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1<html><head><title>SOLVE DATA ARCHIVE TUTORIAL</title>
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15<br>
16<center><h1>Format Specification for Data Exchange</h1></center>
17<p>&nbsp;</p>
18<center><h3>By</h3></center>
19<p>&nbsp;</p>
20
21<center><h2>Steven E. Gaines &nbsp;&nbsp; R. Stephen Hipskind</h2></center>
22<p>&nbsp;</p>
23<p>&nbsp;</p>
24<center><h2>Version 1.3</h2></center>
25<center><h2>18 June 1998</h2></center>
26<p>&nbsp;</p>
27<center><p>&nbsp;</p>
28<table width="50%">
29<tbody><tr><td>Version 1:</td><td>16 May 1990</td></tr>
30<tr><td>Version 1.1:</td><td>6 February 1992</td></tr>
31<tr><td>Version 1.2:</td><td>12 January 1998</td></tr>
32</tbody></table></center>
33<center><table width="50%">
34<tbody><tr><td colspan="2" align="center">R.S.H.</td></tr>
35<tr><td>Voice:</td><td>650/604-5076</td></tr>
36<tr><td>FAX:</td><td>650/604-3625</td></tr>
37<tr><td>Email:</td><td>hipskind@cloud1.arc.nasa.gov</td></tr>
38<tr><td><br></td></tr>
39<tr><td colspan="2" align="center">S.E.G.</td></tr>
40<tr><td>Voice:</td><td>650/604-4546</td></tr>
41<tr><td>FAX:</td><td>650/604-3625</td></tr>
42<tr><td>Email:</td><td>gaines@cloud1.arc.nasa.gov</td></tr>
43</tbody></table></center>
44<p>&nbsp;</p>
45<center><h2>Contents</h2></center>
46<p>&nbsp;</p>
47<ol id="con" type="i">
48<li id="con"> Preface to Version 1.3
49</li><li id="con"> Preface to Version 1.2
50</li><li id="con"> Preface
51</li></ol>
52<ol id="con" type="1">
53<li id="con"> Introduction
54</li><li id="con"> Concepts and Structures
55</li><li id="con"> Implementation Considerations
56</li><li id="con"> Notation
57</li><li id="con"> Definitions
58</li><li id="con"> ASCII File Format Specifications
59<ol id="con" start="6">
60<li id="con">1 Summary of data record formats
61</li></ol>
62</li><li id="con"> Examples
63</li></ol>
64<p>&nbsp;</p>
65<p>&nbsp;</p>
66<center><h2>Preface to Version 1.3</h2></center>
67<p>
68The file format standards defined in Version 1.3 are the same as those
69in previous versions. The main change in this version is the
70elimination of the Section on file naming conventions, and the
71renumbering of the remaining Sections and pages. The file formats are
72independent of any particular file naming scheme, so the description of
73the file naming convention has been moved to a separate document.
74</p>
75<p>&nbsp;</p>
76<center><h2>Preface to Version 1.2</h2></center>
77<p>
78            The file format standards defined in Version 1.2 are the same
79       as those in the two previous versions.  The major changes in this
80       version are to emphasize the requirement that independent
81       variables be monotonic, and to slightly change the notation for
82       several parameters to show their dependence on the unbounded
83       independent variable.  In previous versions those dependencies
84       have been implied, and shown by examples, but not clearly stated.
85</p>
86<p>
87            Other minor changes have been made throughout the text to
88       help clarify the concepts and requirements of the format
89       standards, and variable definitions in some of the examples have
90       been condensed.  We appreciate the feedback we have received from
91       users of the exchange files, and have used it as a guide for
92       clarifying the standards.
93</p>
94<p>&nbsp;</p>
95<center><h2>Preface</h2></center>
96<p>
97            This document specifies format standards to be used to
98       facilitate data exchange for aircraft missions managed by the
99       Earth Science Division at NASA Ames Research Center.  It is
100       intended as a reference document for creating experimental
101       datasets.  The standards should be adhered to in all exchange
102       files being contributed to the project archive, including
103       instrumental measurements, theoretical calculations and
104       operational data.  It is important that the person responsible for
105       actually generating a given dataset refer to this document when
106       determining the format for that dataset.  It is the responsibility
107       of the principal investigator or team leader to make sure that the
108       appropriate people have access to this document and that their
109       data conform to the format standards.
110</p>
111<p>
112            The specifications described in this document grew out of an
113       effort beginning with the 1987 Stratosphere Troposphere Exchange
114       Project (STEP) to put the experimental aircraft data on a medium
115       and in a format that would be accessible to all experiment
116       participants during the field experiment.  Flight planning could
117       then take into account the data from a previous flight, increasing
118       the likelihood of meeting the overall goals and objectives of a
119       given campaign.  The standards developed for STEP were also used
120       in the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) and the
121       1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE).  The basic
122       premise in specifying format standards was to create
123       self-descriptive datasets using a prescribed header structure to
124       contain information about the data in a given file.
125</p>
126<p>
127            The STEP experiment used only the ER-2 aircraft and consisted
128       primarily of in situ, time series data.  It was this single
129       dimensional data for which the original format specification was
130       written.  The use of remote sensing instruments on both the DC-8
131       and ER-2, and the generation of model output files creates
132       multi-dimensional data which do not fit well into that original
133       format.  To better account for the variety of data, we have
134       formalized some of the original concepts and have extended the
135       requirements for header information to more adequately
136       characterize the data.  The file header now must include explicit
137       specification of data dimensionality.  We have also allowed for a
138       more flexible specification of the data structure by the use of a
139       file format index, described in the text.
140</p>
141<p>
142            In writing this new format specification, a conscious effort
143       was made to retain much of the progress made in past experiments
144       towards creating an environment of free data exchange.  We have
145       tried to build a logical extension to the original concepts rather
146       than making a radical departure from them.  Those with experience
147       in the previous experiments (STEP, AAOE and AASE) should recognize
148       that, in many cases, the format for their exchange files will
149       remain much the same under these new specifications with only
150       relatively minor, but important, changes to the header entries.
151</p>
152<p>
153            We want to acknowledge the fact that this document is the
154       product of interactions between the authors and the experiment
155       participants; indeed, the idea of data exchange standards was
156       originally driven by a consensus of the participants, not by the
157       "data managers".  We appreciate the feedback that we have
158       received, both written and oral, and have incorporated many of the
159       suggestions into the final document.  We also want to encourage
160       everyone to feel free to contact us if they have any questions,
161       problems or suggestions.
162</p>
163<p>&nbsp;</p>
164<p>&nbsp;</p>
165<center><h2>1</h2></center>
166<center><h2>Introduction</h2></center>
167<p>
168            This document describes a conceptual framework for specifying
169       exchange data formats, and then gives a detailed description of
170       the standard formats (although there are very important
171       distinctions between measured quantities and those resulting from
172       mathematical model calculations, for simplicity, the two will
173       often be loosely termed "data").  Those considering writing
174       exchange files must review the format options presented in this
175       document and determine the format most suitable for recording
176       their data.  If none are deemed suitable, consult with the project
177       archive manager to define a new format option.  New file formats
178       will be circulated to project participants as addenda to this
179       document.
180</p>
181<p>The primary goal of instituting format standards for data exchange
182is to promote accessibility and ease of use of a variety of datasets
183from different instruments, platforms and numerical models. The
184specific goals of the proposed system are:
185</p><ul>
186<li> The exchange files must be readable on all computer systems
187commonly in use. These include PC's (MS DOS), Apple Macs, DEC VMS and
188Unix systems.<br><br>
189
190</li><li> The exchange files must be self describing, such that the
191information needed to read the data is contained in an order dependent
192file header, and the minimum information required to analyze the
193particular dataset is contained within the file.<br><br>
194
195</li><li> Maintain as much compatibility as possible with existing
196formats from previous experiments, while allowing flexibility to handle
197new datasets and formats.<br><br>
198
199</li><li> Minimize the amount of software required to access diverse
200datasets by categorizing the datasets and allowing a minimal number of
201data formats.<br><br>
202</li></ul>
203<p></p>
204<p>
205            The complexity of any system of standards increases with
206       increasing generality.  This standard represents a compromise
207       between simplicity and generality.  The generality of the proposed
208       system stems from the incorporation of a file format index which,
209       by referencing pre-defined format options, defines the format of
210       both the file header and the data records.  Thus, new file formats
211       can be incorporated at a future time without changing those
212       defined in this document.  The complexity of this system increases
213       with the number of file formats, so an attempt has been made to
214       minimize the number of format options while at the same time
215       accommodate the existing standard data formats from previous
216       experiments; the file header formats are, however, different from
217       the older standards.
218</p>
219<p>
220            An additional advantage of standardized file formats is that
221       the data files can more easily be checked for format errors.
222       Plans for future field experiments include computer programs to
223       check the format of each data file as part of the procedure for
224       submittal to the data archive.
225</p>
226<p>
227           The system described here assumes that all exchange files are
228       in ASCII, because ASCII coded files are the most universally
229       readable across computer systems from different vendors.  It is
230       anticipated that the same standards can be extended to include
231       binary files as well.  However, before that can be done, a
232       convention for external data representation must be agreed upon
233       due to the differences in internal representation on different
234       machines.  A special naming convention for binary files would also
235       have to be adopted.
236</p>
237<p>
238            Section 2 describes the basic structure of the data files,
239       the types of variables, and how they regulate the format
240       specifications.  Section 3 describes some precautionary measures
241       to ensure readable files.  The array and implied loop notation
242       used to specify the formats are defined in Section 4, and a
243       collection of definitions of the variables and terminology is
244       contained in Section 5.  The file format specifications are given
245       in Section 6, with a summary of data record formats at the end of
246       the Section.  An example of each standard format is given in
247       Section 7.  Since any particular format option can accommodate a
248       variety of types of data, the concepts, terminology, and format
249       specifications are first presented in an abstract manner so not to
250       bias or narrow their definition.  The examples in Section 7 are
251       included to provide a tangible link between the abstract
252       definitions and actual exchange data files.  It will, therefore,
253       be useful to refer to these examples while (or before) reading the
254       rest of this document.
255</p>
256<p>&nbsp;</p>
257<center><h2>2</h2></center>
258<center><h2>Concepts and Structures</h2></center>
259<p>
260            The reason for writing an exchange file is to convey some
261       measured, calculated, or otherwise derived quantity, which will be
262       called the PRIMARY variable.  There may be more than one PRIMARY
263       variable in a given exchange file.  In addition, there may be some
264       ancillary information concerning the measurement, calculation, or
265       interpretation of the PRIMARY variables or the data records
266       containing their values.  These secondary quantities will be
267       referred to as AUXILIARY variables.  Usually the inclusion of
268       AUXILIARY variables is optional, but there are some format options
269       in which they are required because they provide information about
270       the ensuing data records.  Both PRIMARY and AUXILIARY variables
271       are considered as dependent variables, and are always recorded
272       with reference to at least one INDEPENDENT variable.  INDEPENDENT
273       variables can be time, spatial coordinates, index values, or any
274       other monotonic quantity that can be used to uniquely identify a
275       particular PRIMARY variable value.  Each INDEPENDENT variable
276       represents a dimension on which the PRIMARY variables are
277       dependent.  PRIMARY variables are considered as discrete functions
278       of the INDEPENDENT variables, whereas AUXILIARY variables are
279       associated with an explicitly recorded INDEPENDENT variable.
280</p>
281<p>
282            The information recorded within exchange files is of two
283       types, either numeric or character string.  Character strings may
284       contain any printable ASCII character (ASCII decimal values
285       between 32 and 126 inclusive), whereas numeric values are
286       restricted to characters 0 through 9, the plus sign, the minus
287       sign, the period, and the letter E used in exponential notation.
288       Except for the purpose noted in Section 3, an exchange file must
289       not contain non-printable ASCII characters.  The non-printable
290       characters have ASCII decimal values of 0 through 31, and values
291       greater than 126.
292</p>
293<p>
294            Each exchange file has a file header which conveys
295       information about the PRIMARY, AUXILIARY, and INDEPENDENT
296       variables, and the order in which they are recorded in the file.
297       Rather than attempt to pre-define a single file header format
298       which accounts for all existing data formats, as well as any
299       future formats, a File Format Index (FFI) is used to uniquely
300       define the exchange file format.  By reference to pre-defined
301       format options, the value of the FFI determines the number of
302       INDEPENDENT variables, whether the values of the INDEPENDENT and
303       dependent variables are numeric or character string, the format of
304       the file header, and the format of the data records.
305</p>
306<p>
307            Included in the file header are descriptions and/or units of
308       measure for the INDEPENDENT, PRIMARY, and AUXILIARY variables.
309       All variables must be defined in the records in which they are
310       expected to appear, and cannot be omitted or have blank spaces
311       substituted for their values.  Associated with each PRIMARY and
312       AUXILIARY variable is a "missing" value to denote missing or
313       erroneous data values.  These missing values must be larger than
314       any "good" data values recorded within the file so that a simple
315       test on the magnitude of a data value will determine if it
316       represents missing or usable data.  A scale factor is associated
317       with each numeric PRIMARY and AUXILIARY variable.  The scale
318       factors are included to encourage recording of the data as scaled
319       whole numbers, without a decimal point or exponential notation,
320       and thus reduce the size of the file.  There are no scale factors
321       or missing values for the INDEPENDENT variables.
322</p>
323<p>
324            The order in which the PRIMARY and AUXILIARY variables are
325       defined in the file header is the same order in which they are
326       recorded in the data records.  The order in which the INDEPENDENT
327       variables are defined in the file header determines the dependence
328       of the PRIMARY variables on the INDEPENDENT variables and,
329       therefore, the manner in which the PRIMARY variables are recorded.
330       The recorded dependence of the PRIMARY variables on the
331       INDEPENDENT variables is such that, from the point of view of
332       writing the data records, the most rapidly varying dimension is
333       listed first in the file header, and the most slowly varying
334       dimension is listed last.
335</p>
336<p>
337            If the number of values in the most slowly varying dimension
338       is not pre-determined (as with the time dimension in many cases)
339       then it is termed the unbounded dimension.  Of necessity, only one
340       dimension, or INDEPENDENT variable, can be unbounded, while the
341       others, if any, must be bounded.  The number of values in the
342       bounded dimensions are defined in either the file header or the
343       data records.  Values of the unbounded INDEPENDENT variable are
344       explicitly recorded at pre-determined locations within the data
345       records and are termed INDEPENDENT VARIABLE MARKS.  The AUXILIARY
346       variables, if any, are specified immediately after the INDEPENDENT
347       VARIABLE MARKS, either within the same record or the subsequent
348       records.  The unbounded INDEPENDENT variable must be a monotonic
349       quantity.  The bounded INDEPENDENT variables, for a given
350       INDEPENDENT VARIABLE MARK, must also be monotonic.
351</p>
352<p>
353            As an illustration, consider airborne lidar measurements of
354       ozone, recorded as a time sequence of vertical profiles of ozone.
355       For this example, ozone number density is the PRIMARY variable,
356       altitude above Earth's surface is the bounded INDEPENDENT
357       variable, and a monotonic measure of time is the unbounded
358       INDEPENDENT variable.  The same records which contain time may
359       also contain AUXILIARY variables.  Since ozone values at all
360       recorded altitudes are read for each time mark, the dependence on
361       altitude is considered the more rapidly varying dependence, so
362       altitude is the first INDEPENDENT variable defined in the file
363       header; time is defined second in the file header.  An examination
364       of the standard formats in Section 6 reveals that there are
365       several file formats which could accommodate the data in this
366       example, the selection of the most appropriate format depends on
367       the nature of the altitude measurements.  If the values of
368       altitude are constant then FFI 2010 could be used, with the
369       monotonic, constant altitudes defined in the file header.  In this
370       instance, AUXILIARY variables are optional, but one may wish to
371       include additional information, say, aircraft longitude and
372       latitude, in the AUXILIARY variable list.  If the altitude values
373       are variable, but the interval between the altitudes is constant,
374       then FFI 2310 is more appropriate.  In this instance the number of
375       altitudes, base altitude value, and altitude increment are
376       supplied in the AUXILIARY variable list.  If the altitude values
377       and the intervals between altitudes are variable then FFI 2110 is
378       the most appropriate option, with the number of altitudes given in
379       the AUXILIARY variable list, and the altitude values read from the
380       records containing the ozone values.  In these last two instances
381       (FFI 2310, 2110), the indicated AUXILIARY variables are required,
382       in the sense that they provide necessary information for reading
383       subsequent data records, but one still has the option to include
384       additional AUXILIARY variables.  Also, the values of the bounded
385       INDEPENDENT variable (altitude) in FFI 2110 and 2310 can be
386       different for each INDEPENDENT VARIABLE MARK (time mark) and,
387       therefore, are dependent on the unbounded INDEPENDENT VARIABLE.
388       For each time mark the altitude values must be monotonic.
389</p>
390<p>
391            The file header also contains information on the originators
392       of the exchange file and their affiliations, the source of the
393       PRIMARY variables, the mission which the data supports, and (by
394       popular demand) the number of lines in the file header.  The
395       originators will often be the principal investigators for a
396       particular instrument or model simulation, and the instrument and
397       platform, or model, will be the source.  At the beginning of each
398       mission, a mission name will be decided upon and used in all
399       exchange files.
400</p>
401<p>
402            Also included, are the date for which the data applies, the
403       date the data was reduced or revised (not necessarily the date the
404       file was written, although the two may be the same), the volume
405       number for the exchange file, and the total number of volumes
406       required to record the complete dataset.  For large datasets
407       requiring more than one volume of the medium on which they are
408       written (diskette, etc.), the data are continued in a new file, on
409       a new volume, and after a file header with an incremented volume
410       counter (see IVOL, NVOL in Section 5).
411</p>
412<p>
413            There are allowances for three types of comments in the file
414       header.  Two of these comment types have reserved locations within
415       the file header, and are associated with counters defining the
416       number of lines occupied by each type of comment.  The first type
417       is for more complete descriptions of the variables, instrument, or
418       other comments that apply in general to all of a particular kind
419       of dataset; these are called normal comments.  The second type,
420       called special comments, are reserved to note special problems or
421       circumstances concerning the data within a specific exchange file.
422       If the exchange file is a revised dataset then it is recommended
423       that the special comments describe how it differs from the
424       previous version of the dataset.  The third type of comments are
425       merely annotations which may follow numeric values; these comments
426       must be contained on the same line as, and separated by at least
427       one space from the last numeric value expected in the record.
428       They should not be included in lines containing character values
429       because the annotations can not easily be separated from the
430       character string values.
431</p>
432<p>
433            The data records immediately follow the file header records
434       and continue to the end of the file.  One or more spaces (ASCII
435       decimal value 32) delimit successive numeric values within a line
436       in both the file header and the data records.
437</p>
438<p>&nbsp;</p>
439<center><h2>3</h2></center>
440<center><h2>Implementation Considerations</h2></center>
441<p>
442            Even though an ASCII file is the most universally readable
443       type of file, there are differences in the way different operating
444       systems define the end of a line for ASCII text files.  Therefore,
445       some consideration must be given to the way in which files are
446       transferred between machines with different operating systems.
447</p>
448<p>
449            MS DOS uses the ASCII characters for carriage return <cr> and
450       line feed <lf> to terminate each line, Macintosh uses just <cr>,
451       Unix uses just <lf>, whereas VAX/VMS has control words at the
452       beginning of each line which give the number of characters in the
453       line.  It is, therefore, impracticable to write an ASCII file
454       which will appear as a native to every operating system.  If
455       inter-system file transfers are performed using some of the
456       "standard" file transfer software (Kermit, FTP, DECnet-DOS, etc.)
457       then the conversion to the appropriate end-of-line designator is
458       done automatically during the file transfer, assuming it is not a
459       bit for bit (binary) transfer.  But if the file is written to some
460       storage medium (diskette, tape, compact disc, etc.) under one
461       operating system, and read from the medium by another operating
462       system, then it may be necessary to rewrite or edit the file to a
463       form with the appropriate end-of-line designator.  Analogous to
464       the end-of-line designator, the end-of-file designator differs
465       with different operating systems, but is appropriately converted
466       using standard file transfer software.
467</lf></cr></lf></cr></p>
468<p>
469            There is currently no convenient solution to the above stated
470       dilemma.  It is mentioned mainly to alert originators and users of
471       exchange files to the potential problems with transferring ASCII
472       files between different operating systems.  In the past, the MS
473       DOS designators have been the convention for transferring files
474       via diskette and compact disc, but this may change as technology
475       and industry standards change.  In any case, prior to each
476       mission, the mode of file transfer, and the acceptable end-of-line
477       and end-of-file designators, will be decided upon and communicated
478       to the project participants.
479</p>
480<p>
481            Except for the purpose of preparing a file for use on a
482       different operating system, there must not be any extraneous
483       non-printable ASCII characters within an exchange file.  The
484       non-printable characters have ASCII decimal values of 0 through
485       31, and values greater than 126.  For similar reasons, exchange
486       files must not be Fortran output files with Fortran carriage
487       control characters embedded within the file.
488</p>
489<p>
490            Programming languages impose limitations on record length,
491       magnitudes of integer and real numbers, and precision of real
492       numbers.  To comply with limitations in the most commonly used
493       environments, the maximum record length in exchange files is 32766
494       characters.  It is suggested that all numeric values be limited to
495       seven significant digits within the magnitude range of 1.0E-38 to
496       1.0E+38.
497</p>
498<p>
499            For numeric data, there should be an adequate number of
500       digits to resolve the anticipated precision, but in the interest
501       of minimizing the file size, the number of digits should not be
502       larger than necessary.  Also, unnecessary records of missing
503       values should not be used to pad the beginning or end of the data
504       section of an exchange file.  If, for example, the data from an
505       airborne instrument begins 10 minutes after takeoff, and
506       terminates 10 minutes before landing, it is unnecessary to include
507       10 minutes of missing values before the data begins and after it
508       terminates.
509</p>
510<p>&nbsp;</p>
511<center><h2>4</h2></center>
512<center><h2>Notation</h2></center>
513<p>
514            The array and implied loop notation, used to generalize the
515       exchange file format definitions given in Section 6, will now be
516       explained.  The notation is merely a convenient means of
517       specifying the file formats, and not intended to indicate useful
518       or desirable array structures in computer programs.
519</p>
520<p>
521            Quantities enclosed in square brackets [ ] are read with one
522       "read" statement and, therefore, the quantities occupy one record
523       which may exceed one line.  One or more quantities appearing in a
524       line, and not enclosed in square brackets, are read as one record
525       and constitute one line in the exchange file.  Similar comments
526       apply to writing the records, but the descriptions which follow in
527       this Section are from the perspective of reading the records.
528</p>
529<p>
530            The indices act merely as counters to indicate the dependence
531       of some variable, but several indices are consistently used for
532       special purposes.  The index m is always used to count independent
533       variable marks, and the implied loop over m is unbounded.  The
534       index s is the counter for the independent variables (dimensions),
535       n for the primary variables, and a for the auxiliary variables.
536       The usage of other indices (i,j,k) is less consistent, but usually
537       they are counters for the bounded independent variable values.
538</p>
539<p>
540            Consider the array X, which contains values of the
541       independent variables on which the primary variables are
542       dependent.  To reference a specific array element we write X(2,1).
543       To reference a general array element we write X(i,s), where i and
544       s can assume any allowable values.  To indicate the allowable
545       range of values for i and s we write X(i,s), i=1,NX(s), s=1,NIV;
546       which states that s may take on integer values of 1 to NIV, and i
547       may assume integer values of 1 to NX(s), the value of NX depending
548       on the value of s.  NIV is the number of independent variables,
549       and NX(s) is the number of values for the s-th independent
550       variable.
551</p>
552<p>
553            Now consider the array V(X,n), which contains values of the
554       primary variables as functions of two independent variables.
555       Since NIV=2, V(X,n) may also be expressed as V(X(i,1),X(m,2),n),
556       or simply as V(i,m,n).  To completely specify the contents of V we
557       write V(i,m,n), i=1,NX(1), n=1,NV, where NV is the number of
558       primary variables, and NX(1) is the number of bounded independent
559       variable values.  It is implied that m can pertain to any
560       independent variable mark within the file.
561</p>
562<p>
563            For reading data records, the implied loop notation has a
564       slightly different meaning, because then it implies that during
565       the read operation the loop index will sequentially take on the
566       values dictated by the loop limits.  If the terminal value of a
567       loop is smaller than the initial value, the implication is that
568       the loop is not executed.  Let the general expression for the data
569       format be:<br><br>
570
571       [ X(m,2)  ( A(m,a), a=1,NAUXV ) ]<br>
572       [ V(i,m,n), i=1,NX(1) ]  n=1,NV<br>
573</p>
574<p>
575            In the above expressions X(m,2) represents the m-th
576       independent variable mark for the unbounded independent variable;
577       A(m,a) is the value of the a-th auxiliary variable at the m-th
578       independent variable mark; and V(i,m,n) is the value of the n-th
579       primary variable at the m-th independent variable mark and i-th
580       bounded independent variable value.  NAUXV is the number of
581       auxiliary variables.
582</p>
583<p>
584            The square brackets enclosing the first line of the
585       expression indicate that an independent variable mark and NAUXV
586       auxiliary variables are read as one record which may span more
587       than one line.  The second line of the expression is to be
588       interpreted to mean that for the m-th independent variable mark
589       there are NV records of primary variables, which will be read with
590       n starting at a value of 1, incrementing by one for each record,
591       and ending with a value of NV for the last record.  The notation
592       within the square brackets indicates that, for each record, NX(1)
593       values of the n-th primary variable at the m-th independent
594       variable mark are read.  In this case, the constant values of the
595       bounded independent variable (X(i,1), i=1,NX(1)) are read from the
596       file header.
597</p>
598<p>
599            To be more specific, assume there are three auxiliary
600       variables (NAUXV=3), two primary variables (NV=2), and four values
601       for the bounded independent variable (NX(1)=4).  Given these
602       values for the loop limits, the general expressions for the data
603       format imply the following record structure (the intra-record
604       spacing between values is merely for clarity):<br><br>
605
606       [ X(m,2)    A(m,1)    A(m,2)    A(m,3) ]<br>
607       [  V(1,m,1)    V(2,m,1)    V(3,m,1)  V(4,m,1) ]<br>
608       [  V(1,m,2)    V(2,m,2)    V(3,m,2)    V(4,m,2) ]<br>
609       [ X(m+1,2)  A(m+1,1)  A(m+1,2)  A(m+1,3) ]<br>
610       [  V(1,m+1,1)  V(2,m+1,1)  V(3,m+1,1)  V(4,m+1,1) ]<br>
611       [  V(1,m+1,2)  V(2,m+1,2)  V(3,m+1,2)  V(4,m+1,2) ]<br>
612       [ X(m+2,2)  A(m+2,1)  A(m+2,2)  A(m+2,3) ]<br>
613       etc., etc.
614</p>
615<p>
616            If, for the sake of illustration, NAUXV=0 then according to
617       the loop limits in the general expressions for the data format
618       given above, the terminal value of the loop would be smaller than
619       the initial value.  The implication would then be that no
620       auxiliary variables were present in the file and, therefore, none
621       would be read from the file.  The data records would remain the
622       same as those in the above example, with the exception that there
623       would be no auxiliary variables in the records containing the
624       independent variable marks.
625</p>
626<p>&nbsp;</p>
627<center><h2>5</h2></center>
628<center><h2>Definitions</h2></center>
629<p>
630</p><dl>
631<dt>A(m,a):</dt><dd> value of the a-th auxiliary variable at the m-th
632independent variable mark (a=1,NAUXV). If A(m,a) is real, the use of
633scaled whole numbers is encouraged.
634</dd><dt>AMISS(a):</dt><dd> a quantity indicating missing or erroneous
635data for the a-th auxiliary variable. The value of AMISS(a) must be
636larger than any "good" value of A(m,a) recorded in the file. The value
637of AMISS(a) defined in the file header is the same value that appears
638in the data records for missing/bad values of A(m,a).
639</dd><dt>ANAME(a):</dt><dd> a character string specifying the name
640and/or description of the a-th auxiliary variable, on one line and not
641exceeding 132 characters. Include units of measure the data will have
642after multiplying by the a-th scale factor, ASCAL(a). The order in
643which the auxiliary variable names are listed in the file header is the
644same order in which the auxiliary variables are read from the data
645records, and the same order in which the auxiliary variable scale
646factors and missing values are read from the file header records.
647</dd><dt>ASCAL(a):</dt><dd> scale factor (real) by which one
648multiplies recorded values of the a-th auxiliary variable to convert
649them to the units specified in ANAME(a).
650</dd><dt>character string:</dt><dd> a string of at most 132 printable
651ASCII characters occupying one line of an exchange file. The printable
652ASCII characters have ASCII decimal values between 32 and 126
653inclusive.
654</dd><dt>DATE:</dt><dd> UT date at which the data within the exchange
655file begins. For aircraft data files DATE is the UT date of takeoff.
656DATE is in the form YYYY MM DD (year, month, day) with each integer
657value separated by at least one space. For example: 1989 1 16 or 1989
65801 16 for 16 January 1989.
659</dd><dt>DX(s):</dt><dd> interval (real) between values of the s-th
660independent variable, X(i,s), i=1,NX(s); in the same units as specified
661in XNAME(s). DX(s) is zero for a non-uniform interval. DX(s) is
662non-zero for a constant interval. If DX(s) is non-zero then it is
663required that NX(s) = (X(NX(s),s)-X(1,s)) / DX(s) + 1. For some file
664formats the value of DX also depends on the unbounded independent
665variable and is expressed as DX(m,s).
666</dd><dt>FFI:</dt><dd> file format index (integer). The FFI uniquely
667defines the file header and data formats. It is the second value
668recorded on the first line of an exchange file. The first (left-most)
669digit in the FFI gives the number of independent variables listed in
670the file header, the second digit gives the number of required (in the
671sense that they are necessary for reading the subsequent data records)
672auxiliary variables. The remaining digits are used to loosely associate
673file formats with similar characteristics.
674</dd><dt>independent variable mark:</dt><dd> a value of the unbounded
675independent variable which is explicitly recorded in the data records.
676Independent variable marks must be monotonic.
677</dd><dt>integer:</dt><dd> a whole number written without a decimal point.  Leading zeros are insignificant.
678
679</dd><dt>IVOL:</dt><dd> volume number (integer) of the total number of
680volumes required to store a complete dataset, assuming only one file
681per volume. To be used in conjunction with NVOL to allow data exchange
682of large datasets requiring more than one volume of the exchange medium
683(diskette, etc.).
684</dd><dt>LENA(a):</dt><dd> integer number of characters used to record
685auxiliary variable A(m,a) when A(m,a) is represented as a character
686string. The value of LENA(a) must be less than 133.
687</dd><dt>LENX(s):</dt><dd> integer number of characters used to record
688independent variable X(i,s) when X(i,s) is represented as a character
689string. The value of LENX(s) must be less than 133.
690</dd><dt>line:</dt><dd> refers to a string of printable ASCII
691characters within an exchange file, terminated by the appropriate
692end-of-line (or new line) designator for the operating system on which
693the file resides. The maximum number of printable characters per line
694is 132.
695</dd><dt>MNAME:</dt><dd> a character string specifying the mission
696which the data is supporting, on one line and not exceeding 132
697characters. The appropriate value for MNAME will be decided upon prior
698to the start of the mission.
699</dd><dt>NAUXC:</dt><dd> number of auxiliary variables (integer) whose
700values are recorded as character strings. If NAUXC=0 then no auxiliary
701variables are recorded as character strings.
702</dd><dt>NAUXV:</dt><dd> number of auxiliary variables (integer). If
703NAUXV=0 then no auxiliary variables are recorded and no missing values,
704scale factors, or names for the auxiliary variables are present in the
705file header.
706</dd><dt>NCOM(k):</dt><dd> a character string containing the k-th normal comment line (k=1,NNCOML).
707
708</dd><dt>NIV:</dt><dd> number of independent variables (integer) on which the primary variables are dependent.
709
710</dd><dt>NLHEAD:</dt><dd> number of lines (integer) composing the file header.  NLHEAD is the first recorded value on the first line of an exchange file.
711
712</dd><dt>NNCOML:</dt><dd> number of normal comment lines (integer)
713within the file header, including blank lines and data column headers,
714etc. Normal comments are those which apply to all of a particular kind
715of dataset, and can be used to more completely describe the contents of
716the file. If NNCOML=0 then there are no normal comment lines.
717</dd><dt>NSCOML:</dt><dd> number of special comment lines (integer)
718within the file header. Special comments are reserved to note special
719problems or circumstances concerning the data within a specific
720exchange file so they may easily be found and flagged by those reading
721the file. If NSCOML=0 then there are no special comment lines.
722</dd><dt>NV:</dt><dd> number of primary variables in the exchange file (integer).
723
724</dd><dt>NVOL:</dt><dd> total number of volumes (integer) required to
725store the complete dataset, assuming one file per volume. If NVOL&gt;1
726then each volume must contain a file header with an incremented value
727for IVOL, and continue the data records with monotonic independent
728variable marks.
729</dd><dt>NVPM(s):</dt><dd> integer number of independent variable
730values between independent variable marks, for the s-th independent
731variable. NVPM(s) = (X(m+1,s)-X(m,s)) / DX(s).
732</dd><dt>NX(s):</dt><dd> number of values (integer) for the s-th
733independent variable. If NX(s) is defined in the file header then it
734represents the constant number of values for the s-th independent
735variable. Otherwise, NX=NX(m,s) is defined in the data records and its
736values can vary with the independent variable marks. In the case of an
737unbounded independent variable, NX(NIV) is never specified in the file
738but the values of X(m,NIV) are read from the data records (independent
739variable marks).
740</dd><dt>NXDEF(s):</dt><dd> number of values (integer) of the s-th
741independent variable which are explicitly defined in the file header.
742If NXDEF(s)=NX(s) then all values of X(i,s), i=1,NX(s) are recorded in
743the file header. If NXDEF(s)=1 then only the first value, X(1,s), is
744recorded in the file header and the remaining values of X(i,s) are
745calculated as X(i,s) = X(1,s) + (i-1) * DX(s) for i=2,NX(s).
746</dd><dt>ONAME:</dt><dd> a character string specifying the name(s) of
747the originator(s) of the exchange file, last name first. On one line
748and not exceeding 132 characters.
749</dd><dt>ORG:</dt><dd> character string specifying the organization or
750affiliation of the originator of the exchange file. Can include
751address, phone number, email address, etc. On one line and not
752exceeding 132 characters.
753</dd><dt>RDATE:</dt><dd> date of data reduction or revision, in the same form as DATE.
754
755</dd><dt>real:</dt><dd> a real valued number that may include a decimal
756point or be written in exponential notation. It is preferred that the
757values of real numbers be limited to seven significant digits within
758the magnitude range of 1.0E-38 to 1.0E+38.
759</dd><dt>record:</dt><dd> a logical record to be read by one "read"
760statement. The maximum record length is 32766 characters with a maximum
761of 132 characters per line. The first character of a record is also the
762first character of a line.
763</dd><dt>SCOM(k):</dt><dd> a character string containing the k-th special comment line (k=1,NSCOML).
764
765</dd><dt>SNAME:</dt><dd> a character string specifying the source of
766the measurements or model results which compose the primary variables,
767on one line and not exceeding 132 characters. Can include instrument
768name, measurement platform, etc.
769</dd><dt>V(X,n):</dt><dd> value of n-th primary variable (n=1,NV) at
770specified values of independent variables X. If V is real then the use
771of scaled whole numbers, without decimal points, is encouraged.
772</dd><dt>VMISS(n):</dt><dd> a quantity indicating missing or erroneous
773data values for the n-th primary variable. VMISS(n) must be larger than
774any "good" data value, of the n-th primary variable, recorded in the
775file. The value of VMISS(n) defined in the file header is the same
776value that appears in the data records for missing/bad values of
777V(X,n).
778</dd><dt>VNAME(n):</dt><dd> a character string giving the name and/or
779description of the n-th primary variable, on one line and not exceeding
780132 characters. Include units of measure the data will have after
781multiplying by the n-th scale factor, VSCAL(n). The order in which the
782primary variable names are listed in the file header is the same order
783in which the primary variables are read from the data records, and the
784same order in which scale factors and missing values for the primary
785variables are read from the file header records.
786</dd><dt>VSCAL(n):</dt><dd> scale factor (real) by which one
787multiplies recorded values of the n-th primary variable to convert them
788to the units specified in VNAME(n).
789</dd><dt>X(i,s):</dt><dd> i-th value of the s-th independent variable
790(X(i,s), i=1,NX(s), s=1,NIV). For some file formats the values of a
791bounded independent variable may also depend on the unbounded
792independent variable, and in those cases we will denote the bounded
793independent variable as X(i,m,s), with s<niv. values="" of="" (x(i,s),="" and="" (x(i,m,s),="" i="1,NX(s))" must="" be="" monotonic.=""></niv.></dd><dt>XNAME(s):</dt><dd>
794a character string giving the name and/or description of the s-th
795independent variable, on one line and not exceeding 132 characters.
796Include units of measure and order the independent variable names such
797that, when reading primary variables from the data records, the most
798rapidly varying independent variable is listed first and the most
799slowly varying independent variable is listed last.
800</dd></dl>
801<p></p>
802<p>
803</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
804<center><h2>6</h2></center>
805<center><h2>ASCII File Format Specifications</h2></center>
806<p></p>
807<p>
808            The file format specifications, ordered by increasing file
809       format index, FFI, are given in this Section.  Refer to the
810       definitions in Section 5 for explanations of the variables.  A
811       brief description of the variables and file format is followed by
812       the format of the file header, and the general expression for the
813       data records.  Occasionally, lower case characters, preceded by
814       several periods, are used to annotate certain variables.
815</p>
816<p>
817
818<b>FFI = 1001:</b><br>
819       One real, unbounded independent variable (NIV=1).<br>
820       Primary variables are real.<br>
821       No auxiliary variables.<br>
822       Independent and primary variables are recorded in the same record.
823</p>
824<pre>       NLHEAD   1001<br>
825       ONAME<br>
826       ORG<br>
827       SNAME<br>
828       MNAME<br>
829       IVOL   NVOL<br>
830       DATE   RDATE<br>
831       DX(1)<br>
832       XNAME(1)<br>
833       NV<br>
834       [ VSCAL(n), n=1,NV ]<br>
835       [ VMISS(n), n=1,NV ]<br>
836       [ VNAME(n) ]  n=1,NV<br>
837       NSCOML<br>
838       [ SCOM(k) ]  k=1,NSCOML<br>
839       NNCOML<br>
840       [ NCOM(k) ]  k=1,NNCOML<br>
841       [ X(m,1)  ( V(m,n), n=1,NV ) ]<br>
842</pre>
843<hr width="60%">
844<p>&nbsp;</p>
845<p>
846<b>FFI = 1010:</b><br>
847       One real, unbounded independent variable (NIV=1).<br>
848       Primary variables are real.<br>
849       Auxiliary variables are real.<br>
850       The independent and auxiliary variables are in the same record.<br>
851       All primary variables for a given independent variable mark are<br>
852       recorded in the same record.<br>
853</p>
854<pre>       NLHEAD   1010<br>
855       ONAME<br>
856       ORG<br>
857       SNAME<br>
858       MNAME<br>
859       IVOL   NVOL<br>
860       DATE   RDATE<br>
861       DX(1)<br>
862       XNAME(1)<br>
863       NV<br>
864       [ VSCAL(n), n=1,NV ]<br>
865       [ VMISS(n), n=1,NV ]<br>
866       [ VNAME(n) ]  n=1,NV<br>
867       NAUXV<br>
868       [ ASCAL(a), a=1,NAUXV ]<br>
869       [ AMISS(a), a=1,NAUXV ]<br>
870       [ ANAME(a) ]  a=1,NAUXV<br>
871       NSCOML<br>
872       [ SCOM(k) ]  k=1,NSCOML<br>
873       NNCOML<br>
874       [ NCOM(k) ]  k=1,NNCOML<br>
875       [ X(m,1)  ( A(m,a), a=1,NAUXV ) ]<br>
876       [ V(m,n), n=1,NV ]<br>
877</pre>
878<hr width="60%">
879<p>&nbsp;</p>
880<p>
881<b>FFI = 1020:</b><br>
882       One real, constant increment, unbounded independent variable with<br>
883       implied values between independent variable marks (NIV=1).<br>
884       Primary variables are real.<br>
885       Auxiliary variables are real.<br>
886       The independent and auxiliary variables are in the same record.<br>
887       A record of primary variable values at implied independent<br>
888       variable values is recorded for each primary variable.<br>
889</p>
890<pre>       NLHEAD   1020<br>
891       ONAME<br>
892       ORG<br>
893       SNAME<br>
894       MNAME<br>
895       IVOL   NVOL<br>
896       DATE   RDATE<br>
897       DX(1)  ..............DX(1) not equal to zero<br>
898       NVPM(1)<br>
899       XNAME(1)<br>
900       NV<br>
901       [ VSCAL(n), n=1,NV ]<br>
902       [ VMISS(n), n=1,NV ]<br>
903       [ VNAME(n) ]  n=1,NV<br>
904       NAUXV<br>
905       [ ASCAL(a), a=1,NAUXV ]<br>
906       [ AMISS(a), a=1,NAUXV ]<br>
907       [ ANAME(a) ]  a=1,NAUXV<br>
908       NSCOML<br>
909       [ SCOM(k) ]  k=1,NSCOML<br>
910       NNCOML<br>
911       [ NCOM(k) ]  k=1,NNCOML<br>
912       [ X(m,1)  ( A(m,a), a=1,NAUXV ) ]<br>
913       [ V(i,n), i=1+(m-1)*NVPM(1),m*NVPM(1) ]  n=1,NV<br>
914</pre>
915<hr width="60%">
916<p>&nbsp;</p>
917<p>
918<b>FFI = 2010:</b><br>
919       Two real independent variables, one unbounded and one bounded with<br>
920       constant values (NIV=2).<br>
921       Primary variables are real.<br>
922       Auxiliary variables are real.<br>
923       Independent variable mark and auxiliary variables are in the same<br>
924       record.<br>
925       For each primary variable is a record of its values at the bounded<br>
926       independent variable values.<br>
927</p>
928<pre>       NLHEAD   2010<br>
929       ONAME<br>
930       ORG<br>
931       SNAME<br>
932       MNAME<br>
933       IVOL    NVOL<br>
934       DATE    RDATE<br>
935       DX(1)   DX(2)<br>
936       NX(1)<br>
937       NXDEF(1)<br>
938       [ X(i,1), i=1,NXDEF(1) ]<br>
939       [ XNAME(s) ]  s=1,2<br>
940       NV<br>
941       [ VSCAL(n), n=1,NV ]<br>
942       [ VMISS(n), n=1,NV ]<br>
943       [ VNAME(n) ]  n=1,NV<br>
944       NAUXV<br>
945       [ ASCAL(a), a=1,NAUXV ]<br>
946       [ AMISS(a), a=1,NAUXV ]<br>
947       [ ANAME(a) ]  a=1,NAUXV<br>
948       NSCOML<br>
949       [ SCOM(k) ]  k=1,NSCOML<br>
950       NNCOML<br>
951       [ NCOM(k) ]  k=1,NNCOML<br>
952       [ X(m,2)  ( A(m,a), a=1,NAUXV ) ]<br>
953       [ V(i,m,n), i=1,NX(1) ]  n=1,NV<br>
954</pre>
955<hr width="60%">
956<p>&nbsp;</p>
957<p>
958<b>FFI = 2110:</b><br>
959       Two real independent variables, one unbounded and one bounded with<br>
960       its values recorded in the data records (NIV=2).<br>
961       Primary variables are real.<br>
962       The first auxiliary variable is NX(m,1), other auxiliary variables<br>
963       are real.<br>
964       The values of X(i,m,1) are included in the records with the primary<br>
965       variables.<br>
966       If DX(2) is non-zero then X(m,2) must be recorded at a constant<br>
967       interval of DX(2).  For this case, if NX(m,1)=AMISS(1) or NX(m,1)=0<br>
968       then the implication is that the records containing values of the<br>
969       bounded independent variable and primary variables are omitted, and<br>
970       the next record contains the succeeding independent variable mark<br>
971       and auxiliary variables.<br>
972</p>
973<pre>       NLHEAD   2110<br>
974       ONAME<br>
975       ORG<br>
976       SNAME<br>
977       MNAME<br>
978       IVOL   NVOL<br>
979       DATE   RDATE<br>
980       DX(1)  DX(2)<br>
981       [ XNAME(s) ]  s=1,2<br>
982       NV<br>
983       [ VSCAL(n), n=1,NV ]<br>
984       [ VMISS(n), n=1,NV ]<br>
985       [ VNAME(n) ]  n=1,NV<br>
986       NAUXV .................The first auxiliary variable is NX(m,1)<br>
987       [ ASCAL(a), a=1,NAUXV ]<br>
988       [ AMISS(a), a=1,NAUXV ]<br>
989       [ ANAME(a) ]  a=1,NAUXV<br>
990       NSCOML<br>
991       [ SCOM(k) ]  k=1,NSCOML<br>
992       NNCOML<br>
993       [ NCOM(k) ]  k=1,NNCOML<br>
994       [ X(m,2)    NX(m,1)  ( A(m,a), a=2,NAUXV ) ]<br>
995       [ X(i,m,1)  ( V(i,m,n), n=1,NV ) ]  i=1,NX(m,1)<br>
996</pre>
997<hr width="60%">
998<p>&nbsp;</p>
999<p>
1000<b>FFI = 2160:</b><br>
1001       Two independent variables; the unbounded independent variable is a<br>
1002       character string of length LENX(2); the bounded independent<br>
1003       variable is real with its values recorded in the data records<br>
1004       (NIV=2).<br>
1005       Primary variables are real.<br>
1006       The independent variable mark is in a separate record from the<br>
1007       auxiliary variables.<br>
1008       The first auxiliary variable is NX(m,1).<br>
1009       NAUXC is the number of auxiliary variables recorded as character<br>
1010       strings, which follow the real-valued auxiliary variables, and<br>
1011       have lengths  LENA(a), a=NAUXV-NAUXC+1,NAUXV.  Therefore,<br>
1012       AMISS(a), a=NAUXV-NAUXC+1,NAUXV are also character strings of<br>
1013       length LENA(a).<br>
1014       The values of X(i,m,1) are included in the records with the<br>
1015       primary variables.<br>
1016</p>
1017<pre>       NLHEAD   2160<br>
1018       ONAME<br>
1019       ORG<br>
1020       SNAME<br>
1021       MNAME<br>
1022       IVOL   NVOL<br>
1023       DATE   RDATE<br>
1024       DX(1)<br>
1025       LENX(2)<br>
1026       [ XNAME(s) ]  s=1,2<br>
1027       NV<br>
1028       [ VSCAL(n), n=1,NV ]<br>
1029       [ VMISS(n), n=1,NV ]<br>
1030       [ VNAME(n) ]  n=1,NV<br>
1031       NAUXV  ........................first auxiliary variable is NX(m,1)<br>
1032       NAUXC<br>
1033       [ ASCAL(a), a=1,NAUXV-NAUXC ]<br>
1034       [ AMISS(a), a=1,NAUXV-NAUXC ]  ...................these are real<br>
1035       [  LENA(a), a=NAUXV-NAUXC+1,NAUXV ]<br>
1036       [ AMISS(a) ]  a=NAUXV-NAUXC+1,NAUXV  ..........these are strings<br>
1037       [ ANAME(a) ]  a=1,NAUXV<br>
1038       NSCOML<br>
1039       [ SCOM(k) ]  k=1,NSCOML<br>
1040       NNCOML<br>
1041       [ NCOM(k) ]  k=1,NNCOML<br>
1042       [ X(m,2) ]  .....................................character string<br>
1043       [ NX(m,1)  ( A(m,a), a=2,NAUXV-NAUXC ) ]<br>
1044       [ A(m,a) ]  a=NAUXV-NAUXC+1,NAUXV  ..............character strings<br>
1045       [ X(i,m,1)  ( V(i,m,n), n=1,NV ) ]  i=1,NX(m,1)<br>
1046</pre>
1047<hr width="60%">
1048<p>&nbsp;</p>
1049<p>
1050<b>FFI = 2310:</b><br>
1051       Two real independent variables, one unbounded and one bounded with<br>
1052       its number of constant increment values, base value, and increment<br>
1053       defined in the auxiliary variable list (NIV=2).<br>
1054       Primary variables are real.<br>
1055       The first three auxiliary variables are NX(m,1), X(1,m,1), and<br>
1056       DX(m,1); the other auxiliary variables are real.<br>
1057       If DX(2) is non-zero then X(m,2) must be recorded at a constant<br>
1058       interval of DX(2).  For this case, if NX(m,1)=AMISS(1) or NX(m,1)=0<br>
1059       then the implication is that the records containing values of the<br>
1060       primary variables are omitted, and the next record contains the<br>
1061       succeeding independent variable mark and auxiliary variables.<br>
1062       For each primary variable is a record of its values at the bounded<br>
1063       independent variable values.<br>
1064       The bounded independent variable values are<br>
1065       X(i,m,1) = X(1,m,1) + (i-1) * DX(m,1) for i=1,NX(m,1).<br>
1066</p>
1067<pre>       NLHEAD   2310<br>
1068       ONAME<br>
1069       ORG<br>
1070       SNAME<br>
1071       MNAME<br>
1072       IVOL   NVOL<br>
1073       DATE   RDATE<br>
1074       DX(2)<br>
1075       [ XNAME(s) ]  s=1,2<br>
1076       NV<br>
1077       [ VSCAL(n), n=1,NV ]<br>
1078       [ VMISS(n), n=1,NV ]<br>
1079       [ VNAME(n) ]  n=1,NV<br>
1080       NAUXV ............first 3 auxil. var. are NX(m,1),X(1,m,1),DX(m,1)<br>
1081       [ ASCAL(a), a=1,NAUXV ]<br>
1082       [ AMISS(a), a=1,NAUXV ]<br>
1083       [ ANAME(a) ]  a=1,NAUXV<br>
1084       NSCOML<br>
1085       [ SCOM(k) ]  k=1,NSCOML<br>
1086       NNCOML<br>
1087       [ NCOM(k) ]  k=1,NNCOML<br>
1088       [ X(m,2)  NX(m,1)  X(1,m,1)  DX(m,1)  ( A(m,a), a=4,NAUXV ) ]<br>
1089       [ V(i,m,n), i=1,NX(m,1) ]  n=1,NV<br>
1090</pre>
1091<hr width="60%">
1092<p>&nbsp;</p>
1093<p>
1094<b>FFI = 3010:</b><br>
1095       Three real independent variables, one unbounded and two bounded<br>
1096       with constant values defined in the file header (NIV=3).<br>
1097       Primary variables are real.<br>
1098       Auxiliary variables are real.<br>
1099       The independent variable marks and auxiliary variables are in the<br>
1100       same record.<br>
1101       For each primary variable and value of the second independent<br>
1102       variable, is a record of primary variable values at values of the<br>
1103       first independent variable.<br>
1104</p>
1105<pre>       NLHEAD   3010<br>
1106       ONAME<br>
1107       ORG<br>
1108       SNAME<br>
1109       MNAME<br>
1110       IVOL      NVOL<br>
1111       DATE      RDATE<br>
1112       DX(1)     DX(2)    DX(3)<br>
1113       NX(1)     NX(2)<br>
1114       NXDEF(1)  NXDEF(2)<br>
1115       [ X(i,1), i=1,NXDEF(1) ]<br>
1116       [ X(j,2), j=1,NXDEF(2) ]<br>
1117       [ XNAME(s) ]  s=1,3<br>
1118       NV<br>
1119       [ VSCAL(n), n=1,NV ]<br>
1120       [ VMISS(n), n=1,NV ]<br>
1121       [ VNAME(n) ]  n=1,NV<br>
1122       NAUXV<br>
1123       [ ASCAL(a), a=1,NAUXV ]<br>
1124       [ AMISS(a), a=1,NAUXV ]<br>
1125       [ ANAME(a) ]  a=1,NAUXV<br>
1126       NSCOML<br>
1127       [ SCOM(k) ]  k=1,NSCOML<br>
1128       NNCOML<br>
1129       [ NCOM(k) ]  k=1,NNCOML<br>
1130       [ X(m,3)  ( A(m,a), a=1,NAUXV ) ]<br>
1131       [ V(i,j,m,n), i=1,NX(1) ]  j=1,NX(2)  n=1,NV<br>
1132</pre>
1133<hr width="60%">
1134<p>&nbsp;</p>
1135<p>
1136<b>FFI = 4010:</b><br>
1137       Four real independent variables, one unbounded and three bounded<br>
1138       with constant values defined in the file header (NIV=4).<br>
1139       Primary variables are real.<br>
1140       Auxiliary variables are real.<br>
1141       The independent variable marks and auxiliary variables are in the<br>
1142       same record.<br>
1143       For each primary variable and value of the third and second<br>
1144       independent variables, is a record of primary variable values, at<br>
1145       values of the first independent variable.<br>
1146</p>
1147<pre>       NLHEAD   4010<br>
1148       ONAME<br>
1149       ORG<br>
1150       SNAME<br>
1151       MNAME<br>
1152       IVOL      NVOL<br>
1153       DATE      RDATE<br>
1154       DX(1)     DX(2)     DX(3)    DX(4)<br>
1155       NX(1)     NX(2)     NX(3)<br>
1156       NXDEF(1)  NXDEF(2)  NXDEF(3)<br>
1157       [ X(i,1), i=1,NXDEF(1) ]<br>
1158       [ X(j,2), j=1,NXDEF(2) ]<br>
1159       [ X(k,3), k=1,NXDEF(3) ]<br>
1160       [ XNAME(s) ]  s=1,4<br>
1161       NV<br>
1162       [ VSCAL(n), n=1,NV ]<br>
1163       [ VMISS(n), n=1,NV ]<br>
1164       [ VNAME(n) ]  n=1,NV<br>
1165       NAUXV<br>
1166       [ ASCAL(a), a=1,NAUXV ]<br>
1167       [ AMISS(a), a=1,NAUXV ]<br>
1168       [ ANAME(a) ]  a=1,NAUXV<br>
1169       NSCOML<br>
1170       [ SCOM(k) ]  k=1,NSCOML<br>
1171       NNCOML<br>
1172       [ NCOM(k) ]  k=1,NNCOML<br>
1173       [ X(m,4)  ( A(m,a), a=1,NAUXV ) ]<br>
1174       [ V(i,j,k,m,n), i=1,NX(1) ]  j=1,NX(2)  k=1,NX(3)  n=1,NV<br>
1175</pre>
1176<hr width="60%">
1177<p>&nbsp;</p>
1178<p>&nbsp;</p>
1179<center><h2>6.1</h2></center>
1180<center><h2>Summary of data record formats</h2></center>
1181<pre>
1182       FFI=1001:  [ X(m,1)  ( V(m,n), n=1,NV ) ]
1183
1184
1185       FFI=1010:  [ X(m,1)  ( A(m,a), a=1,NAUXV ) ]
1186                  [ V(m,n), n=1,NV ]
1187
1188
1189       FFI=1020:  [ X(m,1)  ( A(m,a), a=1,NAUXV ) ]
1190                  [ V(i,n), i=1+(m-1)*NVPM(1),m*NVPM(1) ]  n=1,NV
1191
1192
1193       FFI=2010:  [ X(m,2)  ( A(m,a), a=1,NAUXV ) ]
1194                  [ V(i,m,n), i=1,NX(1) ]  n=1,NV
1195
1196
1197       FFI=2110:  [ X(m,2)  NX(m,1)  ( A(m,a), a=2,NAUXV ) ]
1198                  [ X(i,m,1)  ( V(i,m,n), n=1,NV ) ]  i=1,NX(m,1)
1199
1200
1201       FFI=2160:  [ X(m,2) ] ................................... string
1202                  [ NX(m,1)  ( A(m,a), a=2,NAUXV-NAUXC ) ]
1203                  [ A(m,a) ]  a=NAUXV-NAUXC+1,NAUXV ............ strings
1204                  [ X(i,m,1)  ( V(i,m,n), n=1,NV ) ]  i=1,NX(m,1)
1205
1206
1207       FFI=2310:  [ X(m,2) NX(m,1) X(1,m,1) DX(m,1) (A(m,a),a=4,NAUXV) ]
1208                  [ V(i,m,n), i=1,NX(m,1) ]  n=1,NV
1209
1210
1211       FFI=3010:  [ X(m,3)  ( A(m,a), a=1,NAUXV ) ]
1212                  [ V(i,j,m,n), i=1,NX(1) ]  j=1,NX(2)  n=1,NV
1213
1214
1215       FFI=4010:  [ X(m,4)  ( A(m,a), a=1,NAUXV ) ]
1216                  [ V(i,j,k,m,n), i=1,NX(1) ]  j=1,NX(2)  k=1,NX(3)  n=1,NV
1217</pre>
1218<p>&nbsp;</p>
1219<center><h2>7</h2></center>
1220<center><h2>Examples</h2></center>
1221<p>
1222            Examples of the file formats, ordered by increasing file
1223       format index, are given in this Section.  These are fictitious
1224       examples and any similarity with existing exchange files is purely
1225       a manifestation of the author's lack of imagination.  For each
1226       example is a file header, followed by a sample of the data
1227       records.  Numeric constants in the file headers have been
1228       annotated with comments enclosed by { }.  The annotations are
1229       included here as references and need not appear in exchange files.
1230       The data records in some of the examples have also been annotated,
1231       but those are solely for illustration since annotations should not
1232       appear in the data records of exchange files.
1233</p>
1234<p>&nbsp;</p>
1235<pre>       22  1001                   {NLHEAD  FFI}
1236       MERTZ, FRED
1237       PACIFIC UNIV.
1238       WIND DATA FROM ER-2 METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (MMS)
1239       TAHITI OZONE PROJECT
1240        1  3                      {IVOL  NVOL}
1241       1991  1 16   1991  1 16    {DATE  RDATE}
1242       0                          {DX(1)=0 for non-uniform time intervals}
1243       TIME (UT SECONDS) from 00 HOURS ON LAUNCH DATE
1244       3                          {NV=number of primary variables}
1245       0.1  0.1   0.1             {primary variable scale factors}
1246       999  9999  999             {primary variable missing values}
1247       HORIZONTAL WIND SPEED (m/s)
1248       HORIZONTAL WIND DIRECTION (deg); TRUE DIRECTION FROM WHICH IT BLOWS.
1249       VERTICAL WIND SPEED + up (m/s)
1250       1                          {NSCOML=number of special comment lines}
1251       Pilot experienced CAT between the times 50300-50400.
1252       4                          {NNCOML=number of normal comment lines}
1253       Preliminary wind data
1254       1Hz desampled from 5Hz
1255       OMEGA used for calc = 0.06280  RAD/SEC
1256         UTs      Spd  Direc Vert Wind
1257         30446.9  305  2592   22
1258         30447.9  304  2596   22
1259         30448.9  305  2601  999
1260         30449.9  306  2603  999
1261         30450.9  307  2606   25
1262         30451.8  307  2607   27
1263         30452.8  309  2610   29
1264         30453.8  310  2610   29
1265         30454.8  312  2621   32
1266</pre>
1267<hr width="60%">
1268<p>&nbsp;</p>
1269<pre>       41  1010               {NLHEAD  FFI}
1270       Mertz, Fred
1271       Pacific University
1272       DC-8 Mark IV Interferometer
1273       TAHITI OZONE PROJECT
1274       1  1                       {IVOL  NVOL}
1275       1991  1 16   1991  2 15    {DATE  RDATE}
1276       0                          {DX(1)=0 for nonuniform time intervals}
1277       UT fractional day number of year given in DATE
1278       8                          {NV=number of primary variables}
1279       1.0E+17 1.0E+14 1.0E+13 1.0E+14 1.0E+14 1.0E+13 1.0E+13 1.0E+18
1280       999 999 9999 9999 999 9999 9999 9999        {VMISS}
1281       O3 column density (molecules/cm**2)
1282       NO column density (molecules/cm**2)
1283       NO2 column density (molecules/cm**2)
1284       HNO3 column density (molecules/cm**2)
1285       ClNO3 column density (molecules/cm**2)
1286       HCl column density (molecules/cm**2)
1287       HF column density (molecules/cm**2)
1288       H2O column density (molecules/cm**2)
1289       10                         {NAUXV=number of auxiliary variables}
1290       1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.0 1.0 1.0      {ASCAL}
1291       99 99 99 99 9999 99999 9999 999 999 999      {AMISS}
1292       UT Month
1293       UT Day
1294       UT Hour
1295       UT Minutes
1296       Latitude of DC-8 (degrees)
1297       Longitude of DC-8 (degrees)
1298       Solar zenith angle (degrees) reckoned from DC-8
1299       Air temperature (Celsius)
1300       Static pressure (millibars)
1301       Potential temperature (Kelvin)
1302       0                          {NSCOML}
1303       6                          {NNCOML}
1304       NOTE 1: This is a single file for the entire mission, which will
1305       be updated after each flight during the mission.  See line 7 of
1306       header for date of last update.
1307       NOTE 2: All these column values will change when analyses are
1308       repeated.
1309
1310        16.521  1 16 12 30  -59 -1250  884 -56 237 328
1311         80  24   75  142  12  240   72   47
1312        16.538  1 16 12 55  -60 -1211  885 -57 237 328
1313         70  19   82  121  12  243   72   56
1314        16.558  1 16 13 24  -64 -1277  889 -57 237 327
1315         71  16   78  118  10  237   56   49
1316        19.530  1 19 12 43  -60 -1250  882 -56 315 330
1317        105  24   85  241  26  390  106   61
1318        19.633  1 19 15 11  -58 -1266  882 -50 329 304
1319</pre>
1320<hr width="60%">
1321<p>&nbsp;</p>
1322<pre>       29  1020                   {NLHEAD  FFI}
1323       MERTZ, FRED
1324       PACIFIC UNIVERSITY
1325       ER-2 LYMAN-ALPHA HYGROMETER
1326       TAHITI OZONE PROJECT
1327       1  1                       {IVOL  NVOL}
1328       1991 01 16  1991 01 16     {DATE  RDATE}
1329       1.0                        {DX(1), constant time interval}
1330       30               {NVPM(1)=number of implied times per marked time}
1331       TIME (UT SECONDS) FROM 00 HOURS ON LAUNCH DATE
1332       1                      {NV=number of primary variables}
1333       0.01                   {scale factor for primary variable}
1334       999999                 {missing value for primary variable}
1335       WATER VAPOR VOLUME MIXING RATIO IN PARTS PER MILLION
1336       4                      {NAUXV=number of auxiliary variables}
1337       1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0        {scale factors for auxiliary variables}
1338       99 99 99 99999         {missing values for auxiliary variables}
1339       UT HOURS
1340       UT MINUTES
1341       UT SECONDS
1342       OBSERVATION COUNT STARTING FROM TIME COMPUTER IS TURNED ON.
1343       0                      {NSCOML}
1344       6                      {NNCOML}
1345       This is PRELIMINARY data
1346       08:05:01 COMPUTER ON
1347       CALB 8.525E+13    4.829E+7     T =  3.000E+2    DltP =  0.000E+0
1348       NOB  2.799E+2    -1.471E-3    -7.641E+22
1349       OHB  1.279E+2     5.113E-4    -7.641E+22
1350
1351        29301.0   08 08 21     200
1352        999999 999999 999999 999999 999999 999999 999999 999999
1353        999999 999999 999999 999999 999999 999999 999999 999999
1354        999999 999999  87166  84175  76721  80130  81401  79359
1355         79887  84339  89955  97811  95614  91508
1356        29331.0   08 08 51     230
1357         88126  86236  79440  81826  82911  90481  92042  91391
1358         94605  93040  87099  85103  87131  87423  82418  75260
1359         64485  59903  63633  68262  72430  75216  78814  77879
1360         72445  69610  66126  60302  55169  48993
1361        29361.0   08 09 21     260
1362         39742  39137  38357  38002  36171  35267  36094  38442
1363         40786  41725  42796  43492  44009  43589  42926  43308
1364</pre>
1365<hr width="60%">
1366<p>&nbsp;</p>
1367<pre>       31  2010               {NLHEAD  FFI}
1368       Mertz, Fred
1369       Pacific University
1370       NMC analyzed grid data interpolated to DC-8 flight path
1371       TAHITI OZONE PROJECT
1372       1  1                       {IVOL  NVOL}
1373       1991 01 16   1991 01 16    {DATE  RDATE}
1374       0.0  30.0                  {DX(1), DX(2)}
1375       8                          {NX(1)}
1376       8                          {NXDEF(1)}
1377       250 200 150 100 70 50 30 10     {X(i,1)}
1378       Pressure levels (mb)
1379       Time (UT seconds) from 00 hours on launch date
1380       3                      {NV=number of primary variables}
1381       1.0   0.1  1.0E-09     {primary variable scale factors}
1382       99999 9999 9999999     {primary variable missing values}
1383       Geopotential height (gpm)
1384       Temperature (K)
1385       Potential vorticity (K m**2/(kg s))
1386       2                      {NAUXV=number of auxiliary variables}
1387       1.0 0.1                {auxiliary variable scale factors}
1388       99999 9999             {auxiliary variable missing values}
1389       Geopotential height (gpm) of the DC-8
1390       Temperature (K) at DC-8's position
1391       0                      {NSCOML}
1392       5                      {NNCOML}
1393       The geopotential height, temperature, and potential vorticity
1394       values were interpolated from NMC analyses to a vertical cross-
1395       section along the DC-8 flight path.
1396       NOTE: PRELIMINARY data.
1397            250mb   200mb   150mb   100mb    70mb    50mb    30mb    10mb
1398         3350  1127 2682
1399             9994   11395   13219   15762   17970   20000   23016   29411
1400             2150    2154    2156    2115    2082    2042    1991    2021
1401             4119    7050    8030   11300   16200   23500   50300  386000
1402         3380  1289 2671
1403             9992   11393   13217   15760   17968   19998   23013   29408
1404             2151    2154    2156    2115    2081    2041    1990    2020
1405             4128    7050    8040   11300   16200   23500   50400  386000
1406         3410  1479 2653
1407             9990   11392   13215   15759   17966   19996   23010   29404
1408             2151    2154    2156    2115    2081    2041    1990    2020
1409             4138    7060    8050   11400   16200   23500   50500  386000
1410</pre>
1411<hr width="60%">
1412<p>&nbsp;</p>
1413<pre>       38  2110               {NLHEAD  FFI}
1414       Mertz, Fred
1415       Pacific University
1416       ER-2 Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP)
1417       TAHITI OZONE PROJECT
1418       1  1                       {IVOL  NVOL}
1419       1991  1 16  1991  1 16     {DATE  RDATE}
1420       0.0  0.0                   {DX(1), DX(2)}
1421       Remote sensing "applicable altitude" (meters)
1422       Elapsed UT seconds from 0 hours on day given in DATE
1423       2                      {NV=number of primary variables}
1424       0.1 0.1                {scale factors for primary variables}
1425       9999 9999              {missing values for primary variables}
1426       Brightness temperature (C)
1427       Potential temperature (K)
1428       15                     {NAUXV=number of auxiliary variables}
1429       1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.1 1.0 0.1 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.1 0.1 1.0 1.0
1430       99 99 99 99 99999 999 999 9999 9999 9999 99999 999 999 999 999
1431       Number of "applicable altitudes" recorded in subsequent data records
1432       Hours (UT)
1433       Minutes (UT)
1434       Seconds (UT)
1435       Pressure altitude of ER-2 (ft)
1436       Aircraft pitch (deg)
1437       Aircraft roll (deg)
1438       Horizon brightness temperature (C), ave. of Chan 1 &amp; 2 brightness temp.
1439       Potential temperature (K) from above horizon temp. and ER-2 press.alt.
1440       dT/dz (K/km), from Chan 1 &amp; 2 blended Temperature profile
1441       dTHETA/dp (K/mb); THETA is potential temperature
1442       dT/dz (K/km) from Chan 1
1443       dT/dz (K/km) from Chan 2
1444       Peak downward acceleration (centi-G's)
1445       Peak upward acceleration (centi-G's)
1446       0                      {NSCOML}
1447       3                      {NNCOML}
1448       The brightness temperatures are approximately equal to air
1449       temperatures at ER-2 altitudes.
1450
1451         29589  5  8 13  9 44890  24   1 -728 3459
1452         440   996  49  34  53   9
1453        14060 -729 3516
1454        13940 -728 3499
1455        13810 -731 3474
1456        13680 -728 3459
1457        13560 -740 3421
1458         29603 15  8 13 23 45170  24   2 -712 3500
1459         -17  -679 -11  -4  56  10
1460        15030 -721 3688
1461        14780 -719 3650
1462</pre>
1463<hr width="60%">
1464<p>&nbsp;</p>
1465<pre>       37  2160                    {NLHEAD  FFI}
1466       Mertz, Fred
1467       Pacific University
1468       WMO coded teletype transmission of upper air soundings
1469       AASE
1470       1  1                        {IVOL  NVOL}
1471       1989  1 16   1989  1 16     {DATE  RDATE}
1472       0                           {DX(1)}
1473       5                           {LENX(2)}
1474       Pressure level (hPa)
1475       Radiosonde station identifier (BBSSS), BB=block #, SSS=station code.
1476       5                           {NV=number of primary variables}
1477       1.0 0.1 0.1 1.0 0.1         {VSCAL}
1478       99999 9999 999 999 9999     {VMISS}
1479       Geopotential height(gpm)
1480       Air temperature (C)
1481       Dew-point depression (C)
1482       Wind direction (degrees)
1483       Wind speed (knots)
1484       9                                      {NAUXV}
1485       1                                      {NAUXC}
1486       1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.01 0.01 1.0      {ASCAL}
1487       999 99 99 99 99 99999 9999 9999        {AMISS}
1488       30                                     {LENA(9)}
1489       zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz
1490       Number of pressure levels in the sounding.
1491       Year of sounding, last two digits (UT).
1492       Month of year (UT).
1493       Day of month (UT).
1494       Hour of day (UT).
1495       East longitude of station (deg).
1496       Latitude of station (deg).
1497       Elevation of station above MSL (m)
1498       Station name
1499       0                      {NSCOML}
1500       1                      {NNCOML}
1501       Ship stations are in block 99.
1502       71082
1503         4  89  1 16 12  -6233  8250   66
1504       Alert/Ellesmere Island
1505        850.0   1136  -331   48  235   330
1506        700.0   3498  -363   36  999  9999
1507        500.0   4770  -467   50  235   420
1508        400.0   6230  -541   60  235   490
1509       99C7C
1510        14  89  1 16 12  -3550  5270    0
1511       zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz
1512       1014.0      0    16   39  270   290
1513       1000.0    118     6   27  280   210
1514</pre>
1515<hr width="60%">
1516<p>&nbsp;</p>
1517<pre>       33  2310               {NLHEAD  FFI}
1518       Mertz, Fred
1519       Pacific Univ.
1520       DC-8 DIAL ozone number densities
1521       TAHITI OZONE PROJECT
1522       2  7                                       {IVOL  NVOL}
1523       1991  1 16   1991  2 20                    {DATE  RDATE}
1524       0.0                                        {DX(2)}
1525       Geometric altitude of observation (m)
1526       Time (UT seconds) from 00 hours on launch date
1527       1                                               {NV}
1528       1.0E+09                                         {VSCAL}
1529       99999                                           {VMISS}
1530       Ozone number density (#/cc)
1531       9                                               {NAUXV}
1532       1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.01 0.01           {ASCAL}
1533       999 99999 999 99999 99 99 99 99999 9999         {AMISS}
1534       Number of altitudes for current time mark
1535       Geometric altitude (m) at which data begins
1536       Altitude increment (m)
1537       Geometric altitude of aircraft (m)
1538       UT Hour
1539       UT Minutes
1540       UT Seconds
1541       East longitude of aircraft (deg)
1542       Latitude of aircraft (deg)
1543       0                            {NSCOML}
1544       5                            {NNCOML}
1545       VERTICAL AVERAGING INTERVAL: 975 METERS AT 1-7 KM ABOVE AIRCRAFT
1546                                    2025 METERS &gt; 7 KM ABOVE AIRCRAFT
1547                         (TRANSITION RANGE VARIES WITH SIGNAL STRENGTH)
1548       HORIZONTAL AVERAGING INTERVAL:   60 KM
1549
1550        30335   26 12819  75 10389  8 25 35 -13324  -945
1551         1340  1519  1660  1779  1868  1939  1973  1992  1989  1955
1552         1934  1897  1817  1721  1619  1514  1434  1343  1258  1203
1553         1140  1088  1037   956   892   878
1554        30360   22 12819  75 10383  8 26  0 -13322  -993
1555         1351  1523  1658  1774  1860  1930  1962  1974  1966  1932
1556         1909  1877  1803  1706  1600  1493  1407  1310 99999 99999
1557         1094  1045
1558        30384   93 12744  75 10378  8 26 24 -13312 -1031
1559          934  1378  1541  1673  1782  1862  1925  1950  1956  1946
1560         1912  1884  1843  1765  1667  1565  1457  1375  1279  1194
1561</pre>
1562<hr width="60%">
1563<p>&nbsp;</p>
1564<pre>       23  3010               {NLHEAD  FFI}
1565       Mertz, Fred
1566       Pacific University
1567       NOAA/NMC grid point analyses
1568       AASE
1569       1  1                       {IVOL  NVOL}
1570       1989  1 16   1989  1 16    {DATE  RDATE}
1571       5.0  2.5  12.0             {DX(1), DX(2), DX(3)}
1572       8    3                     {NX(1), NX(2)}
1573       1    1                     {NXDEF(1), NXDEF(2)}
1574       -25                   {X(1,1); X(i,1) = -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10}
1575       60.0                  {X(1,2); X(j,2) = 60.0 62.5 65.0}
1576       East longitude (deg)
1577       Latitude (deg)
1578       Time (UT hours) from 00 hours on day given by DATE
1579       2                      {NV=number of primary variables}
1580       1.0E-08  0.1           {scale factors for primary variables}
1581       99999 9999             {missing values for primary variables}
1582       Potential vorticity (K m**2/(kg s)) on 400 K isentropic surface
1583       Temperature (K) on 400 K isentropic surface
1584       0                      {NAUXV=number of auxiliary variables}
1585       0                      {NSCOML}
1586       0                      {NNCOML}
1587          0
1588          1604   1597   1589   1578   1570   1578   1584   1589  {PV rec}
1589          1598   1583   1561   1534   1506   1478   1447   1446  {PV rec}
1590          1440   1439   1442   1469   1493   1512   1527   1537  {PV rec}
1591        2234 2251 2259 2250 2247 2200 2194 2187                  { T rec}
1592        2194 2151 2159 2150 2147 2166 2175 2165                  { T rec}
1593        2121 2136 2140 2140 2138 2127 2111 2104                  { T rec}
1594         12
1595          1532   1522   1509   1492   1472   1467   1459   1450  {PV rec}
1596          1419   1433   1448   1465   1483   1503   1525   1567  {PV rec}
1597          1670   1691   1711   1724   1737   1744   1745   1743  {PV rec}
1598        2224 2241 2249 2240 2237 2200 2184 2177                  { T rec}
1599        2184 2141 2149 2140 2137 2156 2165 2155                  { T rec}
1600        2111 2126 2130 2130 2128 2117 2101 2101                  { T rec}
1601         24
1602          1587   1578   1569   1558   1546   1533   1641   1626
1603</pre>
1604<hr width="60%">
1605<p>&nbsp;</p>
1606<pre>       24  4010               {NLHEAD  FFI}
1607       Mertz, Fred
1608       Pacific University
1609       NOAA/NMC grid point analyses
1610       AASE
1611       1  1                       {IVOL  NVOL}
1612       1989  1 16   1989  1 16    {DATE  RDATE}
1613       5.0  2.5  40.0  0.0        {DX(1), DX(2), DX(3), DX(4)}
1614       8    3     2               {NX(1), NX(2), NX(3)}
1615       1    1     2               {NXDEF(1), NXDEF(2), NXDEF(3)}
1616       -25                    {X(1,1); X(i,1)= -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10}
1617       60.0                   {X(1,2); X(j,2)= 60.0 62.5 65.0}
1618       400 440                {X(k,3)}
1619       East longitude (deg)
1620       Latitude (deg)
1621       Potential temperature (K)
1622       Time (UT hours) from 00 hours on day given by DATE
1623       1                      {NV=number of primary variables}
1624       1.0E-08                {scale factor for primary variable}
1625       99999                  {missing value for primary variable}
1626       Potential vorticity (K m**2/(kg s))
1627       0                      {NAUXV=number of auxiliary variables}
1628       0                      {NSCOML}
1629       0                      {NNCOML}
1630          0
1631          1604  1597  1589  1578  1570  1578  1584  1589
1632          1598  1583  1561  1534  1506  1478  1447  1446
1633          1440  1439  1442  1469  1493  1512  1527  1537 {last 400K rec}
1634          3135  3151  3175  3198  3220  3240  3260  3278
1635          3326  3348  3369  3389  3409  3428  3446  3465
1636          3498  3492  3485  3476  3468  3459  3464  3446 {last 440K rec}
1637         12
1638          1532  1522  1509  1492  1472  1467  1459  1450
1639          1419  1433  1448  1465  1483  1503  1525  1567
1640          1670  1691  1711  1724  1737  1744  1745  1743 {last 400K rec}
1641          3424  3419  3409  3396  3379  3354  3327  3297
1642          3193  3158  3125  3095  3065  3037  3011  2998
1643          2956  2938  2920  2914  2909  2906  2905  2906 {last 440K rec}
1644         36
1645          1587  1578  1569  1558  1546  1533  1641  1626
1646</pre>
1647<hr width="60%">
1648<p>
1649<!--#include virtual="/solve/ssi/return.ssi"-->
1650</p>
1651
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