 
     
    49314032                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    49324033                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4933                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11740069943217782</localIdentifier> 
    4934                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4935                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4936                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4937                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4938                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4939                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11740069943217783</localIdentifier> 
    4940                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4941                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-03-16</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4942                         <abstract> 
    4943                             <abstractText>Three  Kipp &amp; Zonen  CM21/CM22 pyranometers , are used to measure global incoming, diffuse, and relected solar irradiances at the Cardington site. The diffuse measurement involves shading the sensor from the direct solar beam using a solar tracker.</abstractText> 
    4944                         </abstract> 
    4945                         <descriptionSection> 
    4946                             <dgDescriptionText>The CG4 pyrgeometers are used for the measurement of upwelling and downwelling components of LW irradiance (in W m-2). The instruments are sensitive to infrared radiation in a wavelength range of 4.5 to approx. 40mm, and have a field of view of 180o, with a cosine response. 
    4947 &lt;P&gt; 
    4948 The CG4 pyrgeometer measuring the downwelling LW irradiance, is mounted on a Kipp &amp; Zonen 2AP solar tracker. This tracks the sun through the sky, such that the dome is continuously shaded from the direct beam of the sun by a small black sphere. This reason for this is to eliminate any window heating affects as described above. 
    4949  
    4950 For measuring the upwelling LW irradiance from the ground, the CG4 pyrgeometer is mounted, facing downwards, at the end of a boom, clamped onto a mast at a height of 2m. The boom extends out about 1.5m in a southerly direction. The ground beneath the instrument, is short grass, and is representative of the whole of the site. 
    4951  
    4952 Both the instruments are ventilated by a fan which blows air across the domes. This prevents dew and rain droplets etc from collecting.</dgDescriptionText> 
    4953                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4954                         </descriptionSection> 
    4955                         <descriptionSection> 
    4956                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4957                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4958                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4959                                     <URI/> 
    4960                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4961                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4962                         </descriptionSection> 
    4963                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4964                     <name>Cardington: Kipp and Zonen CM21/CM22 pyranometers</name> 
    4965                     <abbreviation>cardington_pyranometers</abbreviation> 
    4966                 </observationstation> 
    4967                 <observationstation> 
    4968                     <dgMetadataID> 
    4969                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4970                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4971                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11740066878817770</localIdentifier> 
    4972                     </dgMetadataID> 
    4973                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    4974                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    4975                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    4976                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    4977                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11740066878917771</localIdentifier> 
    4978                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    4979                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-03-16</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    4980                         <abstract> 
    4981                             <abstractText>Fast response humidity measurements are made using a LI-COR LI-7500  open path CO2/H20 gas analyser, located at the top of the 10m tower at the Cardington site. In addition to measuring water vapour, this instrument is capable of measuring atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. When combined with simultaneous data from a sonic anemometer, humidity and CO2 fluxes can be calculated.</abstractText> 
    4982                         </abstract> 
    4983                         <descriptionSection> 
    4984                             <dgDescriptionText>The LI-COR LI-7500 Gas Analyser is used to make rapid response measurements of water vapour and carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. When combined with simultaneous measurements from a co-located sonic anemometer, humidity and CO2 fluxes can be calculated, using the eddy-covariance method.</dgDescriptionText> 
    4985                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    4986                         </descriptionSection> 
    4987                         <descriptionSection> 
    4988                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4989                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    4990                                     <name>URI</name> 
    4991                                     <URI/> 
    4992                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    4993                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    4994                         </descriptionSection> 
    4995                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    4996                     <name>Cardington: LI-COR LI-7500 Gas Analyser</name> 
    4997                     <abbreviation>cardington_li-cor</abbreviation> 
    4998                 </observationstation> 
    4999                 <observationstation> 
    5000                     <dgMetadataID> 
    5001                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    5002                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    5003                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11740076855317794</localIdentifier> 
    5004                     </dgMetadataID> 
    5005                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    5006                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    5007                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    5008                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    5009                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11740076855317795</localIdentifier> 
    5010                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    5011                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-03-16</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    5012                         <abstract> 
    5013                             <abstractText>An MRI integrating  nephelometer (model 1550B) measures the atmospheric scattering coefficient of dry aerosols at the Cardington site.</abstractText> 
    5014                         </abstract> 
    5015                         <descriptionSection> 
    5016                             <dgDescriptionText>The MRI Integrating nephelometer is used to measure the scattering coefficient of the air, caused by aerosol particulates. This is the oldest piece of equipment currently in use at Cardington. Previously, it was installed on the MRF research aircraft, before undergoing a refurbishment and being deployed on the site. 
    5017 &lt;P&gt; 
    5018 Air is drawn into the the device from outside the hut using a pump, and is then passed through a heater before entering the nephelometer. The purpose of the heating is to dry the air so that the nephelometer measures the scattering coefficient of a dry aerosol population. A humidity sensor, located in the inlet pipe between the heater and the nephelometer is used to monitor the effectiveness of the dehyration, and a PRT sensor measures the temperature of the air, which is maintained at a maximum of 30oC. 
    5019 &lt;br&gt; 
    5020 The air being sampled, enters the optical assembly, which is approximately 1.2m long, and has a photomultiplier at one end of it. A xenon flashlamp illuminates the chamber, and the photomultiplier detects the light scattered from the particles in the defined sampling area. Another light detector placed below the flashlamp, is used as a reference. The xenon lamp is set to flash at a rate of once every 4 seconds. 
    5021 &lt;br&gt; 
    5022 The measurement of the scattering coefficient of light through the air, is related to the mass concentration of particulates suspended in the air, and to the visibility. Unlike, a standard visibility sensor, however this nephelometer only samples the dry aerosol population.</dgDescriptionText> 
    5023                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    5024                         </descriptionSection> 
    5025                         <descriptionSection> 
    5026                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    5027                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    5028                                     <name>URI</name> 
    5029                                     <URI/> 
    5030                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    5031                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    5032                         </descriptionSection> 
    5033                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    5034                     <name>Cardington: MRI integrating nephelometer (model 1550B)</name> 
    5035                     <abbreviation>cardington_nephelometer</abbreviation> 
    5036                 </observationstation> 
    5037                 <observationstation> 
    5038                     <dgMetadataID> 
    5039                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    5040                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    5041                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11740068812717778</localIdentifier> 
    5042                     </dgMetadataID> 
    5043                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    5044                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    5045                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    5046                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    5047                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11740068812717779</localIdentifier> 
    5048                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    5049                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-03-16</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    5050                         <abstract> 
    5051                             <abstractText>A Michell  Series 3000 dewpoint hygrometer is situated at a height of 1.2m above ground level at the Cardington site. This is mounted inside the 1.2m temperature screen.</abstractText> 
    5052                         </abstract> 
    5053                         <descriptionSection> 
    5054                             <dgDescriptionText>The Michell dewpoint hygrometer uses the chilled-mirror principle to make a direct measurement of the dewpoint of the air. This is a fundamental humidity parameter, that is independent of other parameters, such as the ambient pressure and temperature.</dgDescriptionText> 
    5055                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    5056                         </descriptionSection> 
    5057                         <descriptionSection> 
    5058                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    5059                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    5060                                     <name>URI</name> 
    5061                                     <URI/> 
    5062                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    5063                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    5064                         </descriptionSection> 
    5065                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    5066                     <name>Cardington: Michell series 3000 dewpoint hygrometer</name> 
    5067                     <abbreviation>cardington_michell_hygrometer</abbreviation> 
    5068                 </observationstation> 
    5069                 <observationstation> 
    5070                     <dgMetadataID> 
    5071                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    5072                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    5073                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11740080235817806</localIdentifier> 
    5074                     </dgMetadataID> 
    5075                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    5076                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    5077                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    5078                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    5079                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11740080235817807</localIdentifier> 
    5080                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    5081                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-03-16</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    5082                         <abstract> 
    5083                             <abstractText>Barometric pressure is measured to 0.1hPa using a Setra Model 270 transducer (located at a height of 1.5m above ground level at the Cardington site.)</abstractText> 
    5084                         </abstract> 
    5085                         <descriptionSection> 
    5086                             <dgDescriptionText/> 
    5087                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    5088                         </descriptionSection> 
    5089                         <descriptionSection> 
    5090                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    5091                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    5092                                     <name>URI</name> 
    5093                                     <URI/> 
    5094                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    5095                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    5096                         </descriptionSection> 
    5097                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    5098                     <name>Cardington: Setra Model 270 transducer</name> 
    5099                     <abbreviation>cardington_barometer</abbreviation> 
    5100                 </observationstation> 
    5101                 <observationstation> 
    5102                     <dgMetadataID> 
    5103                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    5104                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    5105                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11740067989217774</localIdentifier> 
    5106                     </dgMetadataID> 
    5107                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    5108                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    5109                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    5110                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    5111                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11740067989217775</localIdentifier> 
    5112                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    5113                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-03-16</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    5114                         <abstract> 
    5115                             <abstractText>Three  Vaisala humicaps  are employed for measurement of relative humidity at the cardington site.</abstractText> 
    5116                         </abstract> 
    5117                         <descriptionSection> 
    5118                             <dgDescriptionText>Three  Vaisala humicaps  are employed for measurement of relative humidity. These are located at heights of 1.2m, 25m and 50m and are housed in aspirated screens. Estimates of humidity flux at 25 and 50m are also made by correlating the humicap outputs with data from the sonic anemometers.</dgDescriptionText> 
    5119                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    5120                         </descriptionSection> 
    5121                         <descriptionSection> 
    5122                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    5123                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    5124                                     <name>URI</name> 
    5125                                     <URI/> 
    5126                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    5127                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    5128                         </descriptionSection> 
    5129                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    5130                     <name>Cardington: Vaisala Humicaps</name> 
    5131                     <abbreviation>cardington_humicaps</abbreviation> 
    5132                 </observationstation> 
    5133                 <observationstation> 
    5134                     <dgMetadataID> 
    5135                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    5136                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    5137                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11635160394811245</localIdentifier> 
    5138                     </dgMetadataID> 
    5139                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    5140                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    5141                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    5142                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    5143                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11635160394911246</localIdentifier> 
    5144                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    5145                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-14</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    5146                         <abstract> 
    5147                             <abstractText>The Camborne Radian LAP3000 Profiler is permanently located at Camborne Met Office. This was the first profiler of it's type to be installed in the UK. This system is an integral part of the UK Operational Upper Air Network. The instrument operates at a frequency of 915 Mhz and provides high resolution wind information from just above the surface and can see up to 8 km under appropriate conditions.</abstractText> 
    5148                         </abstract> 
    5149                         <descriptionSection> 
    5150                             <dgDescriptionText>Location  Camborne&lt;br&gt; 
    5151 Coordinates (lat, long, height) 50.13°N, 5.19°W, 88m 
    5152 &lt;br&gt;Frequency 915 MHz 
    5153 &lt;br&gt;Height resolution (High/Low res.) 60 / 200m 
    5154 &lt;br&gt;Height range 0.3km to 8.0km.   
    5155  
    5156   
    5157 &lt;br&gt;Operated at Camborne since November 1998.</dgDescriptionText> 
    5158                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    5159                         </descriptionSection> 
    5160                         <descriptionSection> 
    5161                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    5162                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    5163                                     <name>URI</name> 
    5164                                     <URI>www.metoffice.com/research/interproj/cwinde/profiler/camborne/index.html</URI> 
    5165                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    5166                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    5167                         </descriptionSection> 
    5168                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    5169                     <name>Camborne: Met Office Windprofiler 915MHz</name> 
    5170                     <abbreviation>ukmo-radar-915mhz-1</abbreviation> 
    5171                 </observationstation> 
    5172                 <observationstation> 
    5173                     <dgMetadataID> 
    5174                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    5175                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    5176                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11635161257311257</localIdentifier> 
    5177                     </dgMetadataID> 
    5178                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    5179                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    5180                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    5181                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    5182                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11635161257411258</localIdentifier> 
    5183                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    5184                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-14</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    5185                         <abstract> 
    5186                             <abstractText>The Dunkeswell Radian LAP3000 is permanently located at an existing SAMOS site within Dunkeswell Airfield.  The Dunkeswell profiler was one of two Radian 1290MHz profilers installed in the UK in February 1999. This system is an integral part of the UK operational upper air network. Dunkeswell, like the other sites, is configured to operate in two modes. The low mode provides high resolution wind information up to 2km above the surface, while the high mode, with 210m resolution can see up to 8km under appropriate conditions</abstractText> 
    5187                         </abstract> 
    5188                         <descriptionSection> 
    5189                             <dgDescriptionText>Location:        Dunkeswell  
    5190 &lt;br&gt;Coordinates (lat, long, height)  50.87°N, 3.23°E, 253m 
    5191 &lt;br&gt;Frequency    1290 MHz 
    5192 &lt;br&gt;Height resolution (High/Low res.)   100m / 400m 
    5193 &lt;br&gt;Height range (High/Low res.)   108m-2015m/ 253m-7937m</dgDescriptionText> 
    5194                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    5195                         </descriptionSection> 
    5196                         <descriptionSection> 
    5197                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    5198                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    5199                                     <name>URI</name> 
    5200                                     <URI>www.metoffice.com/research/interproj/cwinde/profiler/dunkeswell/index.html</URI> 
    5201                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    5202                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    5203                         </descriptionSection> 
    5204                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    5205                     <name>Dunkeswell: Met Office Windprofiler 1290MHz 1</name> 
    5206                     <abbreviation>ukmo-radar-1290mhz-1</abbreviation> 
    5207                 </observationstation> 
    5208                 <observationstation> 
    5209                     <dgMetadataID> 
    5210                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    5211                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    5212                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11635163015111261</localIdentifier> 
    5213                     </dgMetadataID> 
    5214                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    5215                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    5216                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    5217                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    5218                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11635163015111262</localIdentifier> 
    5219                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    5220                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-14</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    5221                         <abstract> 
    5222                             <abstractText>The Wattisham Radian LAP3000 is permanently located at an existing Met Office at RAF Wattisham. This system is an integral part of the UK operational upper air network. Wattisham, like the other UK sites, is configured to operate in two modes. The low mode provides high resolution wind information up to 2km above the surface, while the high mode, with 210m resolution can see up to 8km under appropriate conditions.</abstractText> 
    5223                         </abstract> 
    5224                         <descriptionSection> 
    5225                             <dgDescriptionText>Location Wattisham &lt;br&gt; 
    5226 Coordinates (lat, long, height)52.70°N, 0.058°E, 87m&lt;br&gt; 
    5227 Frequency 1290 MHz,&lt;br&gt; 
    5228 Height resolution (High/Low res.) 102m / 205m&lt;br&gt; 
    5229 Height range (High/Low res.) 239m-2060m/ 347m-8239m&lt;br&gt;</dgDescriptionText> 
    5230                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    5231                         </descriptionSection> 
    5232                         <descriptionSection> 
    5233                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    5234                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    5235                                     <name>URI</name> 
    5236                                     <URI>www.metoffice.com/research/interproj/cwinde/profiler/wattisham/index.html</URI> 
    5237                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    5238                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    5239                         </descriptionSection> 
    5240                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    5241                     <name>Wattisham: Met Office Windprofiler 1290MHz 2</name> 
    5242                     <abbreviation>ukmo-radar-1290mhz-2</abbreviation> 
    5243                 </observationstation> 
    5244                 <observationstation> 
    5245                     <dgMetadataID> 
    5246                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    5247                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    5248                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11739998776417728</localIdentifier> 
    5249                     </dgMetadataID> 
    5250                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    5251                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    5252                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    5253                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    5254                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11739998776417729</localIdentifier> 
    5255                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    5256                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-03-15</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    5257                         <abstract> 
    5258                             <abstractText>Met Office 915MHz Boundary Layer wind profiler or UHF radar which was located at the Aberystwyth MST site before being moved to South Uist.</abstractText> 
    5259                         </abstract> 
    5260                         <descriptionSection> 
    5261                             <dgDescriptionText>The Met Office took an interest in wind-profile data from the NERC MST Radar since the early years of the Facility. They purchased 4 of their own boundary-layer wind-profilers (2 operating at 915 MHz and 2 at 1290 MHz), from Radian, in the late 1990's. One of these (a 915 MHz instrument) was operated at the NERC MST Radar site between 17th November 1999 and 11th March 2002; it has now been relocated to South Uist. These instrument make observations in two interlaced modes; the low mode covers the approximate altitude range 0.1 - 2.0 km at 0.1 km intervals, and the high mode covers the approximate altitude range 0.2 - 8.0 km at 0.2 km intervals. The useful altitude coverage varies with atmospheric conditions and only extends significantly above 2 km when precipitation is present. Although the cycle time for observations is of the order of a few minutes, as for the NERC MST Radar, the data used by the Met Office represent "consensus averages" over 30 minutes.</dgDescriptionText> 
    5262                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    5263                         </descriptionSection> 
    5264                         <descriptionSection> 
    5265                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    5266                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    5267                                     <name>URI</name> 
    5268                                     <URI>mst.nerc.ac.uk/met_off_blwp.html</URI> 
    5269                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    5270                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    5271                         </descriptionSection> 
    5272                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    5273                     <name>Aberystwyth MST site: Met Office wind profiler 915MHz Boundary Layer or UHF radar</name> 
    5274                     <abbreviation>uhf</abbreviation> 
    5275                 </observationstation> 
    5276                 <observationstation> 
    5277                     <dgMetadataID> 
    5278                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    5279                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    5280                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11743282268218146</localIdentifier> 
    5281                     </dgMetadataID> 
    5282                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    5283                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    5284                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    5285                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    5286                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11743282268518147</localIdentifier> 
    5287                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    5288                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-03-19</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    5289                         <abstract> 
    5290                             <abstractText>The South Uist Radian LAP3000 Profiler was installed in 2002 and subsequently relocated to the Isle of Man. The instrument operates at a frequency of 915 Mhz and provides high-resolution wind information from the boundary layer and can see up to 8 km under appropriate conditions.</abstractText> 
    5291                         </abstract> 
    5292                         <descriptionSection> 
    5293                             <dgDescriptionText>Location South Uist&lt;br&gt; 
    5294 &lt;br&gt;Frequency 915.0 MHz 
    5295 &lt;br&gt;Height resolution (High/Low res.) 60 / 200m 
    5296 &lt;br&gt;Height range (High/Low res.) 0.3km to 8.0km 
    5297 &lt;br&gt;Averaging period 30 minutes 
    5298 &lt;br&gt;This instrument was operated at the NERC MST Radar site at Capel Dewi, near Aberystwyth between November 1999 and March 2002; it was then relocated to South Uist until May 2005 and is currently located on the Isle of Man.</dgDescriptionText> 
    5299                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    5300                         </descriptionSection> 
    5301                         <descriptionSection> 
    5302                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    5303                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    5304                                     <name>URI</name> 
    5305                                     <URI/> 
    5306                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    5307                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    5308                         </descriptionSection> 
    5309                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    5310                     <name>South Uist: Met Office Windprofiler 915MHz</name> 
    5311                     <abbreviation>southuist_915_radar</abbreviation> 
    5312                 </observationstation> 
    5313                 <observationstation> 
    5314                     <dgMetadataID> 
    5315                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    5316                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    5317                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11635160903911253</localIdentifier> 
    5318                     </dgMetadataID> 
    5319                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    5320                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    5321                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    5322                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    5323                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11635160903911254</localIdentifier> 
    5324                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    5325                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-14</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    5326                         <abstract> 
    5327                             <abstractText>The profiler was installed at South Uist, Hebrides in May 2003. This system is an integral part of the UK operational upper air network. The LAP's operating frequency is centered at 64 MHz and it is able to provide wind measurements between 1 - 12 km. This is the main upper air sounding system for the Western Isles.</abstractText> 
    5328                         </abstract> 
    5329                         <descriptionSection> 
    5330                             <dgDescriptionText>Location South Uist&lt;br&gt;  
    5331 Coordinates (lat, long, height) 57.35°N, 7.37°W, 4m 
    5332 &lt;br&gt;Frequency 64.0 MHz 
    5333 &lt;br&gt;Height resolution (High/Low res.) 150 / 400m 
    5334 &lt;br&gt;Height range (High/Low res.)1.0km to 13.0km</dgDescriptionText> 
    5335                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    5336                         </descriptionSection> 
    5337                         <descriptionSection> 
    5338                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    5339                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    5340                                     <name>URI</name> 
    5341                                     <URI>www.metoffice.com/research/interproj/cwinde/profiler/suist/index.html</URI> 
    5342                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    5343                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    5344                         </descriptionSection> 
    5345                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    5346                     <name>South Uist: Met Office Windprofiler 64MHz</name> 
    5347                     <abbreviation>ukmo-radar-64mhz-1</abbreviation> 
    5348                 </observationstation> 
    5349                 <observationstation> 
    5350                     <dgMetadataID> 
    5351                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    5352                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    5353                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11635160701811249</localIdentifier> 
    5354                     </dgMetadataID> 
    5355                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    5356                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    5357                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    5358                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    5359                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11635160701911250</localIdentifier> 
    5360                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    5361                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-14</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    5362                         <abstract> 
    5363                             <abstractText>The Isle of Man Radian LAP3000 Profiler was installed in May 2005, located at Meary Veg near Ronaldsway Airport. The instrument operates at a frequency of 915 Mhz and provides high-resolution wind information from the boundary layer and can see up to 8 km under appropriate conditions.</abstractText> 
    5364                         </abstract> 
    5365                         <descriptionSection> 
    5366                             <dgDescriptionText>Location  Isle of Man (formerly at Aberystwyth and South Uist)&lt;br&gt; 
    5367 Coordinates (lat, long, height) 54.06°N, 4.37°W, 55m&lt;br&gt; 
    5368 Frequency 915.0 MHz&lt;br&gt; 
    5369 Height resolution (High/Low res.) 60 / 200m&lt;br&gt; 
    5370 Height range (High/Low res.) 0.3km to 8.0km &lt;br&gt; 
    5371 Averaging period 30 minutes&lt;br&gt; 
    5372 This instrument was operated at the NERC MST Radar site at Capel Dewi, near Aberystwyth between November 1999 and March 2002; it was then relocated to South Uist until May 2005 and is currently located on the Isle of Man.</dgDescriptionText> 
    5373                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    5374                         </descriptionSection> 
    5375                         <descriptionSection> 
    5376                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    5377                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    5378                                     <name>URI</name> 
    5379                                     <URI>www.metoffice.com/research/interproj/cwinde/profiler/i_o_m/index.html</URI> 
    5380                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    5381                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    5382                         </descriptionSection> 
    5383                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    5384                     <name>Isle of Man: Met Office Windprofiler 915MHz</name> 
    5385                     <abbreviation>ukmo-radar-915mhz-2</abbreviation> 
    5386                 </observationstation> 
    5387                 <observationstation> 
    5388                     <dgMetadataID> 
    5389                         <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    5390                         <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    5391                         <localIdentifier>dpt_11734855174816973</localIdentifier> 
    5392                     </dgMetadataID> 
    5393                     <dgMetadataDescription> 
    5394                         <metadataDescriptionID> 
    5395                             <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
    5396                             <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
    5397                             <localIdentifier>metdesc_11734855174816974</localIdentifier> 
    5398                         </metadataDescriptionID> 
    5399                         <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2007-03-10</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
    5400                         <abstract> 
    5401                             <abstractText>The HadCM2 experiments performed at the Hadley Centre have used the new 
    5402 Unified Model (Cullen, 1993).  These experiments represent an advance in 
    5403 the way climate change is modelled by the Hadley Centre and raise new 
    5404 possibilities for climate scenario construction.  The experiments include a 
    5405 long (multi-century) control simulation, a series of four historically 
    5406 forced climate change experiments with high and low anthropogenic forcing 
    5407 scenarios with and without the effects of sulphate aerosols, and for each 
    5408 of these four climate change experiments a set of four ensembles with 
    5409 identical forcing but different initial model conditions.</abstractText> 
    5410                         </abstract> 
    5411                         <descriptionSection> 
    5412                             <dgDescriptionText>HadCM2 has a spatial resolution of 2.5 deg.  x 3.75 deg.  (latitude by longitude) 
    5413 over both land and ocean, which produces a global grid of 96 x 73 grid 
    5414 cells.  This is equivalent to a surface spatial resolution of about 417 km 
    5415 x 278 km, reducing to 295 km x 278 km at 45 deg. North and South (comparable to 
    5416 a spectral resolution of T42).  The model resolves 19 levels in the 
    5417 atmosphere and 20 levels in the ocean.  Four soil layers are represented in 
    5418 the land surface scheme and the hydrology scheme is based on a single moist 
    5419 layer and allows for both surface runoff and soil drainage.  A penetrative 
    5420 convective scheme (Gregory and Rowntree, 1990) is used, modified to include 
    5421 an explicit down-draught.  The large-scale precipitation and cloud scheme 
    5422 is formulated in terms of an explicit cloud water variable following Smith 
    5423 (1990).  Radiative flux calculations follow Slingo and Wilderspin (1986). 
    5424 The surface albedo is a function of snow depth, vegetation type and, over 
    5425 snow and ice only, temperature. 
    5426 &lt;P&gt;The ocean model derives from Cox (1984) and has 20 levels with a maximum 
    5427 resolution near the surface.  A 1-day coupling cycle is used, the oceanic 
    5428 component being updated using daily average fluxes of heat, water and 
    5429 momentum from the atmosphere.  Prescribed adjustments ('flux adjustments') 
    5430 are made to the heat and water fluxes to reduce errors in the simulation of 
    5431 present climate as in Murphy (1995), except that explicit sea-ice 
    5432 adjustments are no longer used.  There is no perceptible drift in global 
    5433 mean surface temperature in the control simulation. 
    5434 &lt;P&gt;The equilibrium climate sensitivity (DT2x) of HadCM2, that is the 
    5435 global-mean temperature response to a doubling of effective CO2 
    5436 concentration, is approximately 2.5 deg. C, although, this quantity varies with 
    5437 the time-scale considered.  This is somewhat lower than most other GCMs.</dgDescriptionText> 
    5438                             <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
    5439                         </descriptionSection> 
    5440                         <descriptionSection> 
    5441                             <descriptionOnlineReference> 
    5442                                 <dgSimpleLink> 
    5443                                     <name>URI</name> 
    5444                                     <URI>ipcc-ddc.cptec.inpe.br/ipccddcbr/html/cru_data/examine/HadCM2_info.html</URI> 
    5445                                 </dgSimpleLink> 
    5446                             </descriptionOnlineReference> 
    5447                         </descriptionSection> 
    5448                     </dgMetadataDescription> 
    5449                     <name>Hadley Centre Coupled Model 2 (HadCM2)</name> 
    5450                     <abbreviation>hadcm2</abbreviation> 
     4034                        <localIdentifier>obs_1163075800259490</localIdentifier> 
     4035                    </dgMetadataID> 
     4036                    <dgMetadataDescription> 
     4037                        <metadataDescriptionID> 
     4038                            <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     4039                            <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     4040                            <localIdentifier>metdesc_1163075800259491</localIdentifier> 
     4041                        </metadataDescriptionID> 
     4042                        <metadataDescriptionLastUpdated>2006-11-09</metadataDescriptionLastUpdated> 
     4043                        <abstract> 
     4044                            <abstractText>The Met Office site on the Isle of Man is located at Meary Veg near Ronaldsway Airport.</abstractText> 
     4045                        </abstract> 
     4046                        <descriptionSection> 
     4047                            <dgDescriptionText>Latitude: 54.06° N, Longitude: 4.37° W 
     4048Height: 55 m</dgDescriptionText> 
     4049                            <contentType>text/plain</contentType> 
     4050                        </descriptionSection> 
     4051                        <descriptionSection> 
     4052                            <descriptionOnlineReference> 
     4053                                <dgSimpleLink> 
     4054                                    <name>URI</name> 
     4055                                    <URI/> 
     4056                                </dgSimpleLink> 
     4057                            </descriptionOnlineReference> 
     4058                        </descriptionSection> 
     4059                    </dgMetadataDescription> 
     4060                    <name>Isle of Man, Met Office site</name> 
     4061                    <abbreviation/> 
    54514062                </observationstation> 
    54524063            </obsStnList> 
    54534064            <dataEntityList/> 
     4065            <rawDeployments> 
     4066                <ActivityDeployment> 
     4067                    <DateStart>1963-01-01</DateStart> 
     4068                    <DateEnd>1973-12-31</DateEnd> 
     4069                    <dgMetadataID> 
     4070                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     4071                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     4072                        <localIdentifier>dep_11682921846912220</localIdentifier> 
     4073                    </dgMetadataID> 
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     4090                <ActivityDeployment> 
     4091                    <DateStart>1963-01-01</DateStart> 
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     4099                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     4100                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     4101                        <localIdentifier>activity_11680365144712080</localIdentifier> 
     4102                    </ActivityID> 
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     4105                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
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     4109                        <schemeIdentifier>NDG-B0</schemeIdentifier> 
     4110                        <repositoryIdentifier>badc.nerc.ac.uk</repositoryIdentifier> 
     4111                        <localIdentifier>obs_116291488219354</localIdentifier> 
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     4113                </ActivityDeployment> 
     4114                <ActivityDeployment> 
     4115                    <DateStart>1997-01-01</DateStart> 
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