Ignore:
Timestamp:
21/03/18 18:12:19 (20 months ago)
Author:
mjuckes
Message:

01.00.23

File:
1 edited

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  • CMIP6dreq/trunk/dreqPy/docs/dreq.xml

    r1182 r1189  
    11<document xmlns="urn:w3id.org:cmip6.dreq.dreq:a" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:pav="http://purl.org/pav/2.3" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="out/dreqSchema.xsd"> 
    22<prologue> 
    3 <dc:title>Draft CMIP6 Data Request [01.00.22]</dc:title> 
     3<dc:title>Draft CMIP6 Data Request [01.00.23]</dc:title> 
    44<dc:description>The CMIP6 Data Request will specify the variables requested for the CMIP6 archive, and the detail the experiments and time slices for which they are required.</dc:description> 
    55<dc:creator>Martin Juckes</dc:creator> 
    6 <dc:date>2018-02-21</dc:date> 
    7 <pav:version>01.00.22</pav:version> 
     6<dc:date>2018-03-14</dc:date> 
     7<pav:version>01.00.23</pav:version> 
    88</prologue> 
    99<main> 
     
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    70667034<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="59149c7c-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="tendency_of_sea_ice_amount_due_to_freezing_in_open_water"></item> 
    7067 <item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="b089240c-a0da-11e6-bc63-ac72891c3257" title="__unset__" uid="band_aerosol_asymmetry_parameter"></item> 
    7068 <item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="5917ba9c-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="conductive_heat_flux_at_sea_ice_bottom"></item> 
    7069 <item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="4146743c-4f40-11e6-a814-ac72891c3257" title="__unset__" uid="magnitude_of_basal_drag_at_land_ice_base"></item> 
    7070 <item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="591348fe-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="senescence_litter_carbon_flux"></item> 
    70717035<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="3f3051c6-b89b-11e6-be04-ac72891c3257" title="__unset__" uid="surface_upward_mass_flux_of_carbon_dioxide_expressed_as_carbon_direct_to_atmosphere_due_to_anthropogenic_land_use_land_cover_change"></item> 
    70727036<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="591491e6-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="autotrophic_respiration_from_roots"></item> 
    70737037<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="23ecf19e478a3ed9026b011e1e1fed02" title="__unset__" uid="lightning_flash_rate"></item> 
    70747038<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="59152958-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="liquid_water_evaporation_flux_from_surface_snow"></item> 
    7075 <item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="591523cc-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="melt_pond_refrozen_ice"></item> 
    7076 <item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="59129468-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="mineral_no3_soil_nitrogen_content"></item> 
    7077 <item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="e51c1fc2-00a7-11e6-a8a4-5404a60d96b5" title="__unset__" uid="mole_fraction_of_ozone_and_atomic_oxygen_and_1D_oxygen_atom"></item> 
    70787039<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="59130e98-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="soil_liquid_water_content"></item> 
    70797040<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="59128f0e-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="stem_nitrogen_content"></item> 
     
    70867047<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="59176128-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="vegetation_nitrogen_content"></item> 
    70877048<item class="Supplement" description="Latitude of 121 sites requested by CFMIP" label="sitesLatitute" prov="" tattr="" techNote="-20.0 -20.0 -20.0 -20.0 -20.0 -20.0 -20.0 -18.5 -17.0 -15.5 -14.0 -12.5 -11.0 -9.5 -8.0 38.1 35.0 32.0 29.0 26.0 23.0 20.0 17.0 14.0 11.0 8.0 5.0 2.0 -1.0 -1.0 -0.5 -2.0 -2.1 -4.75 -8.0 -12.4 36.4 71.3 -11.0 52.0 -42.0 15.0 30.0 50.0 8.0 23.5 39.0 48.5 32.5 62.3 31.4 7.5 52.2 67.4 54.0 82.5 -28.6 41.0 35.0 29.0 12.0 15.0 18.0 33.0 31.5 -2.5 -2.5 -2.5 -2.5 -2.5 18.0 1.0 13.0 -7.97 37.0 64.1 57.15 -62.2 78.93 13.6 -49.2 -54.6 27.0 8.7 12.0 12.0 10.0 8.5 51.14 48.71 -20.1 -58.5 47.67 -43.95 -7.3 -40.35 38.2 -17.5 -56.0 -42.7 24.3 -29.03 50.0 65.78 0.0 3.5 6.5 9.5 11.5 13.5 15.5 18.0 20.5 23.0 15.0 76.0 71.6 88.0 -75.1 13.16 -16.0" tid="dim:site" title="Latitude of CFMIP sites" uid="c8ef65e2-5fb6-11e7-93bd-ac72891c3257"></item> 
    7088 <item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="590f64fa-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="effective_radius_of_convective_cloud_liquid_water_particle_at_liquid_water_cloud_top"></item> 
    70897049<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="requestItem.esid" techNote="2" title="__unset__" uid="f2febf72-26b8-11e7-8344-ac72891c3257"></item> 
    70907050<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="esid" tid="93f9b8e2-267c-11e7-8933-ac72891c3257" title="__unset__" uid="f33ac044-26b8-11e7-8344-ac72891c3257"></item> 
     
    70957055<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="591449ca-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="surface_snow_and_ice_sublimation_heat_flux"></item> 
    70967056<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="590d24c4-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="total_water_storage"></item> 
    7097 <item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="590f3f16-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="band_direct_albedo"></item> 
    7098 <item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="3819950e-a0dc-11e6-bc63-ac72891c3257" title="__unset__" uid="band_toa_outgoing_shortwave_flux_assuming_clean_clear_sky"></item> 
    70997057<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="esid" tid="93fa2ed0-267c-11e7-8933-ac72891c3257" title="__unset__" uid="f3429a26-26b8-11e7-8344-ac72891c3257"></item> 
    71007058<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="59136654-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="heterotrophic_respiration_carbon_flux_from_litter"></item> 
     
    71077065<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="84f09f30-acb7-11e6-b5ee-ac72891c3257" title="__unset__" uid="net_primary_production_allocated_to_stem"></item> 
    71087066<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="59151c42-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="nitrogen_mass_flux_into_ocean_from_rivers"></item> 
    7109 <item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="5914d6d8-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="sea_ice_bottom_temperature"></item> 
    7110 <item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="590e48f4-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="u-tendency_by_wstar_advection"></item> 
    71117067<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="esid" tid="93f87f18-267c-11e7-8933-ac72891c3257" title="__unset__" uid="f39cda18-26b8-11e7-8344-ac72891c3257"></item> 
    71127068<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="590f019a-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="land_ice_mass_not_displacing_sea_water"></item> 
    71137069<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="5917ca14-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="liquid_water_evaporation_flux_from_open_water"></item> 
    7114 <item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="590e29c8-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="litter_c14_content"></item> 
    71157070<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="5917ed1e-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="mass_fraction_of_snowfall_onto_snow"></item> 
    71167071<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="7309b2ce-7a68-11e6-8db2-ac72891c3257" title="__unset__" uid="snow_mass_transport_across_line"></item> 
     
    71217076<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="esid" tid="93f85b64-267c-11e7-8933-ac72891c3257" title="__unset__" uid="f36e3c44-26b8-11e7-8344-ac72891c3257"></item> 
    71227077<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="esid" tid="93faa540-267c-11e7-8933-ac72891c3257" title="__unset__" uid="f36e4a18-26b8-11e7-8344-ac72891c3257"></item> 
    7123 <item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="84ef402c-acb7-11e6-b5ee-ac72891c3257" title="__unset__" uid="mortality_vegtosoil_carbon_flux"></item> 
    71247078<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="590dda36-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="net_nitrogen_mineralisation"></item> 
    71257079<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="590dd13a-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="plant_respiration_c13_flux"></item> 
    71267080<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="59149f2e-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="surface_upward_mass_flux_of_carbon_dioxide_expressed_as_carbon_due_to_anthrogpogenic_emission"></item> 
    71277081<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="59131910-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_dust_dry_aerosol_particles_due_to_total_deposition"></item> 
    7128 <item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="ead5a730-a0de-11e6-bc63-ac72891c3257" title="__unset__" uid="band_upwelling_shortwave_flux_assuming_clean_clear_sky"></item> 
    7129 <item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="59131be0-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="effective_radius_of_stratiform_cloud_liquid_water_particle_at_liquid_water_cloud_top"></item> 
    71307082<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="requestItem.esid" techNote="2" title="__unset__" uid="f2feaba4-26b8-11e7-8344-ac72891c3257"></item> 
    71317083<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="59138f8a-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="heat_content_of_ocean_layer"></item> 
     
    71377089<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="590e6e4c-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="surface_downward_stress"></item> 
    71387090<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="59140c12-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="tendency_of_northward_wind_due_to_orographic_gravity_wave_drag"></item> 
    7139 <item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="59135d8a-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="tendency_of_specific_humidity_due_to_stratiform_clouds_and_precipitation"></item> 
    71407091<item class="" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="audit.py" tattr="sn" title="__unset__" uid="toa_instantaneous_longwave_forcing_due_to_dust_in_clearsky"></item> 
    71417092<item class="Supplement" description="Longitude of 121 sites requested by CFMIP" label="sitesLongitute" prov="" tattr="" techNote="290.0 287.5 285.0 282.5 280.0 277.5 275.0 270.0 265.0 260.0 255.0 250.0 245.0 240.0 234.9 -123.0 235.0 231.0 227.0 223.0 219.0 215.0 211.0 207.0 203.0 199.0 195.0 191.0 187.0 177.0 166.9 156.0 147.4 140.5 135.5 130.9 -97.5 -156.6 -62.0 4.9 145.0 -51.0 -140.0 -145.0 -125.2 120.0 -28.0 8.4 116.8 129.6 91.9 134.5 14.1 26.6 -105.1 -62.5 -53.4 -24.0 -26.0 -29.0 -35.0 -56.5 -61.5 -119.5 -122.0 -85.0 -95.0 -105.0 -115.0 -125.0 -125.0 -69.0 62.0 -14.4 150.0 -21.9 -170.2 -58.9 11.95 144.8 69.3 158.9 -81.0 -167.7 90.0 115.0 -95.0 -23.0 -1.44 2.2 93.7 254.4 -52.75 -176.6 72.4 -9.88 189.1 -149.6 0.0 273.5 153.97 167.9 -40.0 87.95 0.0 2.5 2.5 2.0 2.5 2.2 -1.5 2.5 2.5 5.5 -17.0 -165.0 128.9 110.0 123.2 -59.43 -5.7" tid="dim:site" title="Longitude of CFMIP sites" uid="c74fbdcc-5fb6-11e7-93bd-ac72891c3257"></item> 
     
    71467097<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="59147b48-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="vertical_integral_northward_wind_by_dry_static_energy"></item> 
    71477098<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="c9a77f2a-c5f0-11e6-ac20-5404a60d96b5" title="__unset__" uid="volume_lidar_backwards_scattering_coefficient_in_air_due_to_ambient_aerosol_particles"></item> 
    7148 <item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="590ec93c-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="wetland_methane_consumption"></item> 
    71497099<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="3f30714c-b89b-11e6-be04-ac72891c3257" title="__unset__" uid="carbon_mass_flux_into_wood_and_agricultural_product_pools_due_to_anthropogenic_land_use_or_land_cover_change"></item> 
    71507100<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="requestItem.esid" techNote="2" title="__unset__" uid="f2fedc6e-26b8-11e7-8344-ac72891c3257"></item> 
     
    71607110<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="5913bfe6-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="deposition_of_nitrogen_onto_land"></item> 
    71617111<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="590d8fc2-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="depth_of_subsurface_melting"></item> 
    7162 <item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="ea83846e-a0de-11e6-bc63-ac72891c3257" title="__unset__" uid="downwelling_shortwave_flux_assuming_clean_clear_sky"></item> 
    71637112<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="requestItem.esid" techNote="11" title="__unset__" uid="f2fecdd2-26b8-11e7-8344-ac72891c3257"></item> 
    71647113<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="590f9ace-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="gross_primary_productivity_of_c13"></item> 
    7165 <item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="590df5e8-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="internal_stress_in_sea_ice_y"></item> 
    71667114<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="73097b4c-7a68-11e6-8db2-ac72891c3257" title="__unset__" uid="sea_ice_area_transport_across_line"></item> 
    7167 <item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="59144c36-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="vegetation_c13_content"></item> 
    71687115<item class="missingLink" description="Missing links detected and marked for fixing" label="unset" prov="scanDreq.py:annotate" tattr="sn" tid="59147ddc-9e49-11e5-803c-0d0b866b59f3" title="__unset__" uid="wetland_fraction"></item> 
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     7195<item class="missingLink" description="Missing standard name, record generated by scanDreq2.py" label="tendencyofspecifichumidityduetostratiformcloudandprecipitation" prov="Auto-generated by scanDreq2.py" tattr="sn" title="Missing standard name: tendency_of_specific_humidity_due_to_stratiform_cloud_and_precipitation" uid="tendency_of_specific_humidity_due_to_stratiform_cloud_and_precipitation"></item> 
     7196<item class="missingLink" description="Missing standard name, record generated by scanDreq2.py" label="seaicespecificyforceduetoseasurfacetilt" prov="Auto-generated by scanDreq2.py" tattr="sn" title="Missing standard name: sea_ice_specific_y_force_due_to_sea_surface_tilt" uid="sea_ice_specific_y_force_due_to_sea_surface_tilt"></item> 
     7197<item class="missingLink" description="Missing standard name, record generated by scanDreq2.py" label="effectiveradiusofstratiformcloudliquidwaterparticleatstratiformliquidwatercloudtop" prov="Auto-generated by scanDreq2.py" tattr="sn" title="Missing standard name: effective_radius_of_stratiform_cloud_liquid_water_particle_at_stratiform_liquid_water_cloud_top" uid="effective_radius_of_stratiform_cloud_liquid_water_particle_at_stratiform_liquid_water_cloud_top"></item> 
     7198<item class="missingLink" description="Missing standard name, record generated by scanDreq2.py" label="seaicemeltpondthickness" prov="Auto-generated by scanDreq2.py" tattr="sn" title="Missing standard name: sea_ice_melt_pond_thickness" uid="sea_ice_melt_pond_thickness"></item> 
     7199<item class="missingLink" description="Missing standard name, record generated by scanDreq2.py" label="rootmasscontent" prov="Auto-generated by scanDreq2.py" tattr="sn" title="Missing standard name: root_mass_content" uid="root_mass_content"></item> 
     7200<item class="missingLink" description="Missing standard name, record generated by scanDreq2.py" label="surfacedragcoefficientformomentuminseawater" prov="Auto-generated by scanDreq2.py" tattr="sn" title="Missing standard name: surface_drag_coefficient_for_momentum_in_sea_water" uid="surface_drag_coefficient_for_momentum_in_sea_water"></item> 
     7201<item class="missingLink" description="Missing standard name, record generated by scanDreq2.py" label="seaicespecificxforceduetointernalforces" prov="Auto-generated by scanDreq2.py" tattr="sn" title="Missing standard name: sea_ice_specific_x_force_due_to_internal_forces" uid="sea_ice_specific_x_force_due_to_internal_forces"></item> 
     7202<item class="missingLink" description="Missing standard name, record generated by scanDreq2.py" label="effectiveradiusofconvectivecloudliquidwaterparticleatconvectiveliquidwatercloudtop" prov="Auto-generated by scanDreq2.py" tattr="sn" title="Missing standard name: effective_radius_of_convective_cloud_liquid_water_particle_at_convective_liquid_water_cloud_top" uid="effective_radius_of_convective_cloud_liquid_water_particle_at_convective_liquid_water_cloud_top"></item> 
     7203<item class="missingLink" description="Missing standard name, record generated by scanDreq2.py" label="seaicespecificyforceduetocoriolisterm" prov="Auto-generated by scanDreq2.py" tattr="sn" title="Missing standard name: sea_ice_specific_y_force_due_to_coriolis_term" uid="sea_ice_specific_y_force_due_to_coriolis_term"></item> 
     7204<item class="missingLink" description="Missing standard name, record generated by scanDreq2.py" label="downwellingshortwavefluxinseawateratseaicebase" prov="Auto-generated by scanDreq2.py" tattr="sn" title="Missing standard name: downwelling_shortwave_flux_in_sea_water_at_sea_ice_base" uid="downwelling_shortwave_flux_in_sea_water_at_sea_ice_base"></item> 
     7205<item class="missingLink" description="Missing standard name, record generated by scanDreq2.py" label="seaicebasaltemperature" prov="Auto-generated by scanDreq2.py" tattr="sn" title="Missing standard name: sea_ice_basal_temperature" uid="sea_ice_basal_temperature"></item> 
     7206<item class="missingLink" description="Missing standard name, record generated by scanDreq2.py" label="seaicebasalnetdownwardsensibleheatflux" prov="Auto-generated by scanDreq2.py" tattr="sn" title="Missing standard name: sea_ice_basal_net_downward_sensible_heat_flux" uid="sea_ice_basal_net_downward_sensible_heat_flux"></item> 
     7207<item class="missingLink" description="Missing standard name, record generated by scanDreq2.py" label="massfluxofcarbonintoforestryandagriculturalproductsduetocropharvesting" prov="Auto-generated by scanDreq2.py" tattr="sn" title="Missing standard name: mass_flux_of_carbon_into_forestry_and_agricultural_products_due_to_crop_harvesting" uid="mass_flux_of_carbon_into_forestry_and_agricultural_products_due_to_crop_harvesting"></item> 
    72317208</remarks> 
    72327209<experiment id="exp" label="experiment" title="1.5 Experiments" uid="SECTION:experiment" useClass="vocab"> 
    72337210<!-- <info srcType="dummy" srcRef="ptxt.py">Dummy entries</info> --> 
    7234 <item comment="" description="Biogeochemically-coupled version of the mitigated overshoot scenario with medium/low radiative forcing by the end of the 21st century.  The scenario follows SSP5-8.5, an unmitigated baseline scenario, through 2040, and then substantially negative net emissions thereafter." egid="f16d3098-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2300.0" ensz="1" label="ssp534-over-bgc" mcfg="" mip="C4MIP" nstart="1" ntot="260" starty="2040.0" tier="2" title="biogeochemically-coupled version of the RCP3.4-overshoot based on SSP5" uid="f16d393a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="260"></item> 
    72357211<item comment="" description="Pacemaker 20th century historical run that includes all forcings as used in CMIP6 historical simulation. Sea surface temperature (SST) is restored to the model climatology plus observational historical anomaly in the AMO domain (0-70oN, 70oW-0o). Use the same model resolutions as the CMIP6 historical simulation. The minimum number of integrations is 3, more realisations are encouraged." egid="f16e220a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2013.0" ensz="3" label="hist-resAMO" mcfg="CGCM with SST restored to the model climatology plus observational historical anomaly in the AMO domain" mip="GMMIP" nstart="1" ntot="432" starty="1870.0" tier="2" title="initialized from &quot;historical&quot; run year 1870 and SSTs in the AMO domain (0deg-70degN, 70degW-0deg) restored to AMIP SSTs with historical forcings" uid="f16e24c6-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="144"></item> 
    72367212<item comment="" description="Land surface model simulation.  Use the same land model configuration as used in the coupled CMIP6 historical simulations. Include representation of land cover, land use and land management. All applicable land use features should be active. Forced with historical observed climate. Include all transient forcings that are relevant for the land model such as CO2 concentration, Nitrogen deposition, aerosol deposition, population density. Start year either 1850 or 1700 depending on standard practice for particular model. This experiment is shared with the LS3MIP, note that LS3MIP expects the start year to be 1850. This experiment can and likely will be a different configuration across models due to different representations of land use for each model." egid="f16eab80-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="1" label="land-hist" mcfg="LND" mip="LS3MIP" nstart="1" ntot="165" starty="1850.0" tier="1" title="historical land-only" uid="f16eaa36-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="165"></item> 
     7213<item comment="" description="An uncoupled (atmosphere and land) experiment with interactive vegetation in which sea surface temperatures (SST) and sea ice concentrations (SIC) are fixed at model-specific pre-industrial control climatology. Anthropogenic forcing agents are specified at present day 2014 values. Aerosols are specified by RFMIP. Run for 30 years." egid="f16f49aa-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="30.0" ensz="4" label="piClim-spAer-anthro" mcfg="Atmos only, fixed SST/ice" mip="RFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="120" starty="1.0" tier="2" title="effective radiative forcing at present day with specified anthropogenic aerosol optical properties, anthropogenic forcings" uid="f16f4842-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="30"></item> 
    72377214<item comment="As volc-pinatubo-full, but with a slab ocean" description="1991 Pinatubo forcing as used in the CMIP6 historical simulations.  Maintain the same constant boundary forcing as the pre-industrial control integration, except for the volcanic forcing. Requires special diagnostics of parameterised and resolved wave forcings, radiative and latent heating rates. The experiment will not account for the actual climate conditions when the real event ocurred (e.g., presence and strength of additional forcing factors). Instead, the experiment is designed to span very different initial climate states to systematically assess uncertainties in the post-eruption behavior that are related to background climate conditions. Sampling of an eastern phase of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), as observed after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption is preferred for those models that spontaneously generate such mode of stratospheric variability. Run at least 25 ensemble members for 3 years. Use a model configuration with a slab ocean." egid="f16f90b8-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="TBD" ensz="1" label="volc-pinatubo-slab" mcfg="AOGCM/ ESM" mip="VolMIP" nstart="25" ntot="75" starty="Preindustrial conditions" tier="3" title="Pinatubo experiment with slab ocean" uid="f16fa8e6-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="3"></item> 
    72387215<item comment="" description="A pre-inudsutrial control simulation with non-evolving pre-industrial conditions and atmospheric CO2 calculated. Conditions chosen to be representative of the period prior to the onset of large-scale industrialization, with 1850 being the reference year.  The piControl starts after an initial climate spin-up, during which the climate begins to come into balance with the forcing. The recommended minimum length for the piControl is 500 years. To be performed with an Earth System Model (ESM) that can calculate atmospheric CO2 concentration and account for the fluxes of CO2 between the atmosphere, the ocean, and biosphere." egid="f16fbb42-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="" ensz="1" label="esm-piControl" mcfg="" mip="CMIP" nstart="1" ntot="500" starty="" tier="1" title="pre-industrial control simulation with CO2 concentration calculated" uid="f16fcc40-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="500"></item> 
    7239 <item comment="" description="An uncoupled (atmosphere and land) experiment with interactive vegetation in which sea surface temperatures (SST) and sea ice concentrations (SIC) are fixed at model-specific pre-industrial control climatology. Anthropogenic forcing agents are specified at present day 2014 values. Aerosols are specified by RFMIP. Run for 30 years." egid="f16f49aa-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="30.0" ensz="4" label="piClim-spAer-anthro" mcfg="Atmos only, fixed SST/ice" mip="RFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="120" starty="1.0" tier="2" title="effective radiative forcing at present day with specified anthropogenic aerosol optical properties, anthropogenic forcings" uid="f16f4842-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="30"></item> 
    72407216<item comment="Historical WMGHG concentrations and halocarbons emissions, 1850 NTCF emissions, prescribed SSTs" description="Historical atmosphere only simulation with historical WMGHG, transient historical SSTs.  NTCFs fixed at 1850 emission levels." egid="8709a922-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="2014.0" ensz="1" label="histSST-piNTCF" mcfg="AGCM (using SST histALL)" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="165" starty="1850.0" tier="1" title="historical SSTs and historical forcing, but with pre-industrial NTCF emissions" uid="70e3df14-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="165"></item> 
    72417217<item comment="Perturbation from 1850 control using 2014 CO/VOC emissions" description="Fixed SST ERF simulation. Use pre-industrial climatological average SST and sea-ice distributions. Apply pre-industrial concentrations of WMGHG (well mixed greenhouse gases), pre-industrial emissions of aersols and aerosol precursors, present day (2014) emissions of CO/VOC, all other emissions of tropospheric ozone precursors set to pre-industrial levels. This is a timeslice experiment of 30 years total." egid="8709ad32-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="1850.0" ensz="1" label="piClim-VOC" mcfg="AGCM" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="30" starty="1850.0" tier="3" title="pre-industrial climatological SSTs and forcing, but with 2014 VOC emissions" uid="70e435d6-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="30"></item> 
    72427218<item comment="Perturbation from 1850 control using 2014 SO2 emissions" description="pre-industrial climatological SSTs and forcing, but with 2014 SO2 emissions" egid="8709ad32-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="1850.0" ensz="1" label="piClim-SO2" mcfg="AGCM" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="30" starty="1850.0" tier="3" title="pre-industrial climatological SSTs and forcing, but with 2014 SO2 emissions" uid="70e43928-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="30"></item> 
    72437219<item comment="Mechanisms and predictability of the hiatus and of similar long timescale variations of both signs" description="idealized positive extratropical AMV anomaly pattern" egid="f16dcf30-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="" ensz="25" label="dcppC-amv-ExTrop-pos" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="DCPP" nstart="1" ntot="250" starty="control" tier="2" title="Idealized climate impact of positive extratropical AMV anomaly pattern" uid="f16ddeb2-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="10"></item> 
    7244 <item comment="" description="The topography of the TIP is modified by setting surface elevations to 500m; to understand the combined thermal and mechanical forcing of the TIP. Same model as DECK." egid="f16e28d6-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2013.0" ensz="1" label="DTIP" mcfg="AGCM" mip="GMMIP" nstart="1" ntot="35" starty="1979.0" tier="3" title="__unset__" uid="f16e2778-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="35"></item> 
    7245 <item comment="" description="Prescribed land conditions 1980-2014 climate" egid="f16ebb02-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="4" label="LFMIP-pdLC2" mcfg="LND-ATM-OC" mip="LS3MIP" nstart="1" ntot="484" starty="1980.0" tier="2" title="__unset__" uid="f16ebdaa-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="121"></item> 
    7246 <item comment="" description="Same as CMIP6 historical but with land cover held at 1850, no human activity; concentration driven" egid="f16ee168-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="2" label="hist-noLULCC-02" mcfg="GCM" mip="LUMIP" nstart="1" ntot="330" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="__unset__" uid="f16ee46a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="165"></item> 
     7220<item comment="" description="The topography of the Tibetan Plateau (TIP) and other Asian highlands is modified by setting surface elevations to 500m. Other settings are the same as the standard DECK AMIP simulation. Minimum number of integrations is 1." egid="f16e28d6-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2013.0" ensz="1" label="amip-TIP" mcfg="AGCM" mip="GMMIP" nstart="1" ntot="35" starty="1979.0" tier="3" title="same as &quot;amip&quot; run, but surface elevations of the Tibetan-Iranian Plateau and Himalayas reduced to 500m" uid="f16e2778-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="35"></item> 
     7221<item comment="" description="Concentration driven historical forcing with land use held constant at 1850 usage.  Same as the concentration diriven CMIP6 historical experiment except with land use and land cover change (LULCC) held constant at pre-industrial conditions. Additional ensemble members are requested with tier 2 priority." egid="f16ee168-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="2" label="hist-noLu" mcfg="GCM" mip="LUMIP" nstart="1" ntot="330" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="historical with no land-use change" uid="f16ee46a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="165"></item> 
    72477222<item comment="" description="Impose an instantaneous quadrupling of the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, then hold fixed." egid="f16fbb42-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="" ensz="5" label="abrupt-4xCO2" mcfg="" mip="CMIP" nstart="1" ntot="750" starty="" tier="1" title="abrupt quadrupling of CO2" uid="f16fbe1c-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="150"></item> 
    72487223<item comment="Future SSP3-7.0 with reduced aerosol emissions (from ssp370-lowNTCF), prescribed SSTs" description="SSP3-7.0, prescribed SSTs, with low aerosol emissions" egid="8709abf2-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="2055.0" ensz="1" label="ssp370SST-lowAer" mcfg="AGCM (using SST SSP3-7)" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="41" starty="2015.0" tier="1" title="SSP3-7.0, prescribed SSTs, with low aerosol emissions" uid="70e405ac-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="41"></item> 
     
    72527227<item comment="Historical simulation that includes interactive ice sheets. Set up follows the historical experiment" description="Historical experiment with interactive ice sheet model.  The experiment should be identical to the corresponding standard CMIP AOGCM experiment except for the treatment of ice sheets." egid="f16e8682-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="1" label="historical-withism" mcfg="AOGCM-ISM" mip="ISMIP6" nstart="1" ntot="165" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="historical with interactive ice sheet" uid="f16e8524-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="165"></item> 
    72537228<item comment="Future climate ScenarioMIP SSP5-8.5 simulation using &quot;offline&quot; ice sheet models. Forcing for ice sheet model is the standard dataset based on ScenarioMIP ssp585" description="Stand alone ice sheet model driven offline by ISMIP6 CMIP6 standard input for the SSP5-85 climate forcing scenario." egid="f16e9118-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2300.0" ensz="1" label="ism-ssp585-std" mcfg="ISM only" mip="ISMIP6" nstart="1" ntot="286" starty="2015.0" tier="2" title="offline ice sheet forced by ISMIP6-specified AOGCM ssp585 output" uid="f16e969a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="286"></item> 
    7254 <item comment="" description="Initialized pseudo-observations land" egid="f16eceee-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="10" label="LFMIP-Pobs" mcfg="LND-ATM-OC" mip="LS3MIP" nstart="1" ntot="350" starty="1980.0" tier="2" title="__unset__" uid="f16ecd9a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="35"></item> 
     7229<item comment="" description="&quot;pseudo-observed boundary condition&quot; experiment that uses that uses batch offline land models (in line with the GLACE2 set-up) to initialize historical runs with prescribed reconstructed land surface states, either derived from offline simulations or from various observational data sources." egid="f16eceee-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="10" label="lfmip-initLC" mcfg="LND-ATM-OC" mip="LS3MIP" nstart="1" ntot="350" starty="1980.0" tier="2" title="initialized from &quot;historical&quot; run year 1980, but with land conditions initialized from pseudo-observations" uid="f16ecd9a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="35"></item> 
     7230<item comment="" description="Land surface model simulation. Same as land-hist except starting from either 1700 (for models that typically start in 1850) or 1850 (for models that typically start in 1700).   Use the same land model configuration as used in the coupled CMIP6 historical simulations. Include representation of land cover, land use and land management. All applicable land use features should be active.  Forced with historical observed climate. Include transient CO2, Nitrogen deposition, aerosol deposition and population density. This experiment can and likely will be a different configuration across models due to different representations of land use for each model." egid="f16ed97a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="10" label="land-hist-altStartYear" mcfg="LND" mip="LUMIP" nstart="1" ntot="1650" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="historical land-only alternate start year" uid="6e271200-4c5a-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="165"></item> 
    72557231<item comment="" description="Time slice for the first year of the GeoMIP G1 experiment with fixed sea surface temperature climatology calculated from the piControl. Run for 10 years." egid="f16e4352-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="1850.0" ensz="1" label="piSST-4xCO2-solar" mcfg="AGCM" mip="GeoMIP" nstart="1" ntot="10" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="preindustrial control SSTs with quadrupled CO2 and solar reduction" uid="f16e41fe-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="10"></item> 
    7256 <item comment="" description="Historical coupled ocean atmosphere simulations of the near past (1950-2014) at high and standard resolution. For optimal comparison between models aerosol concentrations would be preferable and not emissions. At least one ensemble member at high resolution, minimum atmosphere 25-50 km at mid-latitudes and ocean resolution of 0.25 degrees, and a minimum of daily coupling between ocean and atmosphere. At least one ensemble member at standard model resolution." egid="f16e66d4-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2050.0" ensz="2" label="hist-1950" mcfg="HIGH and LOW (e.g. 25km and 60-100km resolution)" mip="HighResMIP" nstart="1" ntot="200" starty="1951.0" tier="2" title="coupled historical 1950-2014" uid="f16e658a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="100"></item> 
    72577232<item comment="" description="Extension beyond 2014 of the CMIP6 historical simulation." egid="f16fc70e-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="" ensz="1" label="historical-ext" mcfg="" mip="CMIP" nstart="1" ntot="1" starty="" tier="2" title="post-2014 all-forcing simulation" uid="f16fcec0-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="1"></item> 
    72587233<item comment="" description="" egid="f16fbb42-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="" ensz="1" label="esm-piControl-spinup" mcfg="" mip="CMIP" nstart="1" ntot="100" starty="" tier="1" title="pre-industrial control simulation with CO2 concentration calculated (spin-up)" uid="f16fd636-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="100"></item> 
     7234<item comment="" description="Prescribed land conditions 1980-2014 climate" egid="f16ebb02-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="4" label="lfmip-pdLC-princeton" mcfg="LND-ATM-OC" mip="LS3MIP" nstart="1" ntot="484" starty="1980.0" tier="2" title="__unset__" uid="623a9780-4cfc-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="121"></item> 
    72597235<item comment="Future SSP3-7.0, with SSTs prescribed from ssp370" description="SSP3-7.0, with SSTs prescribed from ssp370" egid="8709abf2-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="2055.0" ensz="1" label="ssp370SST" mcfg="AGCM (using SST SSP3-7)" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="41" starty="2015.0" tier="1" title="SSP3-7.0, with SSTs prescribed from ssp370" uid="70e3f9fe-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="41"></item> 
    72607236<item comment="Perturbation from 1850 control using 2014 BC emissions" description="Fixed SST ERF simulation. Use pre-industrial climatological average SST and sea-ice distributions. Apply pre-industrial concentrations of WMGHG (well mixed greenhouse gases), pre-industrial tropospheric ozone precursors, present day (2014) emissions of black carbon (BC) and pre-industrial emissions of all other aersols and aerosol precursors.  This is a timeslice experiment of 30 years total." egid="8709ad32-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="1850.0" ensz="1" label="piClim-BC" mcfg="AGCM" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="30" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="pre-industrial climatological SSTs and forcing, but with 2014 black carbon emissions" uid="70e41b82-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="30"></item> 
    72617237<item comment="Perturbation from 1850 control using 2014 NH3 emissions" description="pre-industrial climatological SSTs and forcing, but with 2014 ammonia emissions" egid="8709ad32-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="1850.0" ensz="1" label="piClim-NH3" mcfg="AGCM" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="30" starty="1850.0" tier="3" title="pre-industrial climatological SSTs and forcing, but with 2014 ammonia emissions" uid="70e44094-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="30"></item> 
    7262 <item comment="" description="Fully-coupled specified concentration simulation in which CO2 increases at a rate of 1% per year until quadrupling, plus an additional scenario of anthropogenic nitrogen deposition" egid="f16d22b0-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="1989.0" ensz="1" label="esm1pccouNdep" mcfg="" mip="C4MIP" nstart="1" ntot="140" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="__unset__" uid="f16d28b4-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="140"></item> 
     7238<item comment="" description="Biogeochemically-coupled concentration driven 1% per year increasing CO2 up to 4XCO2 simulation. CO2 increase only affects carbon cycle models, radiative code sees pre-industrial CO2.  With time varying anthropogenic nitrogen deposition.  Only applicable to models whose simulation will be affected by the deposition of reactive nitrogen either due to terrestrial or marine nitrogen cycle effects on carbon fluxes and store." egid="f16d22b0-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="1989.0" ensz="1" label="1pctCO2Ndep-bgc" mcfg="" mip="C4MIP" nstart="1" ntot="140" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="biogeochemically-coupled version of 1 percent per year increasing CO2 experiment with increasing N-deposition" uid="f16d28b4-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="140"></item> 
    72637239<item comment="Extension of well-mixed GHG-only run under SSP2-4.5. Models with interactive chemistry schemes should either turn off the chemistry or use a preindustrial climatology of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in their radiation schemes" description="Extension of well-mixed GHG-only run (hist-GHG) under SSP2-4.5 forcing to the year 2100. Models with interactive chemistry schemes should either turn off the chemistry or use a preindustrial climatology of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in their radiation schemes." egid="f16d9880-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="1" label="ssp245-GHG" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="DAMIP" nstart="1" ntot="80" starty="2021.0" tier="2" title="well-mixed GHG-only SSP2-4.5 run" uid="f16d9740-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="80"></item> 
     7240<item comment="Early 19th century cluster of strong tropical volcanic eruptions, including the 1809 event of unknown location, the 1815 Tambora and 1835 Cosigueina eruptions. Experiment initialized from past1000 (all forcings except volcanic kept constant from year AD 1790 on)" description="Parallel experiment to volc-cluster-ctrl but with initial conditions taken from last-millennium simulation to account for the effects of a more realistic history of past natural forcing.  Initialisation on 1 January 1790 to avoid interferences due to the decadal drop of solar activity associated with the Dalton Minimum.  The first eruption of the cluster begins in 1809 as in volc-cluster-ctrl. All external forcings, except volcanic forcing, are set as a perpetual repetition of the year 1790 for the full duration of the experiment. At least one, preferably three, ensemble members.  69 years for each ensemble member." egid="f16f9e8c-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="TBD" ensz="1" label="volc-cluster-mill" mcfg="AOGCM/ ESM" mip="VolMIP" nstart="3" ntot="150" starty="past1000, January 1st 1809" tier="3" title="19th century volcanic cluster initialized from past1000" uid="f16fa5b2-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="50"></item> 
    72647241<item comment="Mechanisms and predictability of the hiatus and of similar long timescale variations of both signs" description="idealized positive northern extratropical IPV anomaly pattern" egid="f16dcf30-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="" ensz="10" label="dcppC-ipv-NexTrop-pos" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="DCPP" nstart="1" ntot="100" starty="control" tier="2" title="idealized positive northern extratropical IPV anomaly pattern" uid="f16dea60-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="10"></item> 
    7265 <item comment="Early 19th century cluster of strong tropical volcanic eruptions, including the 1809 event of unknown location, the 1815 Tambora and 1835 Cosigueina eruptions. Experiment initialized from past1000 (all forcings except volcanic kept constant from year AD 1790 on)" description="Parallel experiment to volc-cluster-ctrl but with initial conditions taken from last-millennium simulation to account for the effects of a more realistic history of past natural forcing.  Initialisation on 1 January 1790 to avoid interferences due to the decadal drop of solar activity associated with the Dalton Minimum.  The first eruption of the cluster begins in 1809 as in volc-cluster-ctrl. All external forcings, except volcanic forcing, are set as a perpetual repetition of the year 1790 for the full duration of the experiment. At least one, preferably three, ensemble members.  69 years for each ensemble member." egid="f16f9e8c-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="TBD" ensz="1" label="volc-cluster-mill" mcfg="AOGCM/ ESM" mip="VolMIP" nstart="3" ntot="150" starty="past1000, January 1st 1809" tier="3" title="19th century volcanic cluster initialized from past1000" uid="f16fa5b2-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="50"></item> 
    72667242<item comment="Future SSP3-7.0 with reduced ozone precursor emissions (from ssp370-lowNTCF), prescribed SSTs" description="SSP3-7.0, prescribed SSTs, with low ozone precursor emissions" egid="8709abf2-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="2055.0" ensz="1" label="ssp370SST-lowO3" mcfg="AGCM (using SST SSP3-7)" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="41" starty="2015.0" tier="1" title="SSP3-7.0, prescribed SSTs, with low ozone precursor emissions" uid="70e408f4-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="41"></item> 
    72677243<item comment="Perturbation from 1850 control using 2014 OC emissions" description="pre-industrial climatological SSTs and forcing, but with 2014 organic carbon emissions" egid="8709ad32-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="1850.0" ensz="1" label="piClim-OC" mcfg="AGCM" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="30" starty="1850.0" tier="3" title="pre-industrial climatological SSTs and forcing, but with 2014 organic carbon emissions" uid="70e43d4c-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="30"></item> 
     
    72737249<item comment="" description="Impose Last Interglacial (127 kyr ago) boundary condtions for the atmospheric concentration of well-mixed greenhouse gases and orbital parameters.  Run for at least 100 years after spin-up. It is mandatory that the model versions used for the PMIP-CMIP6 experiments are the exactly the same as for the other CMIP6 experiments, in particular the DECK and historical simulations." egid="f16f14c6-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="as long as possible to have >= 100 stabilised years (I.e 500 )" ensz="1" label="lig127k" mcfg="ESM" mip="PMIP" nstart="1" ntot="100" starty="from PI or pre-existing LIG" tier="1" title="last interglacial (127k)" uid="f16f1354-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="100"></item> 
    72747250<item comment="" description="1 percent per year increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide until quadrupling." egid="f16fbb42-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="" ensz="1" label="1pctCO2" mcfg="" mip="CMIP" nstart="1" ntot="150" starty="" tier="1" title="1 percent per year increase in CO2" uid="f16fc0b0-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="150"></item> 
     7251<item comment="" description="Global ocean/sea-ice/inert-chemical/biogeochemical experiment.  This experiment will use atmospheric state and runoff data based on the JRA-55 reanalysis inter-annually varying atmospheric and river data sets for years 1958-2016 (Kobayashi et al., 2015).   Initial ocean tracer fields are based on observations." egid="f16eff5e-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="310.0" ensz="1" label="omip2" mcfg="Global ocean - sea-ice coupled with required biogeochemistry" mip="OMIP" nstart="1" ntot="311" starty="1.0" tier="2" title="OMIP experiment forced by JRA-55do atmospheric data set and initialized with observed physical and biogeochemical ocean data" uid="fe6e64fc-4d00-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="311"></item> 
    72757252<item comment="Historical WMGHG, halocarbon concentrations and aerosol precursor emissions, 1850 tropospheric ozone precursors emissions, prescribed SSTs" description="Historical atmosphere only simulation with historical WMGHG, transient historical SSTs.  Tropospheric ozone precursors fixed at 1850 emission levels." egid="8709a922-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="2014.0" ensz="1" label="histSST-piO3" mcfg="AGCM (using SST histALL)" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="165" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="historical SSTs and historical forcing, but with pre-industrial ozone precursor emissions" uid="70e3e6e4-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="165"></item> 
    72767253<item comment="" description="Continuation of CFMIP-2 AMIP experiments and CMIP5 experiment 6.7a. Aquaplanet (no land) experiment with CO2 set to the AMIP mean concentration and no seasonal cycle.  Impose zonally uniform SSTs on a planet without continents but with cloud-radiative effects switched off in the LW radiation code." egid="f16d5672-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="1988.0" ensz="1" label="aqua-control-lwoff" mcfg="Atmosphere-only" mip="CFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="10" starty="1979.0" tier="2" title="aquaplanet control with longwave cloud radiative effects off" uid="f16d5be0-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="10"></item> 
     
    72787255<item comment="Offline ice sheet evolution for the last few decades forced by amip" description="Stand alone ice sheet model driven offline by ISMIP6 CMIP6 standard input for the DECK amip climate experiment." egid="f16e9ab4-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="1" label="ism-amip-std" mcfg="ISM only" mip="ISMIP6" nstart="1" ntot="36" starty="1979.0" tier="3" title="offline ice sheet forced by ISMIP6-specified AGCM AMIP output" uid="f16e9956-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="36"></item> 
    72797256<item comment="" description="Scenario forced experiment with prescribed land surface climatology derived from transient 30 year running mean.   Additional ensemble members are requested with tier 2 priority." egid="f16ebb02-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="1" label="lfmip-rmLC" mcfg="LND-ATM-OC" mip="LS3MIP" nstart="1" ntot="121" starty="1980.0" tier="2" title="prescribed land conditions (from running mean climatology) and initialized from &quot;historical&quot; run year 1980" uid="f16ec598-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="121"></item> 
    7280 <item comment="" description="Future scenario with low radiative forcing by the end of century. Reaches about 3.7 W/m2 by 2100; fills gap in RCP forcing pathways between 4.5 and 2.6 W/m2. Concentration-driven." egid="f16f65f2-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="1" label="SSP437" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="ScenarioMIP" nstart="1" ntot="86" starty="2015.0" tier="2" title="__unset__" uid="f16f68b8-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="86"></item> 
     7257<item comment="" description="Gap: Mitigation scenario with low radiative forcing by the end of the century.  Following approximately RCP3.4 global forcing pathway with SSP4 socioeconomic conditions. Radiative forcing reaches a level of 3.4 W/m2 in 2100. Concentration-driven." egid="f16f65f2-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="1" label="ssp434" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="ScenarioMIP" nstart="1" ntot="86" starty="2015.0" tier="2" title="gap-filling scenario reaching 3.4 based on SSP4" uid="f16f68b8-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="86"></item> 
     7258<item comment="" description="High forcing (ScenarioMIP SSP5-85) future scenario (2015-2050) coupled ocean atmosphere simulations at high and standard resolution. For optimal comparison between models aerosol concentrations would be preferable and not emissions. At least one ensemble member at high resolution, minimum atmosphere 25-50 km at mid-latitudes and ocean resolution of 0.25 degrees, and a minimum of daily coupling between ocean and atmosphere. At least one ensemble member at standard model resolution." egid="f16e66d4-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2050.0" ensz="2" label="highres-future" mcfg="HIGH and LOW (e.g. 25km and 60-100km resolution)" mip="HighResMIP" nstart="1" ntot="200" starty="1951.0" tier="2" title="coupled future 2015-2050 using a scenario as close to CMIP5 RCP8.5 as possible within CMIP6" uid="6131bd34-4cff-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="100"></item> 
    72817259<item comment="Extension of stratospheric-ozone-only run under SSP2-4.5. In models with coupled chemistry, the chemistry scheme should be turned off, and the simulated ensemble mean monthly mean 3D stratospheric ozone concentrations from the SSP2-4.5 simulations should be prescribed. Tropospheric ozone should be fixed at 3D long-term monthly mean piControl values, with a value of 100 ppbv ozone concentration in this piControl climatology used to separate the troposphere from the stratosphere. In models without coupled chemistry the same stratospheric ozone prescribed in SSP2-4.5 should be prescribed. Stratospheric ozone concentrations will be provided by CCMI" description="Extension of stratospheric-ozone-only run, hist-stratO3, under SSP2-4.5 forcing to the year 2100. In models with coupled chemistry, he chemistry scheme should be turned off, and the simulated ensemble mean monthly mean 3D stratospheric ozone concentrations from the SSP2-4.5 simulations should be prescribed. Tropospheric ozone should be fixed at 3D long-term monthly mean piControl values, with a value of 100 ppbv ozone concentration in this piControl climatology used to separate the troposphere from the stratosphere.   In models without coupled chmeistry the same stratospheric ozone prescribed in SSP2-45 should be prescribed. Stratospheric ozone concentrations will be provided by CCMI." egid="f16d9880-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="1" label="ssp245-stratO3" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="DAMIP" nstart="1" ntot="80" starty="2021.0" tier="2" title="stratospheric-ozone-only SSP2-4.5 run" uid="f16d9f60-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="80"></item> 
    7282 <item comment="" description="Same as the OMIP experiment except that it is not initialized with observed climatologies; rather it is initialized with results from at least a 1000-year spin up of the coupled physical-biogeochemical models. Also it includes radiocarbon to evaluate deep-ocean circulation." egid="f16eff5e-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="310.0" ensz="1" label="OMIP-B" mcfg="Global ocean - sea-ice coupled with required biogeochemistry" mip="OMIP" nstart="1" ntot="311" starty="1.0" tier="2" title="__unset__" uid="f16efdf6-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="311"></item> 
    72837260<item comment="" description="Pre-Industrial control simulation with a slab ocean. Maintain the same constant boundary forcing as the pre-industrial control integration." egid="f16fb11a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="TBD" ensz="1" label="control-slab" mcfg="AOGCM/ ESM" mip="VolMIP" nstart="1" ntot="30" starty="Preindustrial conditions" tier="3" title="control with slab ocean" uid="f16fafd0-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="30"></item> 
     7261<item comment="" description="Land surface model simulation.  Same as land-hist except with climate held constant. Branch from end of land-hist spin-up period and continue with spin-up forcing looping over the first 20 years of meteorological forcing data.  Use the same land model configuration as used in the coupled CMIP6 historical simulations. Include representation of land cover, land use and land management. All applicable land use features should be active. Start year either 1850 or 1700 depending on standard practice for particular model. This experiment can and likely will be a different configuration across models due to different representations of land use for each model." egid="f16ed97a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="10" label="land-cClim" mcfg="LND" mip="LUMIP" nstart="1" ntot="1650" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="historical land-only constant climate" uid="6e2709b8-4c5a-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="165"></item> 
    72847262<item comment="Historical WMGHG concentrations and NTCF emissions, 1950 halocarbon concentrations" description="Historical atmoshere only simulation with historical WMGHG, transient historical SSTs. Ozone depleting substances fixed at 1950 emission levels." egid="8709a922-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="2014.0" ensz="1" label="histSST-1950HC" mcfg="AGCM (using SST histALL)" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="65" starty="1950.0" tier="1" title="historical SSTs and historical forcing, but with1950 halocarbon concentrations" uid="70e3ea68-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="65"></item> 
    72857263<item comment="Historical anthropogenic-Aerosols-only run" description="Historical aerosol-only simulations resemble the historical simulations but instead are forced by changes in anthropogenic aerosol forcing only (sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, ammonia, NOx and VOCs). Report what sets of emissions and boundary conditions are used." egid="f16d9470-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2020.0" ensz="3" label="hist-aer" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="DAMIP" nstart="1" ntot="513" starty="1850.0" tier="1" title="historical anthropogenic aerosols-only run" uid="f16d931c-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="171"></item> 
     
    72957273<item comment="Decadal hindcasts begun each year from 1960 to present, or every other year at minimum: nstart abbreviated: 30-60: total number of years abbreviated: 1500-6000" description="A coordinated set of multi-member ensembles of retrospective forecasts (hindcasts) initialised each year from 1960 to the present (otherwise every second year). Prescribed CMIP6 historical values of atmospheric composition and/or emissions (and other conditions including volcanic aerosols).  Future forcing as the SSP2-4.5 scenario. Run each member for at least 5 years, extend the duration to 10 years with Tier-2 priority.  Additional ensemble members for each start date are requested with Tier-3 priority." egid="f16dbbe4-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="present (to 2019)" ensz="10" label="dcppA-hindcast" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="DCPP" nstart="30" ntot="1500" starty="1960.0" tier="1" title="hindcast initialized based on observations and using historical forcing" uid="f16dba9a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="5"></item> 
    72967274<item comment="" description="Impose Mid-Pliocene Warm Period (3.2 Ma ago) boundary conditions for ice sheet and land-sea mask, topography (smaller ice sheets),  the atmospheric concentration of well-mixed greenhouse gases and orbital parameters.  Run for at least 100 years after spin-up. It is mandatory that the model versions used for the PMIP-CMIP6 experiments are the exactly the same as for the other CMIP6 experiments, in particular the DECK and historical simulations." egid="f16f108e-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="as long as possible to have >= 100 stabilised years (I.e 500 )" ensz="1" label="midPliocene-eoi400" mcfg="ESM" mip="PMIP" nstart="1" ntot="100" starty="from PI or pre-existing PlioExp" tier="1" title="mid-Pliocene warm period" uid="f16f0f30-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="100"></item> 
    7297 <item comment="1850 control with doubled sea salt emissions" description="Fixed SST ERF simulation. Use pre-industrial climatological average SST and sea-ice distributions. Apply pre-industrial concentrations of WMGHG (well mixed greenhouse gases). The sea salt aerosol emission fluxes in the interactive parameterisation are double their pre-industrial value.  All other NTCF (near term climate forcers) are set to pre-industrial levels. For models that do not interactively parameterise particular emissions, the fluxes from the 1850 climatological dataset should be doubled. This is a timeslice experiment of 30 years total." egid="8709ad32-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="2014.0" ensz="1" label="piClim-2xss" mcfg="AGCM" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="30" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="pre-industrial climatological SSTs and forcing, but with doubled emissions of sea salt" uid="70e44742-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="30"></item> 
     7275<item comment="" description="Historical coupled ocean atmosphere simulations of the near past (1950-2014) at high and standard resolution. For optimal comparison between models aerosol concentrations would be preferable and not emissions. At least one ensemble member at high resolution, minimum atmosphere 25-50 km at mid-latitudes and ocean resolution of 0.25 degrees, and a minimum of daily coupling between ocean and atmosphere. At least one ensemble member at standard model resolution." egid="f16e66d4-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2050.0" ensz="2" label="spinup-1950" mcfg="HIGH and LOW (e.g. 25km and 60-100km resolution)" mip="HighResMIP" nstart="1" ntot="200" starty="1951.0" tier="2" title="coupled spinup with fixed 1950s forcings from 1950 initial conditions (with ocean at rest) to provide initial condition for control-1950 and hist-1950" uid="6131ba78-4cff-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="100"></item> 
    72987276<item comment="1850 control with doubled emissions of DMS" description="Fixed SST ERF simulation. Use pre-industrial climatological average SST and sea-ice distributions. Apply pre-industrial concentrations of WMGHG (well mixed greenhouse gases). The oceanic DMS (dimethyl sulphide) aerosol emission fluxes in the interactive parameterisation are double their pre-industrial value.  All other NTCF (near term climate forcers) are set to pre-industrial levels. For models that do not interactively parameterise particular emissions, the fluxes from the 1850 climatological dataset should be doubled. This is a timeslice experiment of 30 years total." egid="8709ad32-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="1850.0" ensz="1" label="piClim-2xDMS" mcfg="AGCM" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="30" starty="1850.0" tier="3" title="pre-industrial climatological SSTs and forcing, but with doubled emissions of DMS" uid="70e44a80-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="30"></item> 
    72997277<item comment="" description="Fully-coupled concentration driven 1% per year increasing CO2 up to 4XCO2 simulation with time varying nitrogen deposition.  Only applicable to models whose simulation will be affected by the deposition of reactive nitrogen either due to terrestrial or marine nitrogen cycle effects on carbon fluxes and store." egid="f16d22b0-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="1989.0" ensz="1" label="1pctCO2Ndep" mcfg="" mip="C4MIP" nstart="1" ntot="140" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="1 percent per year increasing CO2 experiment with increasing N-deposition" uid="f16d2c2e-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="140"></item> 
     
    73017279<item comment="" description="An uncoupled (atmosphere and land) experiment with interactive vegetation in which sea suface temperature (SST) and sea ice concentrations (SIC) are fixed at model-specific pre-industrial control climatology.  Greenhouse gases set to present day (2014) values, other forcing agents are specified at pre-industrial values.  Run for 30 years." egid="f16f21a0-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="30.0" ensz="1" label="piClim-ghg" mcfg="Atmos only, fixed SST/ice" mip="RFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="30" starty="1.0" tier="1" title="effective radiative forcing by present-day greenhouse gases" uid="f16f2a2e-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="30"></item> 
    73027280<item comment="" description="SSP-based RCP scenario with medium radiative forcing by the end of the century.  Following approximately RCP4.5 global forcing pathway with SSP2 socioeconomic conditions. Radiative forcing reaches a level of 4.5 W/m2 in 2100. Concentration-driven." egid="f16f57e2-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="1" label="ssp245" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="ScenarioMIP" nstart="1" ntot="86" starty="2015.0" tier="1" title="update of RCP4.5 based on SSP2" uid="f16f5da0-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="86"></item> 
     7281<item comment="" description="Land surface model simulation.  Same as land-hist except with fertilisation area held at 1850 levels/distribution. Only relevant if land-hist utilises at least some form of crop management (e.g. planting and harvesting).  Start year either 1850 or 1700 depending on standard practice for particular model." egid="f16ed97a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="10" label="land-crop-noFert" mcfg="LND" mip="LUMIP" nstart="1" ntot="1650" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="historical land-only with no fertilizer" uid="6e270c1a-4c5a-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="165"></item> 
     7282<item comment="1850 control with doubled sea salt emissions" description="Fixed SST ERF simulation. Use pre-industrial climatological average SST and sea-ice distributions. Apply pre-industrial concentrations of WMGHG (well mixed greenhouse gases). The sea salt aerosol emission fluxes in the interactive parameterisation are double their pre-industrial value.  All other NTCF (near term climate forcers) are set to pre-industrial levels. For models that do not interactively parameterise particular emissions, the fluxes from the 1850 climatological dataset should be doubled. This is a timeslice experiment of 30 years total." egid="8709ad32-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="2014.0" ensz="1" label="piClim-2xss" mcfg="AGCM" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="30" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="pre-industrial climatological SSTs and forcing, but with doubled emissions of sea salt" uid="70e44742-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="30"></item> 
     7283<item comment="" description="Global ocean/sea-ice/inert-chemical/biogeochemical experiment.  Rather than using observed climatologies to initialise the biogeochemistry as in omipv1, this simulation will be initialised with model tracer fields that have been spun up for at least 2000 years, ideally for 5000 years.  The omipv1-spunup simulations (and spin-ups) will include radiocarbon (abiotic DIC and DI14C). Atmospheric forcing follows CORE-II, inert chemical tracers follow OCMIP2, and biogeochemical tracers follow OCMIP3. Only for modelling groups that have biogeochemistry and are able to afford a millennial-scale spin-up." egid="f16efa68-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="310.0" ensz="1" label="omip1-spunup" mcfg="Global ocean - sea-ice coupled with optional biogeochemistry" mip="OMIP" nstart="1" ntot="310" starty="1.0" tier="1" title="OMIP experiment forced by Large and Yeager (CORE-2, NCEP) atmospheric data set and initialized from at least a 2000-year spin up of the coupled physical-biogeochemical model" uid="fed77bc2-4d00-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="310"></item> 
    73037284<item comment="Mechanisms and predictability of the hiatus and of similar long timescale variations of both signs" description="Restore the north Atlantic sea surface temperature to the model control run climatology. Outside the restored region the model evolves freely allowing full climate system response. No interannual changes in external forcing. Time period: 10 years. 25 ensemble members. SST signal may also be imposed by altering surface fluxes." egid="f16dcf30-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="" ensz="25" label="dcppC-atl-control" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="DCPP" nstart="1" ntot="250" starty="control" tier="1" title="Idealized Atlantic control" uid="f16dcdf0-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="10"></item> 
    73047285<item comment="" description="Impose surface heat flux anomalies to the ocean, calculated from the ensemble mean of the CMIP5 1pctCO2 simulations at the time of CO2 doubling. Impose pre-industrial atmospheric conditions. Branch from the piControl at the same point as the 1pctCO2 experiment." egid="f16e0d74-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="70.0" ensz="1" label="faf-heat" mcfg="AOGCM" mip="FAFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="70" starty="1.0" tier="1" title="control plus perturbative surface flux of heat into ocean" uid="f16e1030-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="70"></item> 
    7305 <item comment="" description="The topography of the highlands in Africa, N. America and S. America TP is modified by setting surface elevations to a certain height (500m).Same model as DECK." egid="f16e28d6-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2013.0" ensz="1" label="DHLD" mcfg="AGCM" mip="GMMIP" nstart="1" ntot="35" starty="1979.0" tier="3" title="__unset__" uid="f16e2e30-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="35"></item> 
     7286<item comment="" description="The topography of the highlands in Africa, N. America and S. America TP is modified by setting surface elevations to 500m. Other settings are the same as the standard DECK AMIP simulation. Minimum number of integrations is 1." egid="f16e28d6-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2013.0" ensz="1" label="amip-hld" mcfg="AGCM" mip="GMMIP" nstart="1" ntot="35" starty="1979.0" tier="3" title="same as &quot;amip&quot; run, but surface elevations of the East African Highlands in Africa, Sierra Madre in N. America and Andes in S. America reduced to 500m" uid="f16e2e30-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="35"></item> 
    73067287<item comment="Idealized 1%/yr CO2 increase to 4xC02 over 140yrs and kept constant at 4xCO2 for an additional 200 to 400 yrs simulation that includes interactive ice sheets" description="Increase atmospheric carbon dioxide by 1% per year to quadrupling then hold fixed for 200 years in a model with interactive ice sheets. The experiment should be identical to the corresponding standard CMIP AOGCM experiment except for the treatment of ice sheets. 1pctCO2to4x-withism forcing differs from the 1% increase in CO2 experiment in that  after year 140 , when the CO2 levels = 4xCO2, the concentration of CO2 remains set to 4xCO2 for the remainder of the experiment Run for a minimum of 350 years (500 years encouraged)." egid="f16e77fa-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="As long as possible (350 or 500)" ensz="1" label="1pctCO2to4x-withism" mcfg="AOGCM-ISM" mip="ISMIP6" nstart="1" ntot="350" starty="From piControlwithism" tier="1" title="simulation with interactive ice sheet forced by 1 percent per year increase in CO2 to 4xCO2 (subsequently held fixed)" uid="f16e76a6-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="350"></item> 
    73077288<item comment="" description="Idealized deforestation experiment. 20 million square km forest area (covered by trees) is converted to natural unmanaged grassland over a period of 50 years with a linear rate of 400000 km2/yr followed by 30 years of constant forest cover. Run for 80 years. Simulations should be branched from an 1850 control simulation (piControl) at least 80 years prior to the end of the piControl simulation so that deforest-globe and piControl can be directly compared.  All pre-industrial forcings including CO2 concentration and land-use maps and land management should be maintained as in the piControl.  Deforestation should be restricted to the top 30% of land grid cells in terms of their area of tree cover.  Effectively this concentrates deforestation in the tropical rainforest and boreal forest regions." egid="f16ed2ea-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="1920.0" ensz="1" label="deforest-globe" mcfg="GCM" mip="LUMIP" nstart="1" ntot="70" starty="1850.0" tier="1" title="idealized transient global deforestation" uid="f16ed18c-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="70"></item> 
    73087289<item comment="Extension of natural-only run under SSP2-4.5" description="An extension of at least one of the hist-nat (histNAT) simulations to the year 2100 following SSP2-45 solar and volcanic forcing. The future solar forcing data recommended for CMIP6 has a downward trend (Matthes et al., 2016)." egid="f16dae9c-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="1" label="ssp245-nat" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="DAMIP" nstart="1" ntot="80" starty="2021.0" tier="3" title="natural-only SSP2-4.5 run" uid="f16db13a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="80"></item> 
    73097290<item comment="" description="Future scenario with low radiative forcing by the end of century. Following a forcing pathway below RCP2.6. Specific SSP and 2100 forcing level to be finalized with IAM groups within next few months. Concentration-driven." egid="f16f792a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="1" label="ssp119" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="ScenarioMIP" nstart="1" ntot="86" starty="2015.0" tier="3" title="low-end scenario reaching 1.9 W m-2, based on SSP1" uid="f16f77c2-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="86"></item> 
     7291<item comment="" description="Extend Forced_Atmos_land to 2050 with agreed forcings (with option to extend further to 2100)" egid="f16e6ac6-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2050.0" ensz="1" label="highresSST-4xCO2" mcfg="HIGH and LOW (e.g. 25km and 60-100km resolution)" mip="HighResMIP" nstart="1" ntot="36" starty="2015.0" tier="3" title="__unset__" uid="6532c230-4cfe-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="36"></item> 
    73107292<item comment="Historical WMGHG and halocarbons concentrations, 1850 NTCF emissions" description="Impose historical WMGHG and halocarbon concentrations. Near Term Climate Forcers (NTCFs), namely tropospheric aerosols and tropospheric ozone precursors, to be  fixed at 1850 emission levels. These simulations parallel the &quot;CMIP6 historical&quot;, and differ only by fixing the anthropogenic emissions or concentrations of a specified class of species.   All other forcing agents must evolve as in &quot;CMIP6 historical&quot;." egid="8709a634-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="2014.0" ensz="3" label="hist-piNTCF" mcfg="AOGCM" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="495" starty="1850.0" tier="1" title="historical forcing, but with pre-industrial NTCF emissions" uid="70e285ce-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="165"></item> 
    73117293<item comment="" description="Add a surface flux of passive tracer at the same rate as the surface heat flux perturbation, calculated from the ensemble mean of the CMIP5 1pctCO2 simulations at the time of CO2 doubling. Impose pre-industrial atmospheric conditions. Branch from the piControl at the same point as the 1pctCO2 experiment. This experiment does not affect the model evolution,  so the experiment is equivalent to the piControl with an extra diagnostic tracer." egid="f16e16de-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="70.0" ensz="1" label="faf-passiveheat" mcfg="AOGCM" mip="FAFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="70" starty="1.0" tier="2" title="control plus surface flux of passive heat tracer into ocean" uid="f16e1594-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="70"></item> 
     
    73247306<item comment="" description="Preindustrial conditions. An uncoupled (atmosphere and land) experiment with interactive vegetation in which sea suface temperatures (SST) and sea ice concentrations (SIC) are fixed at model-specific pre-industrial control climatology. Run for 30 years." egid="f16f21a0-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="30.0" ensz="1" label="piClim-control" mcfg="Atmos only, fixed SST/ice" mip="RFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="30" starty="1.0" tier="1" title="effective radiative forcing in present-day" uid="f16f2042-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="30"></item> 
    73257307<item comment="" description="An uncoupled (atmosphere and land) experiment with interactive vegetation in which sea surface temperatures (SST) and sea ice concentrations (SIC) are fixed at model-specific pre-industrial control climatology.  Transient forcing to be consistent with historical forcing used in the DAMIP hist-all experiment and future forcing to be consistent with the ScenarioMIP SSP2 RCP4.5 scenario forcing.  A small ensemble of three simulations from 1850-2100." egid="f16f3406-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="3" label="piClim-histall" mcfg="Atmos only, fixed SST/ice" mip="RFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="753" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="transient effective radiative forcing" uid="f16f32a8-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="251"></item> 
     7308<item comment="" description="High forcing (ScenarioMIP SSP5-85) future scenario (2015-2050) atmosphere only simulations at high and standard resolution, with an option to continue to 2100. For optimal comparison between models aerosol concentrations would be preferable and not emissions. Future SST and SIC are determined from a blend of warming rates derived from an ensemble mean of CMIP5 RCP8.5 simulations and interannual variability derived from the historic 1960-2014 period. At least one ensemble member at high resolution, minimum atmosphere 25-50 km at mid-latitudes. At least one ensemble member at standard model resolution." egid="f16e6ac6-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2050.0" ensz="1" label="highresSST-future" mcfg="HIGH and LOW (e.g. 25km and 60-100km resolution)" mip="HighResMIP" nstart="1" ntot="36" starty="2015.0" tier="3" title="forced atmosphere experiment for 2015-2050 using SST/sea-ice derived from CMIP5 RCP8.5 simulations and a scenario as close to RCP8.5 as possible within CMIP6" uid="6532c6cc-4cfe-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="36"></item> 
    73267309<item comment="Future SSP3-7.0 with reduced black carbon emissions, prescribed SSTs" description="SSP3-7.0, prescribed SSTs, with low black carbon emissions" egid="8709abf2-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="2055.0" ensz="1" label="ssp370SST-lowBC" mcfg="AGCM (using SST SSP3-7)" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="41" starty="2015.0" tier="1" title="SSP3-7.0, prescribed SSTs, with low black carbon emissions" uid="70e4023c-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="41"></item> 
    73277310<item comment="" description="Continuation of CFMIP-2 AMIP experiments and CMIP5 experiment 6.7b. Aquaplanet (no land) experiment with CO2 set to 4x the AMIP mean concentration and no seasonal cycle.  Impose zonally uniform SSTs on a planet without continents." egid="f16d4718-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="1988.0" ensz="1" label="aqua-4xCO2" mcfg="Atmosphere-only" mip="CFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="10" starty="1979.0" tier="1" title="aquaplanet with control SST and 4xCO2" uid="f16d4f56-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="10"></item> 
     
    73397322<item comment="" description="Fixed SST ERF simulation. Use pre-industrial climatological average SST and sea-ice distributions. Apply pre-industrial concentrations of WMGHG (well mixed greenhouse gases), pre-industrial tropospheric ozone precursors and present day (2014) emissions of aersols and aerosol precursors.  This is a timeslice experiment of 30 years total." egid="f16f21a0-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="30.0" ensz="1" label="piClim-aer" mcfg="Atmos only, fixed SST/ice" mip="RFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="30" starty="1.0" tier="1" title="effective radiative forcing by present-day aerosols" uid="f16f2d1c-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="30"></item> 
    73407323<item comment="" description="A historical (1850-2014) experiment using a coupled AOGCM in which aerosol optical properties including cloud-radiation interactions are prescribed by RFMIP.  Aerosol forcings to be consistent with the historical forcing used in the DAMIP experiments. Only to be performed by models who are also running simulations for DAMIP." egid="f16f411c-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="4" label="hist-spAer-aer" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="RFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="660" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="historical simulation with specified anthropogenic aerosols, no other forcings" uid="f16f4536-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="165"></item> 
     7324<item comment="" description="Extend Forced_Atmos_land to 2050 with agreed forcings (with option to extend further to 2100)" egid="f16e6ac6-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2050.0" ensz="1" label="highresSST-p4K" mcfg="HIGH and LOW (e.g. 25km and 60-100km resolution)" mip="HighResMIP" nstart="1" ntot="36" starty="2015.0" tier="3" title="uniform 4K warming of highresSST-present SST" uid="6532c802-4cfe-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="36"></item> 
    73417325<item comment="Historical WMGHG, halocarbon concentrations and O3 precursor emissions, 1850 aerosol precursor emissions" description="Historical WMGHG and Halocarbon concentrations.  Historical ozone precursor emissions (e.g. NOx).  Aerosols and aerosol precursors fixed at 1850 emission levels." egid="8709a634-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="2014.0" ensz="3" label="hist-piAer" mcfg="AOGCM" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="495" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="historical forcing, but with pre-industrial aerosol emissions" uid="70e323b2-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="165"></item> 
    73427326<item comment="Future SSP3-7.0 with low land use change (from ssp126), prescribed SSTs" description="SSP3-7.0, prescribed SSTs, with SSP1-2.6 land use" egid="8709abf2-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="2050.0" ensz="2" label="ssp370SST-ssp126Lu" mcfg="AGCM (using SST SSP3-7)" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="20" starty="2050.0" tier="3" title="SSP3-7.0, prescribed SSTs, with SSP1-2.6 land use" uid="70e40f84-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="10"></item> 
     7327<item comment="" description="Prescribed land conditions 30yr running mean" egid="f16ebb02-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="4" label="lfmip-rmLC-cruNcep" mcfg="LND-ATM-OC" mip="LS3MIP" nstart="1" ntot="484" starty="1980.0" tier="2" title="as LFMIP-rmLC with Land-Hist-cruNcep" uid="7d84d87a-4cfc-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="121"></item> 
    73437328<item comment="" description="Impose an instantaneous doubling of the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, then hold fixed." egid="f16d5672-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="" ensz="1" label="abrupt-2xCO2" mcfg="Coupled AOGCM" mip="CFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="150" starty="" tier="2" title="abrupt doubling of CO2" uid="f16d6946-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="150"></item> 
    73447329<item comment="" description="idealized Pacific control" egid="f16dcf30-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="" ensz="10" label="dcppC-pac-control" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="DCPP" nstart="1" ntot="100" starty="control" tier="1" title="idealized Pacific control" uid="f16dd728-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="10"></item> 
    73457330<item comment="Effects of volcanoes on decadal prediction and predictability of forced and internal variability components: years per sim abbreviated: 5 to 10: total number of years abbreviated: 50-100" description="Prediction experiment without volcano forcing. Repeat DCCP-A1 1982 hindcast without El Chichon forcing. Background volcanic aerosol to be the same as that used in the 2015 forecast. 10 ensemble members. Run each member for at least 5 years, preferably 10 years." egid="f16dfb22-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="1982.0" ensz="10" label="dcppC-hindcast-noElChichon" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="DCPP" nstart="1" ntot="50" starty="1982.0" tier="2" title="hindcast but with only background volcanic forcing to be the same as that used in the 2015 forecast" uid="f16dfde8-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="5"></item> 
    7346 <item comment="" description="Surface sensible heat released at the elevation above 500m over the TIP is not allowed to heat the atmosphere.Same model as DECK." egid="f16e28d6-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2013.0" ensz="1" label="DTIP-DSH" mcfg="AGCM" mip="GMMIP" nstart="1" ntot="35" starty="1979.0" tier="3" title="__unset__" uid="f16e2b7e-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="35"></item> 
     7331<item comment="" description="Surface sensible heat released at the elevation above 500m over the Tibetan Plateau (TIP) is not allowed to heat the atmosphere. Other settings are the same as the standard DECK AMIP simulation. Minimum number of integrations is 1." egid="f16e28d6-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2013.0" ensz="1" label="amip-TIP-nosh" mcfg="AGCM" mip="GMMIP" nstart="1" ntot="35" starty="1979.0" tier="3" title="same as &quot;amip&quot; run, but sensible heat not allowed for elevations of the Tibetan-Iranian Plateau and Himalayas above 500m" uid="f16e2b7e-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="35"></item> 
    73477332<item comment="" description="Continuation of CFMIP-2 AMIP experiments and CMIP5 experiment 6.5. AMIP conditions are imposed but the radiation code sees quadrupled CO2, relative to the AMIP. If the carbon cycle remains active, it should continue to &quot;see&quot; AMIP CO2, while the radiation should see 4xCO2 with respect to the AMIP experiment." egid="f16d404c-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="1" label="amip-4xCO2" mcfg="Atmosphere-only" mip="CFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="36" starty="1979.0" tier="1" title="AMIP SSTs with 4xCO2" uid="f16d4312-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="36"></item> 
    73487333<item comment="Ongoing decadal forecasts" description="Ensembles of ongoing real-time 5-year forecsasts. Initialisation based on observations. Atmospheric composition and/or emissions (and other conditions including volcanic aerosols) to follow prescribed SSP2-4.5 forcing scenario. Run each member for 5 years, extend the duration to 10 years with Tier-2 priority. Additional ensemble members for each start date are requested with Tier-2 priority." egid="f16dcb34-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="ongoing each year" ensz="10" label="dcppB-forecast" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="DCPP" nstart="1" ntot="50" starty="present" tier="1" title="forecast initialized from observations with forcing from ssp245" uid="f16dc9d6-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="5"></item> 
     
    73517336<item comment="Last interglacial simulation of ice sheet evolution driven by PMIP lig127k" description="Stand alone ice sheet model driven offline by ISMIP6 CMIP6 standard input for the PMIP4 Last Interglacial experiment, lig124k." egid="f16e9ea6-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="" ensz="1" label="ism-lig127k-std" mcfg="ISM only" mip="ISMIP6" nstart="1" ntot="100" starty="" tier="3" title="offline ice sheet forced by ISMIP6-specified AGCM last interglacial output" uid="f16e9d5c-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="100"></item> 
    73527337<item comment="" description="A historical (1850-2014) experiment using a coupled AOGCM in which aerosol optical properties including cloud-radiation interactions are prescribed by RFMIP.  Other forcings to be consistent with the historical forcing used in the DAMIP experiments.  One ensemble member required for RFMIP.  Four ensemble members required for inclusion in DAMIP." egid="f16f411c-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="4" label="hist-spAer-all" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="RFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="660" starty="1850.0" tier="1" title="historical simulation with specified anthropogenic aerosols" uid="f16f3fbe-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="165"></item> 
     7338<item comment="" description="Land surface model simulation.  Same as land-hist except using alternative high land-use history reconstructions that span uncertainty in agriculture and wood harvest.  Note that land use in 1700 and 1850 will be different to that in land-hist so model will need to be spun up again for each alternative dataset. Use the same land model configuration as used in the coupled CMIP6 historical simulations. Include representation of land cover, land use and land management. All applicable land use features should be active. This experiment can and likely will be a different configuration across models due to different representations of land use for each model." egid="f16ed97a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="10" label="land-hist-altLu1" mcfg="LND" mip="LUMIP" nstart="1" ntot="1650" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="historical land-only alternate land-use history" uid="6e270fa8-4c5a-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="165"></item> 
    73537339<item comment="Perturbation from 1850 control using 2014 N2O concentrations" description="Fixed SST ERF simulation. Use pre-industrial climatological average SST and sea-ice distributions. Apply present day (2014) concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O) all other WMGHG (well mixed greenhouse gas) concentrations set to pre-industrial levels.  Apply pre-industrial emissions of NTCF (near term climate forcers). This is a timeslice experiment of 30 years total.  Only models with stratospheric chemistry should run this experiment." egid="8709ad32-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="1850.0" ensz="1" label="piClim-N2O" mcfg="AGCM" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="30" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="pre-industrial climatological SSTs and forcing, but with 2014 N2O concentrations (including chemistry)" uid="70e42c08-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="30"></item> 
    73547340<item comment="Historical (non-CH4) WMGHG concentrations and NTCF emissions, 1850 CH4 concentrations" description="Historical atmoshere only simulation with historical forcings but with methane fixed at 1850 concentration levels." egid="8709a922-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="2014.0" ensz="1" label="histSST-piCH4" mcfg="AGCM (using SST histALL)" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="495" starty="1850.0" tier="1" title="historical SSTs and historical forcing, but with pre-industrial methane concentrations" uid="70e3edf6-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="165"></item> 
    7355 <item comment="" description="Forced global atmosphere-land simulations using daily 1/4 degree SST and sea-ice forcings, and aerosol concentrations (not emissions) to constrain model spread" egid="f16e62ce-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="1" label="Forced-Atmos-Land" mcfg="HIGH and LOW (e.g. 25km and 60-100km resolution)" mip="HighResMIP" nstart="1" ntot="64" starty="1951.0" tier="1" title="__unset__" uid="f16e618e-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="64"></item> 
     7341<item comment="" description="Historical AMIP simulations of the near past (1950-2014). HadISST2 sea surface temperature and sea ice concentrations at daily 1/4 degree resolution to be used (Rayner et al., 2016). At least one ensemble member at high resolution, minimum 25-50 km at mid-latitudes. At least one ensemble member at standard model resolution as used in the DECK and historical simulations." egid="f16e62ce-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="1" label="highresSST-present" mcfg="HIGH and LOW (e.g. 25km and 60-100km resolution)" mip="HighResMIP" nstart="1" ntot="64" starty="1951.0" tier="1" title="forced atmosphere experiment for 1950-2014" uid="f16e618e-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="64"></item> 
    73567342<item comment="" description="A historical (1850-2014) experiment using an atmosphere-land model with interactive vegetation in which sea surface temperatures (SST) and sea ice concentrations (SIC) are fixed at model-specific pre-industrial control climatology.  Transient forcing to be consistent with the historical forcing used in the DAMIP hist-all experiment but with RFMIP specified aerosol properties." egid="f16f50bc-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="4" label="piClim-spAer-histall" mcfg="Atmos-only" mip="RFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="660" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="transient effective radiative forcing with specified anthropogenic aerosol optical properties, all forcings" uid="f16f4f54-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="165"></item> 
    73577343<item comment="" description="As CMIP5/CFMIP-2 amip4K experiment, but with cloud-radiative effects switched off in the LW radiation code." egid="f16d5672-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="1" label="amip-p4K-lwoff" mcfg="Atmosphere-only" mip="CFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="36" starty="1979.0" tier="2" title="AMIP experiment with uniform 4K SST increase and with longwave cloud radiative effects off" uid="f16d5924-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="36"></item> 
     
    73617347<item comment="As volc-pinatubo-full, but as decadal prediction runs. Joint experiment with DCPP, forcing input and implementation of the forcing fully comply with the VolMIP protocol" description="Prediction experiment for 2015 with volcano forcing.  Repeat DCPP-A1 2015 forecast (from the dcppA-hindcast experiment) with Pinatubo forcing. Background volcanic aerosol to be the same as that used in the 1991 hindcast. 10 ensemble members. Run each member for at least 5 years, preferably 10 years." egid="f16dfb22-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="TBD" ensz="10" label="dcppC-forecast-addPinatubo" mcfg="AOGCM/ ESM" mip="VolMIP" nstart="10" ntot="50" starty="2015.0" tier="3" title="2015 forecast with added Pinatubo forcing" uid="f16fab98-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="5"></item> 
    73627348<item comment="" description="An atmosphere only climate simulation using prescribed sea surface temperature and sea ice concentrations but with other conditions as in the Historical simulation." egid="f16fbb42-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="" ensz="1" label="amip" mcfg="" mip="CMIP" nstart="1" ntot="40" starty="" tier="1" title="AMIP" uid="f16fc344-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="40"></item> 
     7349<item comment="" description="Land surface model simulation.  Same as land-hist except with CO2 held constant. Branch from end of land-hist spin-up period.  Use the same land model configuration as used in the coupled CMIP6 historical simulations. Include representation of land cover, land use and land management. All applicable land use features should be active. Start year either 1850 or 1700 depending on standard practice for particular model. This experiment can and likely will be a different configuration across models due to different representations of land use for each model." egid="f16ed97a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="10" label="land-cCO2" mcfg="LND" mip="LUMIP" nstart="1" ntot="1650" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="historical land-only constant CO2" uid="6e27086e-4c5a-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="165"></item> 
    73637350<item comment="Historical transient with SSTs prescribed from historical" description="Historical atmosphere only simulation with historical forcings in an AGCM model with interactive aerosols." egid="8709a922-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="2014.0" ensz="1" label="histSST" mcfg="AGCM (using SST histALL)" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="165" starty="1850.0" tier="1" title="historical prescribed SSTs and historical forcing" uid="70e3d12c-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="165"></item> 
    73647351<item comment="" description="Time slice at year 2020 of GeoMIP G7cirrus. Run for 10 years." egid="f16e4352-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2020.0" ensz="1" label="G7SST1-cirrus" mcfg="AGCM" mip="GeoMIP" nstart="1" ntot="10" starty="2020.0" tier="2" title="SSTs from year 2020 of SSP5-8.5; forcings and other prescribed conditions from year 2020 of SSP5-8.5 and cirrus thinning" uid="f16e5194-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="10"></item> 
    73657352<item comment="" description="A historical (1850-2014) experiment using an atmosphere-land model with interactive vegetation in which sea surface temperatures (SST) and sea ice concentrations (SIC) are fixed at model-specific pre-industrial control climatology.  Transient aerosol forcing specified by RFMIP, other forcing agents are set at pre-industrial levels." egid="f16f50bc-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="4" label="piClim-spAer-histaer" mcfg="Atmos-only" mip="RFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="660" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="transient effective radiative forcing with specified anthropogenic aerosol optical properties, aerosol forcing" uid="f16f53aa-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="165"></item> 
     7353<item comment="" description="Land surface model simulation.  Same as land-hist except with grazing and other management on pastureland helt at 1850 levels/distribution. i.e. all new pastureland treated as unmanaged grassland (as in land-crop-grass). Start year either 1850 or 1700 depending on standard practice for particular model." egid="f16ed97a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="10" label="land-noPasture" mcfg="LND" mip="LUMIP" nstart="1" ntot="1650" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="historical land-only with constant pastureland" uid="6e27146c-4c5a-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="165"></item> 
    73667354<item comment="" description="Conceptually similar to the abrupt 4xCO2 DECK experiment, except that the solar constant rather than CO2 is abruptly increased by 4%." egid="f16d5672-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="" ensz="1" label="abrupt-solp4p" mcfg="Coupled AOGCM" mip="CFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="150" starty="" tier="2" title="abrupt 4% increase in solar constant" uid="f16d63d8-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="150"></item> 
    73677355<item comment="Mechanisms and predictability of the hiatus and of similar long timescale variations of both signs" description="Restore to observed anomalies of sea surface temperature in the tropical eastern Pacific. Outside the restored region the model evolves freely allowing full climate system response. Historical values of atmospheric composition/emissions and solar forcing. Time period: 1950-2014 (run from 1920 if possible). 10 ensemble members.  SST signal may also be imposed by altering surface fluxes." egid="f16dcf30-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="10" label="dcppC-pac-pacemaker" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="DCPP" nstart="1" ntot="650" starty="1950 (from 1910 if possible)" tier="3" title="pacemaker Pacific experiment" uid="f16defec-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="65"></item> 
     
    73787366<item comment="" description="Land only simulations using WFDEI forcing data and a standard bias correction strategy. As LUMIP land-hist but with WFDEI dataset. WFDEI: WATCH Forcing Data methodology applied to ERA-Interim reanalysis data. The land model configuration should be identical to that used in the DECK and CMIP6 historical simulations for the parent coupled model.  Spin-up of the land-only simulations should follow the TRENDY protocol." egid="f16eab80-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="1" label="land-hist-wfdei" mcfg="LND" mip="LS3MIP" nstart="1" ntot="114" starty="1901.0" tier="2" title="as land-hist with WFDEI forcings" uid="f16eb364-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="114"></item> 
    73797367<item comment="main forcings : ice-sheet; trace gases, orbital parameters dust (forcing, or feedback if dust cycle represented in model)" description="Impose Last Glacial Maximum (21 kyr ago) boundary conditions for ice-sheet and land-sea mask, the atmospheric concentration of well-mixed greenhouse gases and orbital parameters.  Run for at least 100 years after spin-up. It is mandatory that the model versions used for the PMIP-CMIP6 experiments are the exactly the same as for the other CMIP6 experiments, in particular the DECK and historical simulations." egid="f16f03aa-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="as long as possible to have >= 100 stabilised years (I.e 500 to 1000 years for the simulation)" ensz="1" label="lgm" mcfg="ESM" mip="PMIP" nstart="1" ntot="100" starty="from PI or pre-existing LGM" tier="1" title="last glacial maximum" uid="f16f0242-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="100"></item> 
    7380 <item comment="" description="21st century overshoot scenario relative to SSP1_26. Specific design to be finalized with IAM groups within next several months." egid="f16f65f2-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="1" label="SSP126over" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="ScenarioMIP" nstart="1" ntot="86" starty="2015.0" tier="2" title="__unset__" uid="f16f73f8-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="86"></item> 
     7368<item comment="" description="Simulation of recent past (1850 to 2014) with atmospheric CO2 concentration calculated. Impose changing conditions (consistent with observations). To be performed with an Earth System Model (ESM) that can calculate atmospheric CO2 concentration and account for the fluxes of CO2 between the atmosphere, the ocean, and biosphere." egid="f16fc70e-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="" ensz="1" label="esm-hist" mcfg="" mip="CMIP" nstart="1" ntot="165" starty="" tier="1" title="all-forcing simulation of the recent past with atmospheric CO2 concentration calculated" uid="f16fc9ac-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="165"></item> 
     7369<item comment="" description="Prescribed land conditions 1980-2014 climate" egid="f16ebb02-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="4" label="lfmip-pdLC-wfdei" mcfg="LND-ATM-OC" mip="LS3MIP" nstart="1" ntot="484" starty="1980.0" tier="2" title="as LFMIP-pdLC with Land-Hist-wfdei" uid="623a9cf8-4cfc-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="121"></item> 
     7370<item comment="" description="Land surface model simulation. Same as land-hist except with fire management maintained at 1850 levels. Start year either 1850 or 1700 depending on standard practice for particular model." egid="f16ed97a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="10" label="land-noFire" mcfg="LND" mip="LUMIP" nstart="1" ntot="1650" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="historical land-only with no human fire management" uid="6e27132c-4c5a-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="165"></item> 
     7371<item comment="" description="Factorial set of land only experiments with increasingly realistic treatment of land management; derivatives of LMIP-hist (LS3MIP)" egid="f16ed97a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="10" label="land-noShiftCultivate" mcfg="LND" mip="LUMIP" nstart="1" ntot="1650" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="historical land-only with shifting cultivation turned off" uid="6e271598-4c5a-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="165"></item> 
    73817372<item comment="Perturbation from 1850 control using 2014 ozone precursor emissions" description="Fixed SST ERF simulation. Use pre-industrial climatological average SST and sea-ice distributions. Apply pre-industrial concentrations of WMGHG (well mixed greenhouse gases), pre-industrial emissions of aersols and aerosol precursors and present day (2014) tropospheric ozone precursors. This is a timeslice experiment of 30 years total." egid="8709ad32-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="1850.0" ensz="1" label="piClim-O3" mcfg="AGCM" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="30" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="pre-industrial climatological SSTs and forcing, but with 2014 ozone precursor emissions" uid="70e42528-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="30"></item> 
    7382 <item comment="" description="Simulation of recent past (1850 to 2014) with atmospheric CO2 concentration calculated. Impose changing conditions (consistent with observations). To be performed with an Earth System Model (ESM) that can calculate atmospheric CO2 concentration and account for the fluxes of CO2 between the atmosphere, the ocean, and biosphere." egid="f16fc70e-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="" ensz="1" label="esm-hist" mcfg="" mip="CMIP" nstart="1" ntot="165" starty="" tier="1" title="all-forcing simulation of the recent past with atmospheric CO2 concentration calculated" uid="f16fc9ac-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="165"></item> 
     7373<item comment="" description="Gap: Mitigated overshoot scenario with medium/low radiative forcing by the end of the 21st century.  The scenario follows SSP5-8.5, an unmitigated baseline scenario, through 2040, and then substantially negative net emissions thereafter." egid="f16f65f2-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="1" label="ssp534-over" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="ScenarioMIP" nstart="1" ntot="86" starty="2015.0" tier="2" title="overshoot of 3.4 W/m**2 branching from ssp585 in 2040" uid="f16f73f8-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="86"></item> 
     7374<item comment="" description="Prescribed land conditions 30yr running mean" egid="f16ebb02-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="4" label="lfmip-rmLC-wfdei" mcfg="LND-ATM-OC" mip="LS3MIP" nstart="1" ntot="484" starty="1980.0" tier="2" title="as LFMIP-rmLC with Land-Hist-wfdei" uid="7d84dd02-4cfc-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="121"></item> 
    73837375<item comment="Effects of volcanoes on decadal prediction and predictability of forced and internal variability components: years per sim abbreviated: 5 to 10: total number of years abbreviated: 50-100" description="Prediction experiment without volcano forcing. Repeat DCCP-A1 1991 hindcast without Pinatubo forcing. Background volcanic aerosol to be the same as that used in the 2015 forecast. 10 ensemble members. Run each member for at least 5 years, preferably 10 years." egid="f16dfb22-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="1991.0" ensz="10" label="dcppC-hindcast-noPinatubo" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="DCPP" nstart="1" ntot="50" starty="1991.0" tier="1" title="hindcast but with only background volcanic forcing to be the same as that used in the 2015 forecast" uid="f16df9d8-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="5"></item> 
    73847376<item comment="Idealized 1%/yr CO2 increase to 4xC02 over 140yrs and kept constant at 4xCO2 for an additional 200 to 400 yrs simulation with ice sheets forced &quot;offline&quot; with DECK 1pctCO2 using a standard forcing" description="Stand alone ice sheet model driven offline by ISMIP6 CMIP6 standard input for the idealised 1% per year atmospheric carbon dioxide increase to quadrupling and held fixed climate change experiment." egid="f16e77fa-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="As long as possible (350 or 500)" ensz="1" label="ism-1pctCO2to4x-std" mcfg="ISM only" mip="ISMIP6" nstart="1" ntot="350" starty="From pdControlforcedism" tier="1" title="offline ice sheet model forced by ISMIP6-specified AOGCM 1pctCO2to4x output" uid="f16e7ef8-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="350"></item> 
     7377<item comment="" description="Land surface model simulation.  Same as land-hist except with all new crop and pasture-land treated as unmanaged grassland. Start year either 1850 or 1700 depending on standard practice for particular model." egid="f16ed97a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="10" label="land-crop-grass" mcfg="LND" mip="LUMIP" nstart="1" ntot="1650" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="historical land-only with cropland as natural grassland" uid="6e270aee-4c5a-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="165"></item> 
    73857378<item comment="" description="idealized impact of IPV-" egid="f16dcf30-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="" ensz="10" label="dcppC-ipv-neg" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="DCPP" nstart="1" ntot="100" starty="control" tier="1" title="idealized negative IPV anomaly pattern" uid="f16ddc32-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="10"></item> 
    73867379<item comment="" description="Impose a perturbation in surface zonal and meridional momentum flux i.e. wind stress.  The stress perturbation is added to the momentum balance of the ocean water surface. The stress perturbation is calculated from the ensemble mean of the CMIP5 1pctCO2 simulations at the time of CO2 doubling.  Its dominant feature is the increase in westerly windstress in the Southern Ocean. Impose pre-industrial atmospheric conditions.  Branch from the piControl at the same point as the 1pctCO2 experiment." egid="f16e0d74-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="70.0" ensz="1" label="faf-stress" mcfg="AOGCM" mip="FAFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="70" starty="1.0" tier="1" title="control plus perturbative surface flux of momentum into ocean" uid="f16e0c20-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="70"></item> 
    7387 <item comment="" description="Extend Forced_Atmos_land to 2050 with agreed forcings (with option to extend further to 2100)" egid="f16e6ac6-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2050.0" ensz="1" label="Forced-Atmos-Land-2050" mcfg="HIGH and LOW (e.g. 25km and 60-100km resolution)" mip="HighResMIP" nstart="1" ntot="36" starty="2015.0" tier="3" title="__unset__" uid="f16e697c-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="36"></item> 
    73887380<item comment="Present-day control simulation for &quot;offline&quot; ice sheets" description="Stand alone ice sheet model driven offline by ISMIP6 CMIP6 standard input for constant present day forcing.  Forcings are set to the end of the initialisation procedure, which ranges from 1990s to 2014." egid="f16e6e9a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="" ensz="1" label="ism-pdControl-std" mcfg="ISM only" mip="ISMIP6" nstart="1" ntot="500" starty="" tier="1" title="offline ice sheet forced by ISMIP6-specified AOGCM pdControl output" uid="f16e7408-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="25"></item> 
    73897381<item comment="" description="An uncoupled (atmosphere and land) experiment with interactive vegetation in which sea suface temperature (SST) and sea ice concentrations (SIC) are fixed at model-specific pre-industrial control climatology.  Anthropogenic forcing agents (greenhouse gases, aerosols and land use) are specified at present day, 2015, values. Run for 30 years." egid="f16f21a0-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="30.0" ensz="1" label="piClim-anthro" mcfg="Atmos only, fixed SST/ice" mip="RFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="30" starty="1.0" tier="1" title="effective radiative forcing by present day anthropogenic agents" uid="f16f2754-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="30"></item> 
     
    73917383<item comment="Early 19th century cluster of strong tropical volcanic eruptions, including the 1809 event of unknown location, the 1815 Tambora and 1835 Cosigueina eruptions. Experiment initialized from PiControl" description="Early 19th century cluster of strong tropical volcanic eruptions, including the 1809 event of unknown location, and the 1815 Tambora and 1835 Cisuguina eruptions.  Run three ensemble members for at least 50 years to cover the multi-decadal oceanic response and to assess stationarity of post-cluster climate." egid="f16f9e8c-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="TBD" ensz="1" label="volc-cluster-ctrl" mcfg="AOGCM/ ESM" mip="VolMIP" nstart="3" ntot="150" starty="Preindustrial conditions" tier="2" title="19th century volcanic cluster initialized from PiControl" uid="f16f9c20-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="50"></item> 
    73927384<item comment="Idealized Northern Hemisphere high-latitude eruption emitting 28.1 Tg of SO2. Experiment initialized from PiControl" description="Idealised high-latitude (60N) northern hemisphere eruption corresponding to an initial emission of 28.1 Tg of SO2 (equal to half the total amount injected for volc-long-eq).  volc-long-hlN is not directly comparable to the 1783-84 Laki eruption since it does not try to reproduce the very specific characteristics of Laki. The experiment is designed to span very different initial climate states to systematically assess uncertainties in post-eruption behavior that are related to background climate conditions.  If, for instance, year Y of the control integration matches the desired conditions for the initial condition sampling, then the corresponding VolMIP simulation should start with restart data from year Y-1 of the control.  Run nine ensemble members for at least 20 years, but preferably longer (50 years) to cover the multi-decadal oceanic response. Initialisation date from the piControl start year is 1st April." egid="f16f8b72-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="TBD" ensz="1" label="volc-long-hlN" mcfg="AOGCM/ ESM" mip="VolMIP" nstart="9" ntot="180" starty="Preindustrial conditions" tier="2" title="idealized Northern Hemisphere high-latitude eruption emitting 28.1 Tg of SO2" uid="f16fa22e-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="20"></item> 
     7385<item comment="" description="Prescribed land conditions 1980-2014 climate" egid="f16ebb02-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="4" label="lfmip-pdLC-cruNcep" mcfg="LND-ATM-OC" mip="LS3MIP" nstart="1" ntot="484" starty="1980.0" tier="2" title="as LFMIP-pdLC with Land-Hist-cruNcep" uid="623a9b2c-4cfc-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="121"></item> 
    73937386<item comment="Future SSP3-7.0 with reduced NTCF emissions, prescribed SSTs" description="SSP3-7.0, prescribed SSTs, with low NTCF emissions" egid="8709abf2-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="2055.0" ensz="1" label="ssp370SST-lowNTCF" mcfg="AGCM (using SST SSP3-7)" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="41" starty="2015.0" tier="1" title="SSP3-7.0, prescribed SSTs, with low NTCF emissions" uid="70e3fec2-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="41"></item> 
    73947387<item comment="" description="Impose surface freshwater flux anomalies to the ocean (including the contribution from runoff change), calculated from the ensemble mean of the CMIP5 1pctCO2 simulations at the time of CO2 doubling. Impose pre-industrial atmospheric conditions. Branch from the piControl at the same point as the 1pctCO2 experiment." egid="f16e0d74-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="70.0" ensz="1" label="faf-water" mcfg="AOGCM" mip="FAFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="70" starty="1.0" tier="1" title="control plus perturbative surface flux of water into ocean" uid="f16e12ec-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="70"></item> 
     
    73997392<item comment="Effects of volcanoes on decadal prediction and predictability of forced and internal variability components: years per sim abbreviated: 5 to 10: total number of years abbreviated: 50-100" description="Prediction experiment for 2015 with volcano forcing.  Repeat DCPP-A1 2015 forecast (from the dcppA-hindcast experiment) with Agung forcing. Background volcanic aerosol to be the same as that used in the 1963 hindcast. 10 ensemble members. Run each member for at least 5 years, preferably 10 years." egid="f16dfb22-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2015.0" ensz="10" label="dcppC-forecast-addAgung" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="DCPP" nstart="1" ntot="50" starty="2015.0" tier="3" title="2015 forecast with added Agung forcing" uid="f16e0978-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="5"></item> 
    74007393<item comment="" description="" egid="f16fbb42-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="" ensz="1" label="piControl-spinup" mcfg="" mip="CMIP" nstart="1" ntot="100" starty="" tier="1" title="pre-industrial control (spin-up)" uid="f16fd3b6-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="100"></item> 
     7394<item comment="" description="Extend Forced_Atmos_land to 2050 with agreed forcings (with option to extend further to 2100)" egid="f16e6ac6-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2050.0" ensz="1" label="highresSST-LAI" mcfg="HIGH and LOW (e.g. 25km and 60-100km resolution)" mip="HighResMIP" nstart="1" ntot="36" starty="2015.0" tier="3" title="common LAI dataset within the highresSST-present experiment" uid="6532c56e-4cfe-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="36"></item> 
     7395<item comment="" description="Extend Forced_Atmos_land to 2050 with agreed forcings (with option to extend further to 2100)" egid="f16e6ac6-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2050.0" ensz="1" label="highresSST-smoothed" mcfg="HIGH and LOW (e.g. 25km and 60-100km resolution)" mip="HighResMIP" nstart="1" ntot="36" starty="2015.0" tier="3" title="smoothed SST version of highresSST-present" uid="6532c92e-4cfe-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="36"></item> 
     7396<item comment="" description="Prescribed land conditions 30yr running mean" egid="f16ebb02-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="4" label="lfmip-rmLC-princeton" mcfg="LND-ATM-OC" mip="LS3MIP" nstart="1" ntot="484" starty="1980.0" tier="2" title="as LFMIP-rmLC with Land-Hist-princeton" uid="7d84dbae-4cfc-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="121"></item> 
    74017397<item comment="Historical ALL forcing run with alternate estimates of aerosol concentrations/emissions" description="Very like the hist-all (histALL) simulations except that they contain alternative estimates of aerosol forcing." egid="f16db536-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2020.0" ensz="3" label="hist-all-aer2" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="DAMIP" nstart="1" ntot="513" starty="1850.0" tier="3" title="historical ALL-forcing run with alternate estimates of aerosol forcing" uid="f16db3ec-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="171"></item> 
    74027398<item comment="" description="Simulations with observed SST and land-hist output.  A &quot;pseudo-observed boundary condition&quot; experiment that uses AMIP SSTs and land boundary conditions generated by the land-hist experiment." egid="f16ebb02-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="1" label="amip-lfmip-pObs" mcfg="LND-ATM" mip="LS3MIP" nstart="1" ntot="114" starty="1901.0" tier="2" title="prescribed land (from pseudo-observations) and AMIP SSTs" uid="f16ec2dc-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="114"></item> 
    7403 <item comment="" description="Factorial set of land only experiments with increasingly realistic treatment of land management; derivatives of LMIP-hist (LS3MIP)" egid="f16ed97a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="10" label="landcover-manage-LND" mcfg="LND" mip="LUMIP" nstart="1" ntot="1650" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="__unset__" uid="f16ed83a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="165"></item> 
    74047399<item comment="" description="Offline radiative transfer calculations of vertically-resolved broadband-integrated longwave and shortwave fluxes for present-day (2015) clear sky (aerosol-free) conditions. Use RFMIP specified atmospheric distributions of temperature and humidity and surface properties over many profiles." egid="f16f18ea-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="0.0" ensz="0" label="rad-irf" mcfg="Offline-rad" mip="RFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="0" starty="0.0" tier="1" title="offline assessment of radiative transfer parmeterizations in clear skies" uid="f16f178c-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="0"></item> 
    74057400<item comment="" description="SSP-based RCP scenario with low radiative forcing by the end of the century.  Following approximately RCP2.6 global forcing pathway with SSP1 socioeconomic conditions. Radiative forcing reaches a level of 2.6 W/m2 in 2100. Concentration-driven." egid="f16f57e2-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="1" label="ssp126" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="ScenarioMIP" nstart="1" ntot="86" starty="2015.0" tier="1" title="update of RCP2.6 based on SSP1" uid="f16f6188-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="86"></item> 
     
    74177412<item comment="Mechanisms and predictability of the hiatus and of similar long timescale variations of both signs" description="idealized negative tropical AMV anomaly pattern" egid="f16dcf30-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="" ensz="25" label="dcppC-amv-Trop-neg" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="DCPP" nstart="1" ntot="250" starty="control" tier="2" title="Idealized climate impact of negative tropical AMV anomaly pattern" uid="f16de6b4-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="10"></item> 
    74187413<item comment="" description="Control for initMIP experiments" egid="f16ea284-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="" ensz="1" label="ism-ctrl-std" mcfg="ISM only" mip="ISMIP6" nstart="1" ntot="100" starty="" tier="1" title="offline ice sheet model initMIP control" uid="f16ea13a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="100"></item> 
    7419 <item comment="" description="Global ocean - sea-ice coupled experiment forced with the Coordinated Ocean - ice Reference Experiments inter-annually varying atmopsheric data sets for the 1948-2009 period. The 62-year forcing period is repeated for no less than 5 cycles." egid="f16efa68-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="310.0" ensz="1" label="OMIP-A" mcfg="Global ocean - sea-ice coupled with optional biogeochemistry" mip="OMIP" nstart="1" ntot="310" starty="1.0" tier="1" title="__unset__" uid="f16ef8f6-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="310"></item> 
    74207414<item comment="" description="An uncoupled (atmosphere and land) experiment with interactive vegetation in which sea surface temperatures (SST) and sea ice concentrations (SIC) are fixed at model-specific pre-industrial control climatology.  Transient natural forcing (solar and volcano) to be consistent with historical forcing used in the DAMIP hist-all experiment and future forcing used in the ScenarioMIP SSP2 RCP4.5 scenario.  A small ensemble of three simulations from 1850-2100." egid="f16f3406-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="3" label="piClim-histnat" mcfg="Atmos only, fixed SST/ice" mip="RFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="753" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="transient effective radiative forcing by natural perturbations" uid="f16f36f4-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="251"></item> 
    74217415<item comment="1991 Pinatubo forcing as used in the CMIP6 historical simulations. Requires special diagnostics of radiative and latent heating rates. A large number of ensemble members is required to address internal atmospheric variability" description="1991 Pinatubo forcing as used in the CMIP6 historical simulations.  Maintain the same constant boundary forcing as the pre-industrial control integration, except for the volcanic forcing. Requires special diagnostics of parameterised and resolved wave forcings, radiative and latent heating rates. The experiment will not account for the actual climate conditions when the real event ocurred (e.g., presence and strength of additional forcing factors). Instead, the experiment is designed to span very different initial climate states to systematically assess uncertainties in the post-eruption behavior that are related to background climate conditions. Sampling of an eastern phase of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), as observed after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption is preferred for those models that spontaneously generate such mode of stratospheric variability. Run at least 25 ensemble members for 3 years." egid="f16f90b8-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="TBD" ensz="1" label="volc-pinatubo-full" mcfg="AOGCM/ ESM" mip="VolMIP" nstart="25" ntot="75" starty="Preindustrial conditions" tier="1" title="Pinatubo experiment" uid="f16f8f50-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="3"></item> 
     7416<item comment="" description="Global ocean/sea-ice/inert-chemical/biogeochemical experiment.  Run for a minimum of five repeating cycles of the CORE-II forcing. Groups that are unable to run with biogeochemistry can participate in the physical/chemical portion." egid="f16efa68-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="310.0" ensz="1" label="omip1" mcfg="Global ocean - sea-ice coupled with optional biogeochemistry" mip="OMIP" nstart="1" ntot="310" starty="1.0" tier="1" title="OMIP experiment forced by Large and Yeager (CORE-2, NCEP) atmospheric data set and initialized with observed physical and biogeochemical ocean data" uid="fed778d4-4d00-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="310"></item> 
     7417<item comment="" description="Historical coupled ocean atmosphere simulations of the near past (1950-2014) at high and standard resolution. For optimal comparison between models aerosol concentrations would be preferable and not emissions. At least one ensemble member at high resolution, minimum atmosphere 25-50 km at mid-latitudes and ocean resolution of 0.25 degrees, and a minimum of daily coupling between ocean and atmosphere. At least one ensemble member at standard model resolution." egid="f16e66d4-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2050.0" ensz="2" label="hist-1950" mcfg="HIGH and LOW (e.g. 25km and 60-100km resolution)" mip="HighResMIP" nstart="1" ntot="200" starty="1951.0" tier="2" title="coupled historical 1950-2014" uid="6131bbe0-4cff-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="100"></item> 
    74227418<item comment="" description="Continuation of CFMIP-2 AMIP experiments and CMIP5 experiment 3.3. AMIP forcing but with cloud-radiative effects switched off in the LW radiation code." egid="f16d5672-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="1" label="amip-lwoff" mcfg="Atmosphere-only" mip="CFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="36" starty="1979.0" tier="2" title="AMIP experiment with longwave cloud-radiative effects off" uid="f16d550a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="36"></item> 
    74237419<item comment="Extension of aerosol-only run under SSP2-4.5" description="An extension of at least one of the hist-aer (histAER) simulations to the year 2100 following SSP2-4.5 aerosol concentrations. Forced with aerosol and aerosol precursor emissions only (sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, ammonia, NOx and VOCs)." egid="f16dae9c-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="1" label="ssp245-aer" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="DAMIP" nstart="1" ntot="80" starty="2021.0" tier="3" title="aerosol-only SSP2-4.5 run" uid="f16dad48-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="80"></item> 
     
    74267422<item comment="" description="Continuation of CFMIP-2 AMIP experiments and CMIP5 experiment 6.7a. Aquaplanet (no land) experiment with CO2 set to the AMIP mean concentration and no seasonal cycle.  Impose zonally uniform SSTs on a planet without continents." egid="f16d4718-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="1988.0" ensz="1" label="aqua-control" mcfg="Atmosphere-only" mip="CFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="10" starty="1979.0" tier="1" title="aquaplanet control" uid="f16d49c0-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="10"></item> 
    74277423<item comment="" description="Continuation of CFMIP-2 AMIP experiments and CMIP5 experiment 6.7c. Aquaplanet (no land) experiment with CO2 set to the AMIP mean concentration and no seasonal cycle.  Impose a uniform +4K perturbation to the zonally uniform SSTs of the aquaControl, on a planet without continents but with cloud-radiative effects switched off in the LW radiation code." egid="f16d5672-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="1988.0" ensz="1" label="aqua-p4K-lwoff" mcfg="Atmosphere-only" mip="CFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="10" starty="1979.0" tier="2" title="aquaplanet with uniform 4K SST increase and with longwave cloud radiative effects off" uid="f16d60f4-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="10"></item> 
     7424<item comment="Mechanisms and predictability of the hiatus and of similar long timescale variations of both signs" description="idealized positive tropical AMV anomaly pattern" egid="f16dcf30-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="" ensz="25" label="dcppC-amv-Trop-pos" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="DCPP" nstart="1" ntot="250" starty="control" tier="2" title="idealized positive tropical AMV anomaly pattern" uid="f16de40c-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="10"></item> 
    74287425<item comment="Effects of volcanoes on decadal prediction and predictability of forced and internal variability components: years per sim abbreviated: 5 to 10: total number of years abbreviated: 50-100" description="Prediction experiment for 2015 with volcano forcing.  Repeat DCPP-A1 2015 forecast (from the dcppA-hindcast experiment) with El Chichon forcing. Background volcanic aerosol to be the same as that used in the 1992 hindcast. 10 ensemble members. Run each member for at least 5 years, preferably 10 years." egid="f16dfb22-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2015.0" ensz="10" label="dcppC-forecast-addElChichon" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="DCPP" nstart="1" ntot="50" starty="2015.0" tier="3" title="2015 forecast with added El Chichon forcing" uid="f16e06c6-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="5"></item> 
    74297426<item comment="Historical simulation using &quot;offline&quot; ice sheet models. Forcing for ice sheet model is from its own AOGCM" description="Stand alone ice sheet model driven offline by a CMIP6 model with historical forcing.  The ice sheet model should be configured with the same settings as the ice sheet model in the historical-withism experiment and should use the same initial conditions." egid="f16e8682-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="1" label="ism-historical-self" mcfg="ISM only" mip="ISMIP6" nstart="1" ntot="165" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="offline ice sheet forced by ISM's own AOGCM historical output" uid="f16e893e-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="165"></item> 
    7430 <item comment="" description="Offline land surface simulations forced with ScenarioMIP SSP5-85 and SSP4-34 with 3 realisations for each forcing scenario.  A trend preserving statistical bias correction method is applied to 3-hopurly surface meteorological variables from the scenario output to generate a set of ensemble forcing data.  Gridded forcings will be provided by LS3MIP. The land model configuration should be identical to that used in the DECK and CMIP6 historical simulations for the parent coupled model.  Spin-up of the land-only simulations should follow the TRENDY protocol." egid="f16eb738-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="3" label="land-future" mcfg="LND" mip="LS3MIP" nstart="1" ntot="258" starty="2015.0" tier="2" title="future land-only" uid="f16eb5f8-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="86"></item> 
     7427<item comment="" description="Land surface model simulation.  Same as land-hist except irrigated area and fertiliser area/use should be held constant at 1850 levels.  Irrigation amounts within the 1850 irrigated area are allowed to change.  Only relevant if land-hist utilises at least some form of crop management (e.g. planting and harvesting).  Start year either 1850 or 1700 depending on standard practice for particular model." egid="f16ed97a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="10" label="land-crop-noIrrigFert" mcfg="LND" mip="LUMIP" nstart="1" ntot="1650" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="historical land-only with managed crops but with irrigation and fertilization held constant" uid="6e270e7c-4c5a-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="165"></item> 
    74317428<item comment="Historical (non-N2O) WMGHG concentrations and NTCF emissions, 1850 N2O concentrations" description="Historical atmoshere only simulation with historical  forcings but with nitrous oxide (N2O) fixed at 1850 concentration levels." egid="8709a922-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="2014.0" ensz="1" label="histSST-piN2O" mcfg="AGCM (using SST histALL)" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="495" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="historical SSTs and historical forcings, but with pre-industrial N2O concentrations" uid="70e3f198-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="165"></item> 
    74327429<item comment="" description="An AGCM experiment with monthly-varying SSTs and sea-ice taken from each model's own piControl simulation (using the 30 years of piControl that are parallel to years 111-140 of its abrupt4xCO2 run) with quadrupled CO2 concentration seen by the radiation code and the vegetation code. Other atmospheric constituents and any other necessary boundary conditions (e.g. vegetation if required) taken from each model's own piControl simulation (using the 30 years of piControl that are parallel to years 111-140 of its abrupt4xCO2 run). Dynamic vegetation should be turned off and the vegetation distribution that is output from the piControl simulation used. Same as piSST-control but CO2 is quadrupled. The increase in CO2 is seen by both the radiation scheme and vegetation." egid="f16d72d8-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="Year 140 of abrupt4xCO2" ensz="1" label="piSST-4xCO2" mcfg="Atmosphere-only" mip="CFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="30" starty="Year 111 of abrupt4xCO2" tier="2" title="as piSST with radiation and vegetation seeing 4xCO2" uid="f16d7d96-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="30"></item> 
    7433 <item comment="Mechanisms and predictability of the hiatus and of similar long timescale variations of both signs" description="idealized positive tropical AMV anomaly pattern" egid="f16dcf30-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="" ensz="25" label="dcppC-amv-Trop-pos" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="DCPP" nstart="1" ntot="250" starty="control" tier="2" title="idealized positive tropical AMV anomaly pattern" uid="f16de40c-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="10"></item> 
     7430<item comment="" description="Offline land surface simulations forced with ScenarioMIP SSP5-85 and SSP4-34 with 3 realisations for each forcing scenario.  A trend preserving statistical bias correction method is applied to 3-hopurly surface meteorological variables from the scenario output to generate a set of ensemble forcing data.  Gridded forcings will be provided by LS3MIP. The land model configuration should be identical to that used in the DECK and CMIP6 historical simulations for the parent coupled model.  Spin-up of the land-only simulations should follow the TRENDY protocol." egid="f16eb738-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="3" label="land-future" mcfg="LND" mip="LS3MIP" nstart="1" ntot="258" starty="2015.0" tier="2" title="future land-only" uid="f16eb5f8-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="86"></item> 
     7431<item comment="" description="A pre-inudsutrial control simulation with non-evolving pre-industrial conditions. Conditions chosen to be representative of the period prior to the onset of large-scale industrialization, with 1850 being the reference year.  The piControl starts after an initial climate spin-up, during which the climate begins to come into balance with the forcing. The recommended minimum length for the piControl is 500 years." egid="f16fbb42-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="" ensz="1" label="piControl" mcfg="" mip="CMIP" nstart="1" ntot="500" starty="" tier="1" title="pre-industrial control" uid="f16fb9da-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="500"></item> 
     7432<item comment="" description="Extension beyond 2014 of the CMIP6 historical simulation with atmospheric CO2 concentration calculated. To be performed with an Earth System Model (ESM) that can calculate atmospheric CO2 concentration and account for the fluxes of CO2 between the atmosphere, the ocean, and biosphere." egid="f16fc70e-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="" ensz="1" label="esm-hist-ext" mcfg="" mip="CMIP" nstart="1" ntot="1" starty="" tier="2" title="post-2014 all-forcing simulation with atmospheric CO2 concentration calculated" uid="f16fd136-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="1"></item> 
     7433<item comment="" description="Land surface model simulation.  Same as land-hist except using alternative low land-use history reconstructions that span uncertainty in agriculture and wood harvest.  Note that land use in 1700 and 1850 will be different to that in land-hist so model will need to be spun up again for each alternative dataset. Use the same land model configuration as used in the coupled CMIP6 historical simulations. Include representation of land cover, land use and land management. All applicable land use features should be active. This experiment can and likely will be a different configuration across models due to different representations of land use for each model." egid="f16ed97a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="10" label="land-hist-altLu2" mcfg="LND" mip="LUMIP" nstart="1" ntot="1650" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="historical land-only alternate land use history" uid="6e2710d4-4c5a-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="165"></item> 
    74347434<item comment="Pre-industrial control simulation that includes interactive ice sheets" description="The pre-industrial control in a model with interactive ice sheet model.   The experiment should be identical to the corresponding standard CMIP AOGCM experiment except for the treatment of ice sheets. The spin up may require the GCM and ISM to be asynchronously coupled until the system reches quasi-equilibrium. Once equilibrium is reached, run for multi-hundred years (500 years suggested)." egid="f16e6e9a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2300.0" ensz="1" label="piControl-withism" mcfg="AOGCM-ISM" mip="ISMIP6" nstart="1" ntot="500" starty="1850.0" tier="1" title="preindustrial control with interactive ice sheet" uid="f16e6d50-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="451"></item> 
    74357435<item comment="" description="Gap: Baseline scenario with a medium to high radiative forcing by the end of century. Following approximately RCP7.0 global forcing pathway with SSP3 socioeconomic conditions. Radiative forcing reaches a level of 7.0 W/m2 in 2100.  Concentration-driven." egid="f16f57e2-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="1 10" label="ssp370" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="ScenarioMIP" nstart="1" ntot="860" starty="2015.0" tier="1 2" title="gap-filling scenario reaching 7.0 based on SSP3" uid="f16f5ab2-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="86"></item> 
    7436 <item comment="" description="A pre-inudsutrial control simulation with non-evolving pre-industrial conditions. Conditions chosen to be representative of the period prior to the onset of large-scale industrialization, with 1850 being the reference year.  The piControl starts after an initial climate spin-up, during which the climate begins to come into balance with the forcing. The recommended minimum length for the piControl is 500 years." egid="f16fbb42-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="" ensz="1" label="piControl" mcfg="" mip="CMIP" nstart="1" ntot="500" starty="" tier="1" title="pre-industrial control" uid="f16fb9da-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="500"></item> 
    7437 <item comment="" description="Extension beyond 2014 of the CMIP6 historical simulation with atmospheric CO2 concentration calculated. To be performed with an Earth System Model (ESM) that can calculate atmospheric CO2 concentration and account for the fluxes of CO2 between the atmosphere, the ocean, and biosphere." egid="f16fc70e-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="" ensz="1" label="esm-hist-ext" mcfg="" mip="CMIP" nstart="1" ntot="1" starty="" tier="2" title="post-2014 all-forcing simulation with atmospheric CO2 concentration calculated" uid="f16fd136-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="1"></item> 
     7436<item comment="" description="The HighResMIP equivalent of the pre-industrial control with fixed 1950s forcing.  The forcing consists of greenhouse gases, including ozone and aerosol loading for a 1950s (~10 year mean) climatology.  For optimal comparison between models, aerosol concentrations would be preferable and not emissions. Initial ocean conditions are taken from the EN4 (Good et al, 2013) ocean analysis over an average period of 1950-1954.  A short spin-up with these forcings is required (~50 years) to produce initial conditions. At least one ensemble member at high resolution, minimum atmosphere 25-50 km at mid-latitudes and ocean resolution of 0.25 degrees, and a minimum of daily coupling between ocean and atmosphere. At least one ensemble member at standard model resolution. Run for 100 years." egid="f16e66d4-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2050.0" ensz="2" label="control-1950" mcfg="HIGH and LOW (e.g. 25km and 60-100km resolution)" mip="HighResMIP" nstart="1" ntot="200" starty="1951.0" tier="2" title="coupled control with fixed 1950's forcing (HighResMIP equivalent of pre-industrial control)" uid="6131b7d0-4cff-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="100"></item> 
    74387437<item comment="Historical WMGHG concentrations and NTCF emissions, 1950 halocarbon concentrations, start 1950" description="Historical WMGHG concentrations and historical emissions of Near Term Climate Forcers (NTCFs), namely tropospheric aerosols and tropospheric ozone precurors, halocarbons (Ozone Depleting Substances) to be fixed at 1950 concentration levels. These simulations parallel the &quot;CMIP6 historical&quot;, and differ only by fixing the anthropogenic emissions or concentrations of a specified class of species.   All other forcing agents must evolve as in &quot;CMIP6 historical&quot;." egid="8709a634-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="2014.0" ensz="3" label="hist-1950HC" mcfg="AOGCM" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="195" starty="1950.0" tier="1" title="historical forcing, but with1950s halocarbon concentrations; initialized in 1950" uid="70e37934-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="65"></item> 
    74397438<item comment="Future SSP3-7.0 with reduced NTCF emissions" description="SSP3-7.0, with low NTCF emissions" egid="8709aaa8-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="2055.0" ensz="3" label="ssp370-lowNTCF" mcfg="AOGCM" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="41" starty="2015.0" tier="1" title="SSP3-7.0, with low NTCF emissions" uid="70e3f4fe-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="41"></item> 
     
    74417440<item comment="" description="AMIP experiment where SSTs are subject to a uniform cooling of 4K. This cooling should be applied to the ice free ocean surface only.  Sea ice and SSTs under sea ice remain the same as in the amip DECK experiment." egid="f16d4718-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="1" label="amip-m4K" mcfg="Atmosphere-only" mip="CFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="36" starty="1979.0" tier="2" title="AMIP with uniform 4K SST decrease" uid="f16d521c-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="36"></item> 
    74427441<item comment="" description="Simultaneously apply anomalous fluxes of windstress, heat and freshwater using the passive-tracer method for heat as in the faf-heat experiment. Impose pre-industrial atmospheric conditions. Branch from the piControl at the same point as the 1pctCO2 experiment." egid="f16e16de-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="70.0" ensz="1" label="faf-all" mcfg="AOGCM" mip="FAFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="70" starty="1.0" tier="2" title="control plus perturbative surface fluxes of momentum, heat and water into ocean" uid="f16e19ea-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="70"></item> 
    7443 <item comment="" description="Prescribed land conditions 30yr running mean" egid="f16ebb02-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="4" label="LFMIP-rmLC2" mcfg="LND-ATM-OC" mip="LS3MIP" nstart="1" ntot="484" starty="1980.0" tier="2" title="__unset__" uid="f16ec82c-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="121"></item> 
    74447442<item comment="main forcings : trace gases, orbital parameters, dust" description="Impose Mid-Holocene (6 kyr ago) boundary conditions for orbital parameters and the atmospheric concentration of well-mixed greenhouse gases. Run for at least 100 years after spin-up. It is mandatory that the model versions used for the PMIP-CMIP6 experiments are the exactly the same as for the other CMIP6 experiments, in particular the DECK and historical simulations." egid="f16f080a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="about 300 to 1000 for interannual variability" ensz="1" label="midHolocene" mcfg="ESM" mip="PMIP" nstart="1" ntot="200" starty="from PI or pre-existing midHolocene" tier="1" title="mid-Holocene" uid="f16f06a2-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="200"></item> 
     7443<item comment="" description="Land surface model simulation.  Same as land-hist except with irrigated area held at 1850 levels. Irrigation amounts within the 1850 irrigated area are allowed to change. Only relevant if land-hist utilises at least some form of crop management (e.g. planting and harvesting).  Start year either 1850 or 1700 depending on standard practice for particular model." egid="f16ed97a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="10" label="land-crop-noIrrig" mcfg="LND" mip="LUMIP" nstart="1" ntot="1650" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="historical land-only with no irrigation" uid="6e270d5a-4c5a-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="165"></item> 
    74457444<item comment="1850 control with doubled emissions of biogenic VOCs" description="Fixed SST ERF simulation. Use pre-industrial climatological average SST and sea-ice distributions. Apply pre-industrial concentrations of WMGHG (well mixed greenhouse gases). The biogenic VOC (volatile organic compounds) emission fluxes in the interactive parameterisation are double their pre-industrial value.  All other NTCF (near term climate forcers) are set to pre-industrial levels. For models that do not interactively parameterise particular emissions, the fluxes from the 1850 climatological dataset should be doubled. This is a timeslice experiment of 30 years total." egid="8709ad32-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="1850.0" ensz="1" label="piClim-2xVOC" mcfg="AGCM" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="30" starty="1850.0" tier="3" title="pre-industrial climatological SSTs and forcing, but with doubled emissions of biogenic VOCs" uid="70e450fc-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="30"></item> 
    74467445<item comment="main forcings : trace gases, volcanoes, solar variability, land use" description="For the period from 850 to 1850 CE (the millennium before the start of the industrial revolution), impose boundary conditions of solar variations, volcanic aerosols, atmospheric concentration of well-mixed greenhouse gases, land use and orbital parameters.  Run for 1000 years after spin-up period. It is mandatory that the model versions used for the PMIP-CMIP6 experiments are the exactly the same as for the other CMIP6 experiments, in particular the DECK and historical simulations." egid="f16f0c56-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="1850.0" ensz="1" label="past1000" mcfg="ESM" mip="PMIP" nstart="1" ntot="1000" starty="850.0" tier="1" title="last millennium" uid="f16f0af8-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="1000"></item> 
     7446<item comment="" description="Global ocean/sea-ice/inert-chemical/biogeochemical experiment.  Rather than using observed climatologies to initialise the biogeochemistry as in omipv2, this simulation will be initialised with model tracer fields that have been spun up for at least 2000 years, ideally for 5000 years.  The omipv2-spunup simulations (and spin-ups) will include radiocarbon (abiotic DIC and DI14C). Atmospheric forcing follows JRA-55, inert chemical tracers follow OCMIP2, and biogeochemical tracers follow OCMIP3. Only for modelling groups that have biogeochemistry and are able to afford a millennial-scale spin-up." egid="f16eff5e-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="310.0" ensz="1" label="omip2-spunup" mcfg="Global ocean - sea-ice coupled with required biogeochemistry" mip="OMIP" nstart="1" ntot="311" starty="1.0" tier="2" title="OMIP experiment forced by JRA-55do atmospheric data set and initialized from at least a 2000-year spin up of the coupled physical-biogeochemical model" uid="fe6e67f4-4d00-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="311"></item> 
     7447<item comment="" description="Land surface model simulation. Same as land-hist except with wood harvest maintained at 1850 amounts/areas.  Start year either 1850 or 1700 depending on standard practice for particular model." egid="f16ed97a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2014.0" ensz="10" label="land-noWoodHarv" mcfg="LND" mip="LUMIP" nstart="1" ntot="1650" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="historical land-only with no wood harvest" uid="6e2716ce-4c5a-11e7-903f-5404a60d96b5" yps="165"></item> 
    74477448<item comment="1850 control with doubled dust emissions" description="Fixed SST ERF simulation. Use pre-industrial climatological average SST and sea-ice distributions. Apply pre-industrial concentrations of WMGHG (well mixed greenhouse gases). The dust aerosol emission fluxes in the interactive parameterisation are double their pre-industrial value.  All other NTCF (near term climate forcers) are set to pre-industrial levels. For models that do not interactively parameterise particular emissions, the fluxes from the 1850 climatological dataset should be doubled. This is a timeslice experiment of 30 years total." egid="8709ad32-51c3-11e7-9bc5-5404a60d96b5" endy="2014.0" ensz="1" label="piClim-2xdust" mcfg="AGCM" mip="AerChemMIP" nstart="1" ntot="30" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="pre-industrial climatological SSTs and forcing, but with doubled emissions of dust" uid="70e443f0-54ca-11e7-a104-5404a60d96b5" yps="30"></item> 
    74487449<item comment="Historical stratospheric-ozone-only. In models with coupled chemistry, the chemistry scheme should be turned off, and the simulated ensemble mean monthly mean 3D stratospheric ozone concentrations from the histALL simulations should be prescribed. Tropospheric ozone should be fixed at 3D long-term monthly mean piControl values, with a value of 100 ppbv ozone concentration in this piControl climatology used to separate the troposphere from the stratosphere. In models without coupled chemistry the same stratospheric ozone prescribed in histALL should be prescribed. Stratospheric ozone concentrations will be provided by CCMI" description="This experient's simulations resemble the historical simulations but are forced with stratospheric ozone concentrations only. In models with coupled chemistry, the chemistry scheme should be turned off, and the simulated ensemble mean monthly mean 3D stratospheric ozone concentrations from the CMIP6 historical simulations should be prescribed. Tropospheric ozone should be fixed at 3D long-term monthly mean piControl values, with grid cells having an ozone concentration below 100 ppbv in the piControl climatology for a given month classed as tropospheric. In models without coupled chemistry the same stratospheric ozone prescribed in CMIP6 historical experiment should be prescribed." egid="f16d9c7c-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2020.0" ensz="3" label="hist-stratO3" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="DAMIP" nstart="1" ntot="513" starty="1850.0" tier="2" title="historical stratospheric-ozone-only run" uid="f16d9b32-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="171"></item> 
     
    74537454<item comment="Against a background of the ScenarioMIP high forcing, reduce cirrus cloud optical depth by a constant amount" description="Against a background of the ScenarioMIP high forcing (SSP5-85), reduce cirrus cloud optical depth by a constant amount. Geoengineering will be simulated over years 2020 to 2100." egid="f16e3f42-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="3" label="G7cirrus" mcfg="AOGCM" mip="GeoMIP" nstart="1" ntot="243" starty="2020.0" tier="1" title="increase cirrus ice crystal fall speed to reduce net forcing in SSP585 by 1 W m-2" uid="f16e3de4-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="81"></item> 
    74547455<item comment="" description="An uncoupled (atmosphere and land) experiment with interactive vegetation in which sea suface temperature (SST) and sea ice concentrations (SIC) are fixed at model-specific pre-industrial control climatology.  Land use is set to present day (2014) values, other forcing agents are specified at pre-industrial values.  Run for 30 years." egid="f16f21a0-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="30.0" ensz="1" label="piClim-lu" mcfg="Atmos only, fixed SST/ice" mip="RFMIP" nstart="1" ntot="30" starty="1.0" tier="1" title="effective radiative forcing by present-day land use" uid="f16f2fe2-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="30"></item> 
    7455 <item comment="" description="Future scenario with medium radiative forcing by the end of century. Following approximately RCP6.0 global forcing pathway but with new forcing based on SSP. Concentration-driven." egid="f16f65f2-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="1" label="SSP160" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="ScenarioMIP" nstart="1" ntot="86" starty="2015.0" tier="2" title="__unset__" uid="f16f6476-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="86"></item> 
     7456<item comment="" description="SSP-based RCP scenario with medium radiative forcing by the end of the century.  Following approximately RCP6.0 global forcing pathway with SSP1 socioeconomic conditions. Radiative forcing reaches a level of 6.0 W/m2 in 2100. Concentration-driven." egid="f16f65f2-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2100.0" ensz="1" label="ssp460" mcfg="AOGCM/ESM" mip="ScenarioMIP" nstart="1" ntot="86" starty="2015.0" tier="2" title="update of RCP6.0 based on SSP4" uid="f16f6476-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="86"></item> 
     7457<item comment="" description="Biogeochemically-coupled version of the mitigated overshoot scenario with medium/low radiative forcing by the end of the 21st century.  The scenario follows SSP5-8.5, an unmitigated baseline scenario, through 2040, and then substantially negative net emissions thereafter." egid="f16d3098-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" endy="2300.0" ensz="1" label="ssp534-over-bgc" mcfg="" mip="C4MIP" nstart="1" ntot="260" starty="2040.0" tier="2" title="biogeochemically-coupled version of the RCP3.4-overshoot based on SSP5" uid="f16d393a-dd9e-11e6-b89b-ac72891c3257" yps="260"></item> 
    74567458</experiment> 
    74577459<requestVar id="rqv" label="requestVar" title="1.4 Request variable (carrying priority and link to group)" uid="SECTION:requestVar" useClass="vocab"> 
     
    1300213004<standardname id="sn" label="standardname" title="1.8 CF Standard Names" uid="SECTION:standardname" useClass="vocab"> 
    1300313005<!-- <info srcType="dummy" srcRef="ptxt.py">Dummy entries</info> --> 
    13004 <item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The chemical formula for carbon dioxide is CO2." label="AtmosphereMassContentOfCarbonDioxide" title="Atmosphere Mass Content of Carbon Dioxide" uid="atmosphere_mass_content_of_carbon_dioxide" units="kg m-2"></item> 
    13005 <item description="Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for methyl_peroxy_radical is CH3O2. In chemistry, a 'radical' is a highly reactive, and therefore shortlived, species." label="MassConcentrationOfMethylPeroxyRadicalInAir" title="Mass Concentration of Methyl Peroxy Radical in Air" uid="mass_concentration_of_methyl_peroxy_radical_in_air" units="kg m-3"></item> 
     13006<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Sn&quot; means the element &quot;tin&quot; and &quot;130Sn&quot; is the isotope &quot;tin-130&quot; with a half-life of 2.57e-03 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf130SnInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 130Sn in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_130Sn_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1300613007<item description="Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, whereX is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X).  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. &quot;Inorganic bromine&quot;, sometimes referred to as Bry, describes a family of chemical species which result from the degradation of source gases containing bromine (halons, methyl bromide, VSLS) and natural inorganic bromine sources such as volcanoes, seasalt and other aerosols. &quot;Inorganic bromine&quot; is the term used in standard names for all species belonging to the family that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models.  Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute. Standard names that use the term &quot;brox&quot; are used for quantities that contain all inorganic bromine species except HBr and BrONO2." label="MassFractionOfInorganicBromineInAir" title="Mass Fraction of Inorganic Bromine in Air" uid="mass_fraction_of_inorganic_bromine_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    1300713008<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  &quot;Wet deposition&quot; means deposition by precipitation." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfHexachlorobiphenylDueToWetDeposition" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Hexachlorobiphenyl due to Wet Deposition" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_hexachlorobiphenyl_due_to_wet_deposition" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13008 <item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for methyl bromide is CH3Br. The IUPAC name for methyl bromide is bromomethane." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfMethylBromideDueToEmission" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Methyl Bromide due to Emission" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_methyl_bromide_due_to_emission" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13009 <item description="alias::tendency_of_moles_of_hcfc22_in_troposphere" label="TendencyOfTroposphereMolesOfHcfc22" title="Tendency of Troposphere Moles of Hcfc22 [alias]" uid="tendency_of_moles_of_hcfc22_in_troposphere" units="mol s-1"></item> 
    13010 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  &quot;troposphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X contained in the troposphere, i.e, summed over that part of the atmospheric column and over the entire globe.  The chemical formula of methane is CH4. Methane is a member of the group of hydrocarbons known as alkanes.  There are standard names for the alkane group as well as for some of the individual species." label="TendencyOfTroposphereMolesOfMethane" title="Tendency of Troposphere Moles of Methane" uid="tendency_of_troposphere_moles_of_methane" units="mol s-1"></item> 
    1301113009<item description="toa_outgoing_radiance_per_unit_wavenumber_stdev_within_collocation_target is the standard deviation of observations of the quantity with standard name toa_outgoing_radiance_per_unit_wavenumber from a sensor's adjacent field-of-views within a collocation target. &quot;toa&quot; means top of atmosphere. The TOA outgoing radiance is the upwelling radiance, i.e., toward outer space. Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics. The &quot;collocation target&quot; is an area on the Earth's surface at which observations from at least two sensors are collected. Its size is defined by the sensor with the largest field-of-view footprint. Two events are deemed to be collocated based on some set of spatial, temporal, and viewing geometry criteria." label="ToaOutgoingRadiancePerUnitWavenumberStdevWithinCollocationTarget" title="Toa Outgoing Radiance Per Unit Wavenumber Stdev Within Collocation Target" uid="toa_outgoing_radiance_per_unit_wavenumber_stdev_within_collocation_target" units="W m-2 sr-1 (m-1)-1"></item> 
    13012 <item description="alias::water_evaporation_flux_from_canopy_where_land" label="WaterEvaporationFluxFromCanopy" title="Water Evaporation Flux from Canopy [alias]" uid="water_evaporation_flux_from_canopy_where_land" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1301313010<item description="The quantity water_flux_out_of_sea_water is the quantity with  standard name water_flux_into_sea_water multiplied by -1. &quot;Water&quot; means water in all phases. The water flux out of sea water is the freshwater leaving as a result of precipitation, evaporation, river outflow, sea-ice and any water flux relaxation(s) and correction(s) that may have been applied. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="WaterFluxOutOfSeaWater" title="Water Flux Out of Sea Water" uid="water_flux_out_of_sea_water" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1301413011<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used." label="AtmosphereKineticEnergyContent" title="Atmosphere Kinetic Energy Content" uid="atmosphere_kinetic_energy_content" units="J m-2"></item> 
    1301513012<item description="A measure of distance from the Earth's geocenter, commonly used in satellite tracks." label="DistanceFromGeocenter" title="Distance from Geocenter" uid="distance_from_geocenter" units="m"></item> 
     13013<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;La&quot; means the element &quot;lanthanum&quot; and &quot;140La&quot; is the isotope &quot;lanthanum-140&quot; with a half-life of 1.76e+00 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf140LaInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 140La in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_140La_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13014<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Y&quot; means the element &quot;yttrium&quot; and &quot;90Y&quot; is the isotope &quot;yttrium-90&quot; with a half-life of 2.67e+00 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf90YInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 90Y in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_90Y_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1301613015<item description="Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for ethanol is C2H5OH." label="MassConcentrationOfEthanolInAir" title="Mass Concentration of Ethanol in Air" uid="mass_concentration_of_ethanol_in_air" units="kg m-3"></item> 
    13017 <item description="The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Eastward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward).  The total tendency of the eastward wind will include a variety of numerical and diffusive effects: a variable with this standard name is sometimes needed to allow the momentum budget to be closed." label="TendencyOfEastwardWindDueToNumericalArtefacts" title="Tendency of Eastward Wind due to Numerical Artefacts" uid="tendency_of_eastward_wind_due_to_numerical_artefacts" units="m s-2"></item> 
    1301813016<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  &quot;middle_atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X contained in the troposphere and stratosphere, i.e, summed over that part of the atmospheric column and over the entire globe.  The chemical formula of methane is CH4." label="TendencyOfMiddleAtmosphereMolesOfMethane" title="Tendency of Middle Atmosphere Moles of Methane" uid="tendency_of_middle_atmosphere_moles_of_methane" units="mol s-1"></item> 
    13019 <item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The chemical formula for nitrogen monoxide is NO." label="AtmosphereMassContentOfNitrogenMonoxide" title="Atmosphere Mass Content of Nitrogen Monoxide" uid="atmosphere_mass_content_of_nitrogen_monoxide" units="kg m-2"></item> 
    13020 <item description="Height is the vertical distance above the surface. &quot;Canopy&quot; means the plant or vegetation canopy." label="CanopyHeight" title="Canopy Height" uid="canopy_height" units="m"></item> 
    13021 <item description="alias::specific_potential_energy" label="SpecificGravitationalPotentialEnergy" title="Specific Gravitational Potential Energy [alias]" uid="specific_potential_energy" units="J kg-1"></item> 
    13022 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for butane is C4H10. Butane is a member of the group of hydrocarbons known as alkanes. There are standard names for the alkane group as well as for some of the individual species. The &quot;energy production and distribution&quot; sector comprises fuel combustion activities related to energy industries and fugitive emissions from fuels. It may also include any not-classified or &quot;other&quot; combustion, which is commonly included in energy-related inventory data. &quot;Energy production and distribution&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 1A1 and 1B as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfButaneDueToEmissionFromEnergyProductionAndDistribution" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Butane due to Emission from Energy Production And Distribution" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_butane_due_to_emission_from_energy_production_and_distribution" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1302313017<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for ethane is C2H6. Ethane is a member of the group of hydrocarbons known as alkanes. There are standard names for the alkane group as well as for some of the individual species. The &quot;land transport&quot; sector includes fuel combustion activities related to road transportation, railways and other transportation.  &quot;Land transport&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 1A3b, 1A3c and 1A3e as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfEthaneDueToEmissionFromLandTransport" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Ethane due to Emission from Land Transport" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_ethane_due_to_emission_from_land_transport" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1302413018<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere, i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. The chemical formula for benzene is C6H6.  Benzene is the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon and has a ring structure consisting of six carbon atoms joined by alternating single and double chemical bonds. Each carbon atom is additionally bonded to one hydrogen atom. There are standard names that refer to aromatic_compounds as a group, as well as those for individual species." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMolesOfBenzene" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Moles of Benzene" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_moles_of_benzene" units="mol s-1"></item> 
    13025 <item description="Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X).  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. Evaporation is the conversion of liquid or solid into vapor. Condensation is the conversion of vapor into liquid. In an atmosphere model, stratiform cloud is that produced by large-scale convergence (not the convection schemes).  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time." label="TendencyOfMassFractionOfStratiformCloudLiquidWaterInAirDueToCondensationAndEvaporationFromConvection" title="Tendency of Mass Fraction of Stratiform Cloud Liquid Water in Air due to Condensation And Evaporation from Convection" uid="tendency_of_mass_fraction_of_stratiform_cloud_liquid_water_in_air_due_to_condensation_and_evaporation_from_convection" units="s-1"></item> 
    13026 <item description="'Mole concentration' means number of moles per unit volume, also called&quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y, whereX is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical or biological species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The phrase 'expressed_as' is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  Calcite is a mineral that is a polymorph of calcium carbonate. Thechemical formula of calcite is CaCO3. Standard names also exist for aragonite, another polymorph of calcium carbonate." label="TendencyOfMoleConcentrationOfCalciteExpressedAsCarbonInSeaWaterDueToDissolution" title="Tendency of Mole Concentration of Calcite Expressed As Carbon in Sea Water due to Dissolution" uid="tendency_of_mole_concentration_of_calcite_expressed_as_carbon_in_sea_water_due_to_dissolution" units="mol m-3 s-1"></item> 
    1302713019<item description="A velocity is a vector quantity. &quot;Eastward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). Land ice velocity is defined as a two-dimensional vector, with no vertical component. &quot;Land ice&quot; means glaciers, ice-caps and ice-sheets resting on bedrock and also includes ice-shelves." label="EastwardLandIceVelocity" title="Eastward Land Ice Velocity" uid="eastward_land_ice_velocity" units="m s-1"></item> 
    13028 <item description="Mole concentration means number of moles per unit volume, also called &quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula of CFC11 is CFCl3. The IUPAC name fof CFC11 is trichloro-fluoro-methane." label="MoleConcentrationOfCfc11InAir" title="Mole Concentration of Cfc11 in Air" uid="mole_concentration_of_cfc11_in_air" units="mol m-3"></item> 
    13029 <item description="Mole fraction is used in the construction mole_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y." label="MoleFractionOfPropaneInAir" title="Mole Fraction of Propane in Air" uid="mole_fraction_of_propane_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    13030 <item description="alias::number_concentration_of_ambient_aerosol_in_air" label="NumberConcentrationOfAmbientAerosolParticlesInAir" title="Number Concentration of Ambient Aerosol Particles in Air [alias]" uid="number_concentration_of_ambient_aerosol_in_air" units="m-3"></item> 
    1303113020<item description="The swell wave directional spectrum can be written as a  five dimensional function S(t,x,y,f,theta) where t is time, x and y are horizontal coordinates (such as longitude and latitude), f is frequency and theta is direction.  S can be integrated over direction to give S1= integral(S dtheta).  Frequency moments, M(n) of S1 can then be calculated as follows: M(n) = integral(S1 f^n df), where f^n is f to the power of n.  The second wave period, T(m2), is calculated as the square root of the ratio M(0)/M(2)." label="SeaSurfaceSwellWaveMeanPeriodFromVarianceSpectralDensitySecondFrequencyMoment" title="Sea Surface Swell Wave Mean Period from Variance Spectral Density Second Frequency Moment" uid="sea_surface_swell_wave_mean_period_from_variance_spectral_density_second_frequency_moment" units="s"></item> 
    13032 <item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. The mass is the total mass of the particles. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. Aerosol particles take up ambient water (a process known as hygroscopic growth) depending on the relative humidity and the composition of the particles. &quot;Dry aerosol particles&quot; means aerosol particles without any water uptake. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Dry deposition&quot; is the sum of turbulent deposition and gravitational settling. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfSeaSaltDryAerosolParticlesDueToDryDeposition" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Sea Salt Dry Aerosol Particles due to Dry Deposition" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_sea_salt_dry_aerosol_particles_due_to_dry_deposition" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13033 <item description="The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X)." label="TendencyOfMassFractionOfCloudLiquidWaterInAirDueToAdvection" title="Tendency of Mass Fraction of Cloud Liquid Water in Air due to Advection" uid="tendency_of_mass_fraction_of_cloud_liquid_water_in_air_due_to_advection" units="s-1"></item> 
    13034 <item description="" label="Time" title="Time" uid="time" units="s"></item> 
     13021<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Sm&quot; means the element &quot;samarium&quot; and &quot;147Sm&quot; is the isotope &quot;samarium-147&quot; with a half-life of 3.91e+13 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf147Sm" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 147Sm" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_147Sm" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1303513022<item description="alias::atmosphere_absorption_optical_thickness_due_to_seasalt_ambient_aerosol" label="AtmosphereAbsorptionOpticalThicknessDueToSeaSaltAmbientAerosolParticles" title="Atmosphere Absorption Optical Thickness due to Sea Salt Ambient Aerosol Particles [alias]" uid="atmosphere_absorption_optical_thickness_due_to_seasalt_ambient_aerosol" units="1"></item> 
    1303613023<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The chemical symbol for radon is Rn." label="AtmosphereMassContentOfRadon" title="Atmosphere Mass Content of Radon" uid="atmosphere_mass_content_of_radon" units="kg m-2"></item> 
    1303713024<item description="Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, whereX is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X).  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for nitric acid is HNO3." label="MassFractionOfNitricAcidInAir" title="Mass Fraction of Nitric Acid in Air" uid="mass_fraction_of_nitric_acid_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    1303813025<item description="Mole concentration means number of moles per unit volume, also called &quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical or biological species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'.The phrase 'expressed_as' is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A. Diatoms are single-celled phytoplankton with an external skeleton made of silica.Phytoplankton are autotrophic prokaryotic or eukaryotic algae that live near the water surface where there is sufficient light to support photosynthesis." label="MoleConcentrationOfDiatomsExpressedAsCarbonInSeaWater" title="Mole Concentration of Diatoms Expressed As Carbon in Sea Water" uid="mole_concentration_of_diatoms_expressed_as_carbon_in_sea_water" units="mol m-3"></item> 
    13039 <item description="Mole concentration means number of moles per unit volume, also called &quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for halon1301 is CBrF3. The IUPAC name for halon1301 is bromo-trifluoro-methane." label="MoleConcentrationOfHalon1301InAir" title="Mole Concentration of Halon1301 in Air" uid="mole_concentration_of_halon1301_in_air" units="mol m-3"></item> 
    1304013026<item description="Temperature_of_sensor_for_oxygen_in_sea_water is the instrument temperature used in calculating the concentration of oxygen in sea water; it is not a measurement of the ambient water temperature." label="TemperatureOfSensorForOxygenInSeaWater" title="Temperature of Sensor For Oxygen in Sea Water" uid="temperature_of_sensor_for_oxygen_in_sea_water" units="K"></item> 
    13041 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for butane is C4H10. Butane is a member of the group of hydrocarbons known as alkanes. There are standard names for the alkane group as well as for some of the individual species. The &quot;industrial processes and combustion&quot; sector comprises fuel combustion activities related to manufacturing industries and construction, industrial processes related to mineral products, the chemical industry, metal production, the production of pulp, paper, food and drink, and non-energy industry use of lubricants and waxes. It may also include any not-classified or &quot;other&quot; combustion, which is commonly included in industry-related inventory data. &quot;Industrial processes and combustion&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 1A2, 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D and 2G as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfButaneDueToEmissionFromIndustrialProcessesAndCombustion" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Butane due to Emission from Industrial Processes And Combustion" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_butane_due_to_emission_from_industrial_processes_and_combustion" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13027<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Cd&quot; means the element &quot;cadmium&quot; and &quot;117Cd&quot; is the isotope &quot;cadmium-117&quot; with a half-life of 1.08e-01 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf117CdInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 117Cd in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_117Cd_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1304213028<item description="Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X). &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. Aerosol particles take up ambient water (a process known as hygroscopic growth) depending on the relative humidity and the composition of the particles. &quot;Dry aerosol particles&quot; means aerosol particles without any water uptake." label="MassFractionOfDustDryAerosolParticlesInAir" title="Mass Fraction of Dust Dry Aerosol Particles in Air" uid="mass_fraction_of_dust_dry_aerosol_particles_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    13043 <item description="Mole concentration means number of moles per unit volume, also called &quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula of carbon tetrachloride is CCl4." label="MoleConcentrationOfCarbonTetrachlorideInAir" title="Mole Concentration of Carbon Tetrachloride in Air" uid="mole_concentration_of_carbon_tetrachloride_in_air" units="mol m-3"></item> 
    13044 <item description="&quot;y&quot; indicates a vector component along the grid y-axis, positive with increasing y. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized eddy advection can be represented on various spatial scales and there are standard names for parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection and parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection which both contribute to the total parameterized eddy advection." label="OceanHeatYTransportDueToParameterizedEddyAdvection" title="Ocean Heat Y Transport due to Parameterized Eddy Advection" uid="ocean_heat_y_transport_due_to_parameterized_eddy_advection" units="W"></item> 
     13029<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Dy&quot; means the element &quot;dysprosium&quot; and &quot;165Dy&quot; is the isotope &quot;dysprosium-165&quot; with a half-life of 9.80e-02 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf165DyInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 165Dy in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_165Dy_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1304513030<item description="The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. Atmosphere water vapor content is sometimes referred to as &quot;precipitable water&quot;, although this term does not imply the water could all be precipitated." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfWaterVaporDueToConvection" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Water Vapor due to Convection" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_water_vapor_due_to_convection" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13046 <item description="Wind is defined as a two-dimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.) In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="WindMixingEnergyFluxIntoSeaWater" title="Wind Mixing Energy Flux Into Sea Water" uid="wind_mixing_energy_flux_into_sea_water" units="W m-2"></item> 
    1304713031<item description="The effective radius of a size distribution of particles, such as aerosols, cloud droplets or ice crystals,is the area weighted mean radius of particle size. It is calculated as the ratio of the third to the second moment of the particle size distribution. &quot;cloud_top&quot; refers to the top of the  highest cloud. &quot;condensed_water&quot; means liquid and ice." label="EffectiveRadiusOfCloudCondensedWaterParticlesAtCloudTop" title="Effective Radius of Cloud Condensed Water Particles At Cloud Top" uid="effective_radius_of_cloud_condensed_water_particles_at_cloud_top" units="m"></item> 
    13048 <item description="An auxiliary coordinate variable with a standard name of institution contains string values which specify where the original data, with which the coordinate variable is associated, were produced. The use of institution as the standard name for an auxiliary coordinate variable permits the aggregation of data from multiple institutions within a single data file." label="Institution" title="Institution" uid="institution" units=""></item> 
    1304913032<item description="alias::integral_of_toa_outgoing_longwave_flux_wrt_time" label="IntegralWrtTimeOfToaOutgoingLongwaveFlux" title="Integral Wrt Time of Toa Outgoing Longwave Flux [alias]" uid="integral_of_toa_outgoing_longwave_flux_wrt_time" units="W s m-2"></item> 
    1305013033<item description="Mole concentration means number of moles per unit volume, also called &quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for nitrogen dioxide is NO2." label="MoleConcentrationOfNitrogenDioxideInAir" title="Mole Concentration of Nitrogen Dioxide in Air" uid="mole_concentration_of_nitrogen_dioxide_in_air" units="mol m-3"></item> 
    13051 <item description="&quot;Production of carbon&quot; means the production of biomass expressed as the mass of carbon which it contains. Net primary production is the excess of gross primary production (rate of synthesis of biomass from inorganic precursors) by autotrophs (&quot;producers&quot;), for example, photosynthesis in plants or phytoplankton, over the rate at which the autotrophs themselves respire some of this biomass. &quot;Productivity&quot; means production per unit area. &quot;Miscellaneous phytoplankton&quot; are all those phytoplankton that are not diatoms, diazotrophs, calcareous phytoplankton, picophytoplankton or other seperately named components of the phytoplankton population. Phytoplankton are autotrophic prokaryotic or eukaryotic algae that live near the water surface where there is sufficient light to support photosynthesis. The phrase &quot;expressed_as&quot; is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A." label="NetPrimaryMoleProductivityOfBiomassExpressedAsCarbonByMiscellaneousPhytoplankton" title="Net Primary Mole Productivity of Biomass Expressed As Carbon by Miscellaneous Phytoplankton" uid="net_primary_mole_productivity_of_biomass_expressed_as_carbon_by_miscellaneous_phytoplankton" units="mol m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13052 <item description="alias::tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_dust_dry_aerosol_due_to_wet_deposition" label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfDustDryAerosolParticlesDueToWetDeposition" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Dust Dry Aerosol Particles due to Wet Deposition [alias]" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_dust_dry_aerosol_due_to_wet_deposition" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13034<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Cd&quot; means the element &quot;cadmium&quot; and &quot;115mCd&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;cadmium-115&quot; with a half-life of 4.46e+01 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf115Mcd" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 115Mcd" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_115mCd" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1305313035<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for ethyne is HC2H. Ethyne is the IUPAC name for this species, which is also commonly known as acetylene. The &quot;energy production and distribution&quot; sector comprises fuel combustion activities related to energy industries and fugitive emissions from fuels. It may also include any not-classified or &quot;other&quot; combustion, which is commonly included in energy-related inventory data. &quot;Energy production and distribution&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 1A1 and 1B as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfEthyneDueToEmissionFromEnergyProductionAndDistribution" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Ethyne due to Emission from Energy Production And Distribution" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_ethyne_due_to_emission_from_energy_production_and_distribution" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1305413036<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere, i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. The chemical formula for hydrogen peroxide is H2O2." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMolesOfHydrogenPeroxide" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Moles of Hydrogen Peroxide" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_moles_of_hydrogen_peroxide" units="mol s-1"></item> 
    13055 <item description="alias::grid_eastward_wind" label="XWind" title="X Wind [alias]" uid="grid_eastward_wind" units="m s-1"></item> 
    13056 <item description="Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as &quot;nitrogen&quot; or a phrase such as &quot;nox_expressed_as_nitrogen&quot;. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. &quot;Ambient_aerosol&quot; means that the aerosol is measured or modelled at the ambient state of pressure, temperature and relative humidity that exists in its immediate environment. &quot;Ambient aerosol particles&quot; are aerosol particles that have taken up ambient water through hygroscopic growth. The extent of hygroscopic growth depends on the relative humidity and the composition of the particles. &quot;Pm10 aerosol&quot; means atmospheric particulate compounds with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 10 micrometers. To specify the relative humidity and temperature at which the particle size applies, provide scalar coordinate variables with the standard names of, respectively, &quot;relative_humidity&quot; and &quot;air_temperature.&quot;" label="MassConcentrationOfPm10AmbientAerosolParticlesInAir" title="Mass Concentration of Pm10 Ambient Aerosol Particles in Air" uid="mass_concentration_of_pm10_ambient_aerosol_particles_in_air" units="kg m-3"></item> 
    13057 <item description="Mass fraction is used in the construction &quot;mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y&quot;, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X). A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as &quot;nitrogen&quot; or a phrase such as &quot;nox_expressed_as_nitrogen&quot;. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. Aerosol particles take up ambient water (a process known as hygroscopic growth) depending on the relative humidity and the composition of the particles. &quot;Dry aerosol particles&quot; means aerosol particles without any water uptake. &quot;Pm10 aerosol&quot; means atmospheric particulate compounds with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 10 micrometers. &quot;Primary particulate organic matter&quot; means all organic matter emitted directly to the atmosphere as particles except elemental carbon. The sum of primary_particulate_organic_matter_dry_aerosol and secondary_particulate_organic_matter_dry_aerosol is particulate_organic_matter_dry_aerosol." label="MassFractionOfPm10PrimaryParticulateOrganicMatterDryAerosolParticlesInAir" title="Mass Fraction of Pm10 Primary Particulate Organic Matter Dry Aerosol Particles in Air" uid="mass_fraction_of_pm10_primary_particulate_organic_matter_dry_aerosol_particles_in_air" units="1"></item> 
     13037<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Te&quot; means the element &quot;tellurium&quot; and &quot;129mTe&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;tellurium-129&quot; with a half-life of 3.34e+01 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf129MteInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 129Mte in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_129mTe_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1305813038<item description="A period is an interval of time, or the time-period of an oscillation. Swell waves are waves on the ocean surface." label="SeaSurfaceSwellWavePeriod" title="Sea Surface Swell Wave Period" uid="sea_surface_swell_wave_period" units="s"></item> 
    13059 <item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  &quot;Dry deposition&quot; is the sum of turbulent deposition and gravitational settling. The chemical formula for formaldehyde is CH2O. The IUPAC name for formaldehyde is methanal." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfFormaldehydeDueToDryDeposition" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Formaldehyde due to Dry Deposition" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_formaldehyde_due_to_dry_deposition" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13060 <item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for halon1301 is CBrF3. The IUPAC name for halon1301 is bromo-trifluoro-methane." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfHalon1301DueToEmission" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Halon1301 due to Emission" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_halon1301_due_to_emission" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13061 <item description="The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere, i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. The chemical formula for HCFC22 is CHClF2.  The IUPAC name for HCFC22 is chloro-difluoro-methane." label="AtmosphereMolesOfHcfc22" title="Atmosphere Moles of Hcfc22" uid="atmosphere_moles_of_hcfc22" units="mol"></item> 
    1306213039<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. &quot;wrt&quot; means with respect to. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature. The air temperature excess is the air temperature minus the air temperature threshold, where only positive values are included in the integral. Its integral with respect to time is often called after its units of &quot;degree-days&quot;. The air_temperature variable, which is the data variable of the integral should have a scalar coordinate variable or a size-one coordinate variable with the standard name of air_temperature_threshold, to indicate the threshold." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfAirTemperatureExcess" title="Integral Wrt Time of Air Temperature Excess" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_air_temperature_excess" units="K s"></item> 
    1306313040<item description="&quot;Land ice&quot; means glaciers, ice-caps and ice-sheets resting on bedrock and also includes ice-shelves." label="LandIceSigmaCoordinate" title="Land Ice Sigma Coordinate" uid="land_ice_sigma_coordinate" units="1"></item> 
    1306413041<item description="alias::mass_fraction_of_ammonium_dry_aerosol_in_air" label="MassFractionOfAmmoniumDryAerosolParticlesInAir" title="Mass Fraction of Ammonium Dry Aerosol Particles in Air [alias]" uid="mass_fraction_of_ammonium_dry_aerosol_in_air" units="1"></item> 
     13042<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Sn&quot; means the element &quot;tin&quot; and &quot;123mSn&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;tin-123&quot; with a half-life of 2.78e-02 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf123MsnInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 123Msn in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_123mSn_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1306513043<item description="The phrase &quot;from_direction&quot; is used in the construction X_from_direction and indicates the direction from which the velocity vector of X is coming. The direction is a bearing in the usual geographical sense, measured positive clockwise from due north." label="SeaSurfaceWaveFromDirection" title="Sea Surface Wave from Direction" uid="sea_surface_wave_from_direction" units="degree"></item> 
    13066 <item description="alias::tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_black_carbon_dry_aerosol_due_to_gravitational_settling" label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfElementalCarbonDryAerosolParticlesDueToGravitationalSettling" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Elemental Carbon Dry Aerosol Particles due to Gravitational Settling [alias]" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_black_carbon_dry_aerosol_due_to_gravitational_settling" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13044<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Pb&quot; means the element &quot;lead&quot; and &quot;209Pb&quot; is the isotope &quot;lead-209&quot; with a half-life of 1.38e-01 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf209Pb" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 209Pb" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_209Pb" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1306713045<item description="alias::atmosphere_convective_cloud_condensed_water_content" label="AtmosphereMassContentOfConvectiveCloudCondensedWater" title="Atmosphere Mass Content of Convective Cloud Condensed Water [alias]" uid="atmosphere_convective_cloud_condensed_water_content" units="kg m-2"></item> 
    1306813046<item description="In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="ConvectiveSnowfallFlux" title="Convective Snowfall Flux" uid="convective_snowfall_flux" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1306913047<item description="&quot;shortwave&quot; means shortwave radiation. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean &quot;net downward&quot;. When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called &quot;irradiance&quot;. In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosine-collector light-meter and sometimes called &quot;vector irradiance&quot;. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="DownwellingShortwaveFluxInAir" title="Downwelling Shortwave Flux in Air" uid="downwelling_shortwave_flux_in_air" units="W m-2"></item> 
    13070 <item description="Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula of CFC113 is CCl2FCClF2. The IUPAC name for CFC113 is 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoro-ethane." label="MassConcentrationOfCfc113InAir" title="Mass Concentration of Cfc113 in Air" uid="mass_concentration_of_cfc113_in_air" units="kg m-3"></item> 
    1307113048<item description="'Mass concentration' means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical or biological species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The phrase 'expressed_as' is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A. 'Flagellates' are a class of single celled organisms that use a flagellum (whip-like structure) for feeding and locomotion. Some flagellates can photosynthesize and others feed on bacteria, with a few flagellatescapable of both." label="MassConcentrationOfFlagellatesExpressedAsNitrogenInSeaWater" title="Mass Concentration of Flagellates Expressed As Nitrogen in Sea Water" uid="mass_concentration_of_flagellates_expressed_as_nitrogen_in_sea_water" units="kg m-3"></item> 
     13049<item description="alias::mass_fraction_of_pm10_aerosol_in_air" label="MassFractionOfPm10AmbientAerosolParticlesInAir" title="Mass Fraction of Pm10 Ambient Aerosol Particles in Air [alias]" uid="mass_fraction_of_pm10_aerosol_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    1307213050<item description="cloud_top refers to the top of the highest cloud. Model level number should be understood as equivalent to layer number. Convective cloud is that produced by the convection schemes in an atmosphere model." label="ModelLevelNumberAtConvectiveCloudTop" title="Model Level Number At Convective Cloud Top" uid="model_level_number_at_convective_cloud_top" units="1"></item> 
    13073 <item description="Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature. In an atmosphere model, stratiform cloud is that produced by large-scale convergence (not the convection schemes). The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time." label="TendencyOfAirTemperatureDueToStratiformPrecipitation" title="Tendency of Air Temperature due to Stratiform Precipitation" uid="tendency_of_air_temperature_due_to_stratiform_precipitation" units="K s-1"></item> 
    13074 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere, i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. The chemical formula for toluene is C6H5CH3.  Toluene has the same structure as benzene, except that one of the hydrogen atoms is replaced by a methyl group.  The systematic name for toluene is methylbenzene." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMolesOfToluene" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Moles of Toluene" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_moles_of_toluene" units="mol s-1"></item> 
     13051<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Bk&quot; means the element &quot;berkelium&quot; and &quot;250Bk&quot; is the isotope &quot;berkelium-250&quot; with a half-life of 1.34e-01 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf250Bk" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 250Bk" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_250Bk" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
     13052<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Y&quot; means the element &quot;yttrium&quot; and &quot;90Y&quot; is the isotope &quot;yttrium-90&quot; with a half-life of 2.67e+00 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf90Y" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 90Y" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_90Y" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1307513053<item description="toa_outgoing_radiance_per_unit_wavenumber_stdev_within_collocation_scene is the standard deviation of observations of the quantity with standard name toa_outgoing_radiance_per_unit_wavenumber from a sensor's adjacent field-of-views within a collocation scene. &quot;toa&quot; means top of atmosphere. The TOA outgoing radiance is the upwelling radiance, i.e., toward outer space. Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics. The &quot;collocation scene&quot; is a grouping of a sensor's adjacent field-of-views centered on a collocation target. The size of the collocation scene is typically about twice that of the collocation target. The &quot;collocation target&quot; is an area on the Earth's surface at which observations from at least two sensors are collected. Its size is defined by the sensor with the largest field-of-view footprint. Two events are deemed to be collocated based on some set of spatial, temporal, and viewing geometry criteria." label="ToaOutgoingRadiancePerUnitWavenumberStdevWithinCollocationScene" title="Toa Outgoing Radiance Per Unit Wavenumber Stdev Within Collocation Scene" uid="toa_outgoing_radiance_per_unit_wavenumber_stdev_within_collocation_scene" units="W m-2 sr-1 (m-1)-1"></item> 
    13076 <item description="alias::atmosphere_mass_content_of_black_carbon_dry_aerosol" label="AtmosphereMassContentOfElementalCarbonDryAerosolParticles" title="Atmosphere Mass Content of Elemental Carbon Dry Aerosol Particles [alias]" uid="atmosphere_mass_content_of_black_carbon_dry_aerosol" units="kg m-2"></item> 
    13077 <item description="alias::mass_fraction_of_pm10_aerosol_in_air" label="MassFractionOfPm10AmbientAerosolParticlesInAir" title="Mass Fraction of Pm10 Ambient Aerosol Particles in Air [alias]" uid="mass_fraction_of_pm10_aerosol_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    13078 <item description="&quot;Eastward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). Transport across_unit_distance means expressed per unit distance normal to the direction of transport." label="EastwardAtmosphereWaterVaporTransportAcrossUnitDistance" title="Eastward Atmosphere Water Vapor Transport Across Unit Distance" uid="eastward_atmosphere_water_vapor_transport_across_unit_distance" units="kg m-1 s-1"></item> 
    13079 <item description="Mole concentration means number of moles per unit volume, also called &quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for nitric acid is HNO3." label="MoleConcentrationOfNitricAcidInAir" title="Mole Concentration of Nitric Acid in Air" uid="mole_concentration_of_nitric_acid_in_air" units="mol m-3"></item> 
    13080 <item description="Mole fraction is used in the construction mole_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. The chemical formula of bromine nitrate is BrONO2." label="MoleFractionOfBromineNitrateInAir" title="Mole Fraction of Bromine Nitrate in Air" uid="mole_fraction_of_bromine_nitrate_in_air" units="1"></item> 
     13054<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Th&quot; means the element &quot;thorium&quot; and &quot;230Th&quot; is the isotope &quot;thorium-230&quot; with a half-life of 2.92e+07 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf230Th" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 230Th" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_230Th" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
     13055<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Np&quot; means the element &quot;neptunium&quot; and &quot;236Np&quot; is the isotope &quot;neptunium-236&quot; with a half-life of 9.17e-01 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf236Np" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 236Np" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_236Np" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1308113056<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. Sublimation is the conversion of solid into vapor. The snow sublimation heat flux is the supply of latent heat which is causing evaporation of snow to water vapor. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="SurfaceSnowSublimationHeatFlux" title="Surface Snow Sublimation Heat Flux" uid="surface_snow_sublimation_heat_flux" units="W m-2"></item> 
    13082 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for ethane is C2H6. Ethane is a member of the group of hydrocarbons known as alkanes. There are standard names for the alkane group as well as for some of the individual species. The &quot;forest fires&quot; sector comprises the burning (natural and human-induced) of living or dead vegetation in forests. &quot;Forest fires&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source category 5 as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfEthaneDueToEmissionFromForestFires" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Ethane due to Emission from Forest Fires" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_ethane_due_to_emission_from_forest_fires" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1308313057<item description="&quot;shortwave&quot; means shortwave radiation. &quot;toa&quot; means top of atmosphere. Instantaneous forcing is the radiative flux change caused instantaneously by an imposed change in radiative forcing agent (greenhouse gases, aerosol, solar radiation, etc.)." label="ToaInstantaneousShortwaveForcing" title="Toa Instantaneous Shortwave Forcing" uid="toa_instantaneous_shortwave_forcing" units="W m-2"></item> 
    1308413058<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  &quot;Nox&quot; means a combination of two radical species containing nitrogen and oxygen: NO+NO2. The phrase 'expressed_as' is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A." label="AtmosphereMassContentOfNoxExpressedAsNitrogen" title="Atmosphere Mass Content of Nox Expressed As Nitrogen" uid="atmosphere_mass_content_of_nox_expressed_as_nitrogen" units="kg m-2"></item> 
    13085 <item description="Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean &quot;net downward&quot;. &quot;Direct&quot; (also known as &quot;beam&quot;) radiation is radiation that has followed a direct path from the sun and is alternatively known as &quot;direct insolation&quot;. When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called &quot;irradiance&quot;. In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosine-collector light-meter and sometimes called &quot;vector irradiance&quot;. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics. &quot;shortwave&quot; means shortwave radiation." label="DirectDownwellingShortwaveFluxInAir" title="Direct Downwelling Shortwave Flux in Air" uid="direct_downwelling_shortwave_flux_in_air" units="W m-2"></item> 
    1308613059<item description="Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for alpha_hexachlorocyclohexane is C6H6Cl6." label="MassConcentrationOfAlphaHexachlorocyclohexaneInAir" title="Mass Concentration of Alpha Hexachlorocyclohexane in Air" uid="mass_concentration_of_alpha_hexachlorocyclohexane_in_air" units="kg m-3"></item> 
    13087 <item description="Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula of carbon monoxide is CO." label="MassConcentrationOfCarbonMonoxideInAir" title="Mass Concentration of Carbon Monoxide in Air" uid="mass_concentration_of_carbon_monoxide_in_air" units="kg m-3"></item> 
    13088 <item description="&quot;Amount&quot; means mass per unit area.  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  &quot;Frazil&quot; consists of needle like crystals of ice, typically between three and four millimeters in diameter, which form as sea water begins to freeze. Salt is expelled during the freezing process and frazil ice consists of nearly pure fresh water. Leads are stretches of open water within wider areas of sea ice." label="TendencyOfSeaIceAmountDueToFrazilIceAccumulationInLeads" title="Tendency of Sea Ice Amount due to Frazil Ice Accumulation in Leads" uid="tendency_of_sea_ice_amount_due_to_frazil_ice_accumulation_in_leads" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13060<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Pm&quot; means the element &quot;promethium&quot; and &quot;148mPm&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;promethium-148&quot; with a half-life of 4.14e+01 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf148MpmInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 148Mpm in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_148mPm_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13061<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Pu&quot; means the element &quot;plutonium&quot; and &quot;237Pu&quot; is the isotope &quot;plutonium-237&quot; with a half-life of 4.56e+01 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf237PuInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 237Pu in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_237Pu_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1308913062<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The chemical formula for nitrous oxide is N2O." label="AtmosphereMassContentOfNitrousOxide" title="Atmosphere Mass Content of Nitrous Oxide" uid="atmosphere_mass_content_of_nitrous_oxide" units="kg m-2"></item> 
    1309013063<item description="cloud_top refers to the top of the highest cloud. Altitude is the (geometric) height above the geoid, which is the reference geopotential surface. The geoid is similar to mean sea level." label="CloudTopAltitude" title="Cloud Top Altitude" uid="cloud_top_altitude" units="m"></item> 
    1309113064<item description="Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, whereX is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X).  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for xylene is C6H4C2H6. In chemistry, xylene is a generic term for a group of three isomers of dimethylbenzene. The IUPAC names for the isomers are 1,2-dimethylbenzene, 1,3-dimethylbenzene and 1,4-dimethylbenzene. Xylene is an aromatic hydrocarbon. There are standard names that refer toaromatic_compounds as a group, as well as those for individual species." label="MassFractionOfXyleneInAir" title="Mass Fraction of Xylene in Air" uid="mass_fraction_of_xylene_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    13092 <item description="&quot;product_of_X_and_Y&quot; means X*Y. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature. A velocity is a vector quantity. &quot;Upward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). Upward air velocity is the vertical component of the 3D air velocity vector." label="ProductOfUpwardAirVelocityAndAirTemperature" title="Product of Upward Air Velocity And Air Temperature" uid="product_of_upward_air_velocity_and_air_temperature" units="K m s-1"></item> 
    13093 <item description="relative_sensor_azimuth_angle is the difference between the viewing geometries from two different sensors over the same observation target. It is the difference between the values of two quantities with standard name sensor_azimuth_angle. There is no standardized sign convention for relative_sensor_azimuth_angle. &quot;Observation target&quot; means a location on the Earth defined by the sensor performing the observations. A standard name also exists for relative_platform_azimuth_angle, where &quot;platform&quot; refers to the vehicle from which observations are made e.g. aeroplane, ship, or satellite. For some viewing geometries the sensor and the platform cannot be assumed to be close enough to neglect the difference in calculated azimuth angle." label="RelativeSensorAzimuthAngle" title="Relative Sensor Azimuth Angle" uid="relative_sensor_azimuth_angle" units="degree"></item> 
    13094 <item description="Sound pressure is the difference from the local ambient pressure caused by a sound wave at a particular location and time. Sound pressure level in water is expressed on a logarithmic scale with reference to a sound pressure of 1e-6 Pa. Lp = 20 log10(p/p0) where Lp is the sound pressure level, p is the rms sound pressure and p0 is the reference sound pressure." label="SoundPressureLevelInWater" title="Sound Pressure Level in Water" uid="sound_pressure_level_in_water" units="dB"></item> 
    13095 <item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the particles. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. Aerosol takes up ambient water (a process known as hygroscopic growth) depending on the relative humidity and the composition of the aerosol. &quot;Dry aerosol particles&quot; means aerosol particles without any water uptake. &quot;particulate_organic_matter_dry_aerosol&quot; means all particulate organic matter dry aerosol except elemental carbon.  It is the sum of primary_particulate_organic_matter_dry_aerosol and secondary_particulate_organic_matter_dry_aerosol. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Wet deposition&quot; means deposition by precipitation. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfParticulateOrganicMatterDryAerosolParticlesDueToWetDeposition" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Particulate Organic Matter Dry Aerosol Particles due to Wet Deposition" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_particulate_organic_matter_dry_aerosol_particles_due_to_wet_deposition" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13065<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Zr&quot; means the element &quot;zirconium&quot; and &quot;95Zr&quot; is the isotope &quot;zirconium-95&quot; with a half-life of 6.52e+01 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf95ZrInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 95Zr in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_95Zr_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1309613066<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The phrase 'expressed_as' is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  Aragonite is a mineral that is a polymorph of calcium carbonate. The chemical formula of aragonite is CaCO3. Standard names also exist for calcite, another polymorph of calcium carbonate." label="TendencyOfOceanMoleContentOfAragoniteExpressedAsCarbonDueToBiologicalProduction" title="Tendency of Ocean Mole Content of Aragonite Expressed As Carbon due to Biological Production" uid="tendency_of_ocean_mole_content_of_aragonite_expressed_as_carbon_due_to_biological_production" units="mol m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13097 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase." label="TendencyOfOceanMoleContentOfPhosphorusDueToBiologicalProduction" title="Tendency of Ocean Mole Content of Phosphorus due to Biological Production" uid="tendency_of_ocean_mole_content_of_phosphorus_due_to_biological_production" units="mol m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13098 <item description="Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean &quot;net downward&quot;.  When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called &quot;irradiance&quot;.  In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosine-collector light-meter and sometimes called &quot;vector irradiance&quot;.  In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics.  A phrase assuming_condition  indicates that the named quantity is the value which would obtain if all  aspects of the system were unaltered except for the assumption of the  circumstances specified by the condition.  &quot;longwave&quot; means longwave radiation." label="DownwellingLongwaveFluxInAirAssumingClearSky" title="Downwelling Longwave Flux in Air Assuming Clear Sky" uid="downwelling_longwave_flux_in_air_assuming_clear_sky" units="W m-2"></item> 
    1309913067<item description="Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. &quot;Brox&quot;  describes a family of chemical species consisting of inorganic bromine compounds with the exception of  hydrogen bromide (HBr) and bromine nitrate (BrONO2). &quot;Brox&quot; is the term used in standard names for all species belonging to the family that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity with a group chemical standard name can vary between models.  Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute. &quot;Inorganic bromine&quot;, sometimes referred to as Bry, describes a family of chemical species which result from the degradation of source gases containing bromine (halons, methyl bromide, VSLS) and natural inorganic bromine sources such as volcanoes, seasalt and other aerosols.  Standard names that use the term &quot;inorganic_bromine&quot; are used for quantities that contain all inorganic bromine species including HCl and ClONO2. The phrase 'expressed_as' is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A." label="MassConcentrationOfBroxExpressedAsBromineInAir" title="Mass Concentration of Brox Expressed As Bromine in Air" uid="mass_concentration_of_brox_expressed_as_bromine_in_air" units="kg m-3"></item> 
    1310013068<item description="alias::mass_concentration_of_pm1_ambient_aerosol_in_air" label="MassConcentrationOfPm1AmbientAerosolParticlesInAir" title="Mass Concentration of Pm1 Ambient Aerosol Particles in Air [alias]" uid="mass_concentration_of_pm1_ambient_aerosol_in_air" units="kg m-3"></item> 
    13101 <item description="Mole concentration means number of moles per unit volume, also called &quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for hydrogen cyanide is HCN." label="MoleConcentrationOfHydrogenCyanideInAir" title="Mole Concentration of Hydrogen Cyanide in Air" uid="mole_concentration_of_hydrogen_cyanide_in_air" units="mol m-3"></item> 
     13069<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;At&quot; means the element &quot;astatine&quot; and &quot;219At&quot; is the isotope &quot;astatine-219&quot; with a half-life of 6.27e-04 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf219AtInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 219At in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_219At_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1310213070<item description="&quot;x&quot; indicates a vector component along the grid x-axis, positive with increasing x. Wind is defined as a two-dimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)" label="XWind" title="X Wind" uid="x_wind" units="m s-1"></item> 
    13103 <item description="alias::y_sea_water_velocity" label="SeaWaterYVelocity" title="Sea Water Y Velocity [alias]" uid="y_sea_water_velocity" units="m s-1"></item> 
    1310413071<item description="Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature. A lapse rate is the negative derivative of a quantity with respect to increasing height above the surface, or the (positive) derivative with respect to increasing depth." label="AirTemperatureLapseRate" title="Air Temperature Lapse Rate" uid="air_temperature_lapse_rate" units="K m-1"></item> 
    1310513072<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The chemical symbol for atomic bromine is Br." label="AtmosphereMassContentOfAtomicBromine" title="Atmosphere Mass Content of Atomic Bromine" uid="atmosphere_mass_content_of_atomic_bromine" units="kg m-2"></item> 
    13106 <item description="In ocean modelling, diazotrophs are phytoplankton of the phylum cyanobacteria distinct from other phytoplankton groups in their ability to fix nitrogen gas in addition to nitrate and ammonium. Phytoplankton are algae that grow where there is sufficient light to support photosynthesis. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Irradiance&quot; means the power per unit area (called radiative flux in other standard names), the area being normal to the direction of flow of the radiant energy. Solar irradiance is essential to the photosynthesis reaction and its presence promotes the growth of phytoplankton populations. &quot;Growth limitation due to solar irradiance&quot; means the ratio of the growth rate of a species population in the environment (where the amount of sunlight reaching a location may be limited) to the theoretical growth rate if there were no such limit on solar irradiance." label="GrowthLimitationOfDiazotrophsDueToSolarIrradiance" title="Growth Limitation of Diazotrophs due to Solar Irradiance" uid="growth_limitation_of_diazotrophs_due_to_solar_irradiance" units="1"></item> 
    13107 <item description="Steric sea level change is caused by changes in sea water density due to changes in temperature (thermosteric) and salinity (halosteric). &quot;Mean sea level&quot; means the time mean of sea surface elevation at a given location over an arbitrary period sufficient to eliminate the tidal signals. Zero mean sea level change is an arbitrary level. The sum of the quantities with standard names thermosteric_change_in_mean_sea_level and halosteric_change_in_mean_sea_level has the standard name steric_change_in_mean_sea_level." label="StericChangeInMeanSeaLevel" title="Steric Change in Mean Sea Level" uid="steric_change_in_mean_sea_level" units="m"></item> 
     13073<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Ra&quot; means the element &quot;radium&quot; and &quot;226Ra&quot; is the isotope &quot;radium-226&quot; with a half-life of 5.86e+05 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf226RaInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 226Ra in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_226Ra_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13074<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Th&quot; means the element &quot;thorium&quot; and &quot;226Th&quot; is the isotope &quot;thorium-226&quot; with a half-life of 2.15e-02 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf226ThInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 226Th in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_226Th_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1310813075<item description="The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. Atmosphere water vapor content is sometimes referred to as &quot;precipitable water&quot;, although this term does not imply the water could all be precipitated." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfWaterVaporDueToAdvection" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Water Vapor due to Advection" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_water_vapor_due_to_advection" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1310913076<item description="The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. Speed is the magnitude of velocity. Wind is defined as a two-dimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.) The wind speed is the magnitude of the wind velocity." label="TendencyOfWindSpeedDueToGravityWaveDrag" title="Tendency of Wind Speed due to Gravity Wave Drag" uid="tendency_of_wind_speed_due_to_gravity_wave_drag" units="m s-2"></item> 
    13110 <item description="&quot;Water&quot; means water in all phases. The water flux into sea water is the freshwater entering as a result of precipitation, evaporation, river inflow, sea ice effects and water flux relaxation and correction (if applied). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="WaterFluxIntoSeaWater" title="Water Flux Into Sea Water" uid="water_flux_into_sea_water" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13111 <item description="alias::large_scale_rainfall_flux" label="StratiformRainfallFlux" title="Stratiform Rainfall Flux [alias]" uid="large_scale_rainfall_flux" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1311213077<item description="Convective(ly) available potential energy (often abbreviated CAPE) is a stability measure calculated by integrating the positive temperature difference between the surrounding atmosphere and a parcel of air lifted adiabatically from a given starting height to its equilibrium level. A coordinate variable of original_air_pressure_of_lifted_parcel should be specified to indicate the starting height of the lifted parcel. CAPE exists under conditions of potential instability, and measures the potential energy per unit mass that would be released by the unstable parcel if it were able to convect upwards to equilibrium." label="AtmosphereConvectiveAvailablePotentialEnergy" title="Atmosphere Convective Available Potential Energy" uid="atmosphere_convective_available_potential_energy" units="J kg-1"></item> 
    1311313078<item description="The diameter of an aerosol particle as selected by its electrical mobility." label="ElectricalMobilityParticleDiameter" title="Electrical Mobility Particle Diameter" uid="electrical_mobility_particle_diameter" units="m"></item> 
    13114 <item description="The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase.  Altimeter pulses tend to be more strongly refelected by the troughs of sea surface waves than by the crests leading to a bias in the measured sea surface height. This quantity is commonly known as &quot;sea state bias&quot;." label="SeaSurfaceHeightBiasDueToSeaSurfaceRoughness" title="Sea Surface Height Bias due to Sea Surface Roughness" uid="sea_surface_height_bias_due_to_sea_surface_roughness" units="m"></item> 
    13115 <item description="The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature." label="TendencyOfAirTemperatureDueToTurbulence" title="Tendency of Air Temperature due to Turbulence" uid="tendency_of_air_temperature_due_to_turbulence" units="K s-1"></item> 
    13116 <item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Wet deposition&quot; means deposition by precipitation. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. The chemical formula for acetaldehyde is CH3CHO. The IUPAC name for acetaldehyde is ethanal." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfAcetaldehydeDueToWetDeposition" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Acetaldehyde due to Wet Deposition" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_acetaldehyde_due_to_wet_deposition" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13117 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  &quot;Wet deposition&quot; means deposition by precipitation." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfNitricAcidDueToWetDeposition" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Nitric Acid due to Wet Deposition" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_nitric_acid_due_to_wet_deposition" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1311813079<item description="alias::shortwave_radiance" label="IsotropicShortwaveRadianceInAir" title="Isotropic Shortwave Radiance in Air [alias]" uid="shortwave_radiance" units="W m-2 sr-1"></item> 
    13119 <item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Inorganic nitrogen&quot; describes a family of chemical species which, in an ocean model, usually includes nitrite, nitrate and ammonium which act as nitrogen nutrients. &quot;Inorganic nitrogen&quot; is the term used in standard names for all species belonging to the family that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models.  Where possible, the data variableshould be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute." label="TendencyOfOceanMoleContentOfDissolvedInorganicNitrogen" title="Tendency of Ocean Mole Content of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen" uid="tendency_of_ocean_mole_content_of_dissolved_inorganic_nitrogen" units="mol m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1312013080<item description="The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;specific&quot; means per unit mass. Specific humidity is the mass fraction of water vapor in (moist) air." label="TendencyOfSpecificHumidityDueToConvection" title="Tendency of Specific Humidity due to Convection" uid="tendency_of_specific_humidity_due_to_convection" units="s-1"></item> 
    1312113081<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;troposphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the tropopause. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. The chemical formula for nitrogen_dioxide is NO2." label="TroposphereMoleContentOfNitrogenDioxide" title="Troposphere Mole Content of Nitrogen Dioxide" uid="troposphere_mole_content_of_nitrogen_dioxide" units="mol m-2"></item> 
    1312213082<item description="alias::atmosphere_mass_content_of_sulfate_dry_aerosol" label="AtmosphereMassContentOfSulfateDryAerosolParticles" title="Atmosphere Mass Content of Sulfate Dry Aerosol Particles [alias]" uid="atmosphere_mass_content_of_sulfate_dry_aerosol" units="kg m-2"></item> 
     13083<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Pm&quot; means the element &quot;promethium&quot; and &quot;148mPm&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;promethium-148&quot; with a half-life of 4.14e+01 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf148MpmInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 148Mpm in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_148mPm_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1312313084<item description="Sound pressure is the difference from the local ambient pressure caused by a sound wave at a particular location and time." label="SoundPressureInAir" title="Sound Pressure in Air" uid="sound_pressure_in_air" units="Pa"></item> 
    13124 <item description="alias::tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_nitrogen_due_to_wet_deposition" label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfNitrogenCompoundsExpressedAsNitrogenDueToWetDeposition" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Nitrogen Compounds Expressed As Nitrogen due to Wet Deposition [alias]" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_nitrogen_due_to_wet_deposition" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1312513085<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for toluene is C6H5CH3. Toluene has the same structure as benzene, except that one of the hydrogen atoms is replaced by a methyl group. The systematic name for toluene is methylbenzene. The &quot;maritime transport&quot; sector includes fuel combustion activities related to maritime transport. &quot;Maritime transport&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source category 1A3d as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas Inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfTolueneDueToEmissionFromMaritimeTransport" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Toluene due to Emission from Maritime Transport" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_toluene_due_to_emission_from_maritime_transport" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13126 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for xylene is C6H4C2H6. In chemistry, xylene is a generic term for a group of three isomers of dimethylbenzene. The IUPAC names for the isomers are 1,2-dimethylbenzene, 1,3-dimethylbenzene and 1,4-dimethylbenzene. Xylene is an aromatic hydrocarbon. There are standard names that refer to aromatic_compounds as a group, as well as those for individual species. The &quot;solvent production and use&quot; sector comprises industrial processes related to the consumption of halocarbons, SF6, solvent and other product use. &quot;Solvent production and use&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 2F and 3 as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfXyleneDueToEmissionFromSolventProductionAndUse" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Xylene due to Emission from Solvent Production And Use" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_xylene_due_to_emission_from_solvent_production_and_use" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13127 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere, i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. The chemical formula for xylene is C6H4C2H6. In chemistry, xylene is a generic term for a group of three isomers of dimethylbenzene. The IUPAC names for the isomers are 1,2-dimethylbenzene, 1,3-dimethylbenzene and 1,4-dimethylbenzene. Xylene is an aromatic hydrocarbon. There are standard names that refer to aromatic_compounds as a group, as well as those for individual species." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMolesOfXylene" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Moles of Xylene" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_moles_of_xylene" units="mol s-1"></item> 
    13128 <item description="The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere, i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. The chemical formula for halon1211 is CBrClF2. The IUPAC name for halon1211 is bromo-chloro-difluoro-methane." label="AtmosphereMolesOfHalon1211" title="Atmosphere Moles of Halon1211" uid="atmosphere_moles_of_halon1211" units="mol"></item> 
    13129 <item description="The optical thickness is the integral along the path of radiation of a volume scattering/absorption/attenuation coefficient. The radiative flux is reduced by a factor exp(-optical_thickness) on traversing the path. The atmosphere optical thickness applies to radiation passing through the entire atmosphere. A coordinate variable of radiation_wavelength or radiation_frequency can be specified to indicate that the optical thickness applies at specific wavelengths or frequencies. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. &quot;Ambient_aerosol&quot; means that the aerosol is measured or modelled at the ambient state of pressure, temperature and relative humidity that exists in its immediate environment. &quot;Ambient aerosol particles&quot; are aerosol particles that have taken up ambient water through hygroscopic growth. The extent of hygroscopic growth depends on the relative humidity and the composition of the particles. &quot;Pm2p5 aerosol&quot; means atmospheric particulate compounds with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase." label="AtmosphereOpticalThicknessDueToPm2P5AmbientAerosolParticles" title="Atmosphere Optical Thickness due to Pm2P5 Ambient Aerosol Particles" uid="atmosphere_optical_thickness_due_to_pm2p5_ambient_aerosol_particles" units="1"></item> 
    13130 <item description="&quot;X_area_fraction&quot; means the fraction of horizontal area occupied by X. &quot;X_area&quot; means the horizontal area occupied by X within the grid cell. &quot;Burned area&quot; means the area of burned vegetation." label="BurnedAreaFraction" title="Burned Area Fraction" uid="burned_area_fraction" units="1"></item> 
    1313113086<item description="Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean &quot;net downward&quot;.  When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called &quot;irradiance&quot;. In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosine-collector light-meter and sometimes called &quot;vector irradiance&quot;. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics. A coordinate variable for radiation wavelength should be given the standard name radiation_wavelength." label="DownwellingRadiativeFluxPerUnitWavelengthInSeaWater" title="Downwelling Radiative Flux Per Unit Wavelength in Sea Water" uid="downwelling_radiative_flux_per_unit_wavelength_in_sea_water" units="W m-2 m-1"></item> 
    1313213087<item description="Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean &quot;net downward&quot;. Spherical irradiance is the radiation incident on unit area of a hemispherical (or &quot;2-pi&quot;) collector. It is sometimes called &quot;scalar irradiance&quot;. The direction (up/downwelling) is specified. Radiation incident on a 4-pi collector has standard names of &quot;omnidirectional spherical irradiance&quot;." label="DownwellingSphericalIrradianceInSeaWater" title="Downwelling Spherical Irradiance in Sea Water" uid="downwelling_spherical_irradiance_in_sea_water" units="W m-2"></item> 
    13133 <item description="Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, whereX is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X).  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. In chemistry, a 'radical' is a highly reactive, and therefore shortlived, species." label="MassFractionOfNitrateRadicalInAir" title="Mass Fraction of Nitrate Radical in Air" uid="mass_fraction_of_nitrate_radical_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    13134 <item description="alias::sea_surface_elevation" label="SeaSurfaceHeightAboveGeoid" title="Sea Surface Height Above Geoid [alias]" uid="sea_surface_elevation" units="m"></item> 
    1313513088<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for sulfur dioxide is SO2. The &quot;energy production and distribution&quot; sector comprises fuel combustion activities related to energy industries and fugitive emissions from fuels. It may also include any not-classified or &quot;other&quot; combustion, which is commonly included in energy-related inventory data. &quot;Energy production and distribution&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 1A1 and 1B as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfSulfurDioxideDueToEmissionFromEnergyProductionAndDistribution" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Sulfur Dioxide due to Emission from Energy Production And Distribution" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_sulfur_dioxide_due_to_emission_from_energy_production_and_distribution" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13136 <item description="The volume extinction coefficient is the fractional change of radiative flux per unit path length. Extinction is the sum of absorption and scattering, sometimes called &quot;attenuation&quot;. &quot;Extinction&quot; is the term most commonly used at optical wavelengths whereas &quot;attenuation&quot; is more often used at radio and radar wavelengths. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. &quot;Ambient_aerosol&quot; means that the aerosol is measured or modelled at the ambient state of pressure, temperature and relative humidity that exists in its immediate environment. &quot;Ambient aerosol particles&quot; are aerosol particles that have taken up ambient water through hygroscopic growth. The extent of hygroscopic growth depends on the relative humidity and the composition of the particles. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase." label="VolumeExtinctionCoefficientInAirDueToAmbientAerosolParticles" title="Volume Extinction Coefficient in Air due to Ambient Aerosol Particles" uid="volume_extinction_coefficient_in_air_due_to_ambient_aerosol_particles" units="m -1"></item> 
    1313713089<item description="alias::moles_of_nitrous_oxide_in_atmosphere" label="AtmosphereMolesOfNitrousOxide" title="Atmosphere Moles of Nitrous Oxide [alias]" uid="moles_of_nitrous_oxide_in_atmosphere" units="mol"></item> 
    13138 <item description="The partial pressure of a dissolved gas in sea water is the partial pressure in air with which it would be in equilibrium. The partial pressure of a gaseous constituent of air is the pressure which it alone would exert with unchanged temperature and number of moles per unit volume. The chemical formula for methane is CH4." label="PartialPressureOfMethaneInSeaWater" title="Partial Pressure of Methane in Sea Water" uid="partial_pressure_of_methane_in_sea_water" units="Pa"></item> 
    1313913090<item description="Turbidity is a dimensionless quantity which is expressed in NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Units). Turbidity expressed in NTU is the proportion of white light scattered back to a transceiver by the particulate load in a body of water, represented on an arbitrary scale referenced against measurements made in the laboratory on aqueous suspensions of formazine beads. Sea water turbidity may also be measured by the quantity with standard name secchi_depth_of_sea_water." label="SeaWaterTurbidity" title="Sea Water Turbidity" uid="sea_water_turbidity" units="1"></item> 
    13140 <item description="" label="ErtelPotentialVorticity" title="Ertel Potential Vorticity" uid="ertel_potential_vorticity" units="K m2 kg-1 s-1"></item> 
    13141 <item description="Mole concentration means number of moles per unit volume, also called &quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for bromine monoxide is BrO." label="MoleConcentrationOfBromineMonoxideInAir" title="Mole Concentration of Bromine Monoxide in Air" uid="mole_concentration_of_bromine_monoxide_in_air" units="mol m-3"></item> 
    13142 <item description="&quot;y&quot; indicates a vector component along the grid y-axis, positive with increasing y." label="OceanMassYTransport" title="Ocean Mass Y Transport" uid="ocean_mass_y_transport" units="kg s-1"></item> 
    13143 <item description="A variable with the standard name of scene_type_of_dvorak_tropical_cyclone_eye_region contains integers which can be translated to strings using flag_values and flag_meanings attributes. It indicates the Advanced Dvorak Technique tropical cyclone eye region scene type chosen from the following list: clear_ragged_or_obscured_eye; pinhole_eye; large_eye;  no_eye.  Alternatively, the data variable may contain strings chosen from the same standardised list to indicate the scene type. Reference: Olander, T. L., &amp; Velden, C. S., The Advanced Dvorak Technique: Continued Development of an Objective Scheme to Estimate Tropical Cyclone Intensity Using Geostationary Infrared Satellite Imagery (2007). American Meterorological Society Weather and Forecasting, 22, 287-298." label="SceneTypeOfDvorakTropicalCycloneEyeRegion" title="Scene Type of Dvorak Tropical Cyclone Eye Region" uid="scene_type_of_dvorak_tropical_cyclone_eye_region" units="1"></item> 
     13091<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Tc&quot; means the element &quot;technetium&quot; and &quot;102mTc&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;technetium-102&quot; with a half-life of 2.98e-03 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf102MtcInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 102Mtc in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_102mTc_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1314413092<item description="alias::atmosphere_cloud_ice_content" label="AtmosphereMassContentOfCloudIce" title="Atmosphere Mass Content of Cloud Ice [alias]" uid="atmosphere_cloud_ice_content" units="kg m-2"></item> 
    1314513093<item description="&quot;Layer&quot; means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be &quot;model_level_number&quot;, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. &quot;X_area_fraction&quot; means the fraction of horizontal area occupied by X. Cloud area fraction is also called &quot;cloud amount&quot; and &quot;cloud cover&quot;. The chemical formula for water is H2O." label="LiquidWaterCloudAreaFractionInAtmosphereLayer" title="Liquid Water Cloud Area Fraction in Atmosphere Layer" uid="liquid_water_cloud_area_fraction_in_atmosphere_layer" units="1"></item> 
    13146 <item description="Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for formaldehyde is CH2O. The IUPAC name for formaldehyde is methanal." label="MassConcentrationOfFormaldehydeInAir" title="Mass Concentration of Formaldehyde in Air" uid="mass_concentration_of_formaldehyde_in_air" units="kg m-3"></item> 
    13147 <item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the particles. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. Aerosol particles take up ambient water (a process known as hygroscopic growth) depending on the relative humidity and the composition of the particles. &quot;Dry aerosol particles&quot; means aerosol particles without any water uptake. &quot;Pm2p5 aerosol&quot; means atmospheric particulate compounds with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Dry deposition&quot; is the sum of turbulent deposition and gravitational settling. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfPm2P5SeaSaltDryAerosolParticlesDueToDryDeposition" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Pm2P5 Sea Salt Dry Aerosol Particles due to Dry Deposition" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_pm2p5_sea_salt_dry_aerosol_particles_due_to_dry_deposition" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13094<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Rb&quot; means the element &quot;rubidium&quot; and &quot;86Rb&quot; is the isotope &quot;rubidium-86&quot; with a half-life of 1.87e+01 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf86RbInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 86Rb in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_86Rb_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13095<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Sr&quot; means the element &quot;strontium&quot; and &quot;89Sr&quot; is the isotope &quot;strontium-89&quot; with a half-life of 5.21e+01 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf89SrInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 89Sr in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_89Sr_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13096<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Po&quot; means the element &quot;polonium&quot; and &quot;213Po&quot; is the isotope &quot;polonium-213&quot; with a half-life of 4.86e-11 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf213Po" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 213Po" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_213Po" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1314813097<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for xylene is C6H4C2H6. In chemistry, xylene is a generic term for a group of three isomers of dimethylbenzene. The IUPAC names for the isomers are 1,2-dimethylbenzene, 1,3-dimethylbenzene and 1,4-dimethylbenzene. Xylene is an aromatic hydrocarbon. There are standard names that refer to aromatic_compounds as a group, as well as those for individual species. The &quot;forest fires&quot; sector comprises the burning (natural and human-induced) of living or dead vegetation in forests. &quot;Forest fires&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source category 5 as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas Inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfXyleneDueToEmissionFromForestFires" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Xylene due to Emission from Forest Fires" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_xylene_due_to_emission_from_forest_fires" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13149 <item description="toa_brightness_temperature_bias_at_standard_scene_due_to_intercalibration is the difference between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) brightness temperature of the reference sensor and TOA brightness temperature of the monitored sensor. This TOA brightness temperature difference is a measure of the calibration difference between the monitored and reference sensors. The standard scene is a target area with typical Earth surface and atmospheric conditions that is accepted as a reference. Brightness temperature of a body is the temperature of a black body which radiates the same power per unit solid angle per unit area at a given wavenumber. TOA brightness temperature of the standard scene is calculated using a radiative transfer simulation for a given viewing geometry. The resultant top-of-atmosphere spectral radiance is then integrated with each sensor's spectral response function and converted to equivalent brightness temperature. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase." label="ToaBrightnessTemperatureBiasAtStandardSceneDueToIntercalibration" title="Toa Brightness Temperature Bias At Standard Scene due to Intercalibration" uid="toa_brightness_temperature_bias_at_standard_scene_due_to_intercalibration" units="K"></item> 
    13150 <item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The chemical formula for nitric acid is HNO3." label="AtmosphereMassContentOfNitricAcid" title="Atmosphere Mass Content of Nitric Acid" uid="atmosphere_mass_content_of_nitric_acid" units="kg m-2"></item> 
    1315113098<item description="In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Anthropogenic&quot; means influenced, caused, or created by human activity. Examples of &quot;forestry and agricultural products&quot; are paper, cardboard, furniture, timber for construction, biofuels and food for both humans and livestock. Models that simulate land use changes have one or more pools of carbon that represent these products in order to conserve carbon and allow its eventual release into the atmosphere, for example, when the products decompose in landfill sites. &quot;Anthropogenic land use change&quot; means human changes to land, excluding forest regrowth. It includes fires ignited by humans for the purpose of land use change and the processes of eventual disposal and decomposition of wood products such as paper, cardboard, furniture and timber for construction." label="CarbonMassFluxIntoForestryAndAgriculturalProductsDueToAnthropogenicLandUseOrLandCoverChange" title="Carbon Mass Flux Into Forestry And Agricultural Products due to Anthropogenic Land Use Or Land Cover Change" uid="carbon_mass_flux_into_forestry_and_agricultural_products_due_to_anthropogenic_land_use_or_land_cover_change" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13152 <item description="&quot;tropical_cyclone_maximum_sustained_wind_speed&quot; means the maximum sustained wind speed of a tropical cyclone, sustained over a period of one minute at the surface of the earth, derived using the Advanced Dvorak Technique based on satellite observations. Reference: Olander, T. L., &amp; Velden, C. S., The Advanced Dvorak Technique: Continued Development of an Objective Scheme to Estimate Tropical Cyclone Intensity Using Geostationary Infrared Satellite Imagery (2007). American Meterorological Society Weather and Forecasting, 22, 287-298." label="TropicalCycloneMaximumSustainedWindSpeed" title="Tropical Cyclone Maximum Sustained Wind Speed" uid="tropical_cyclone_maximum_sustained_wind_speed" units="m s-1"></item> 
    13153 <item description="In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics. The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Surface snow and ice melt flux&quot; means the mass flux of all melting at the surface." label="SurfaceSnowAndIceMeltFlux" title="Surface Snow And Ice Melt Flux" uid="surface_snow_and_ice_melt_flux" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13154 <item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for halo2402 is C2Br2F4. The IUPAC name for halon2402 is 1,2-dibromo-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoro-ethane." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfHalon2402DueToEmission" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Halon2402 due to Emission" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_halon2402_due_to_emission" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13155 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  &quot;middle_atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X contained in the troposphere and stratosphere, i.e, summed over that part of the atmospheric column and over the entire globe.  The chemical formula of molecular hydrogen is H2." label="TendencyOfMiddleAtmosphereMolesOfMolecularHydrogen" title="Tendency of Middle Atmosphere Moles of Molecular Hydrogen" uid="tendency_of_middle_atmosphere_moles_of_molecular_hydrogen" units="mol s-1"></item> 
     13099<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Sb&quot; means the element &quot;antimony&quot; and &quot;124Sb&quot; is the isotope &quot;antimony-124&quot; with a half-life of 6.03e+01 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf124SbInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 124Sb in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_124Sb_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1315613100<item description="alias::large_scale_graupel_flux" label="StratiformGraupelFlux" title="Stratiform Graupel Flux [alias]" uid="large_scale_graupel_flux" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13157 <item description="Mole concentration means number of moles per unit volume, also called &quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula of CFC114 is CClF2CClF2. The IUPAC name for CFC114 is 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoro-ethane." label="MoleConcentrationOfCfc114InAir" title="Mole Concentration of Cfc114 in Air" uid="mole_concentration_of_cfc114_in_air" units="mol m-3"></item> 
    1315813101<item description="alias::mole_concentration_of_organic_detritus_in_sea_water_expressed_as_silicon" label="MoleConcentrationOfOrganicDetritusExpressedAsSiliconInSeaWater" title="Mole Concentration of Organic Detritus Expressed As Silicon in Sea Water [alias]" uid="mole_concentration_of_organic_detritus_in_sea_water_expressed_as_silicon" units="mol m-3"></item> 
    1315913102<item description="moles_of_X_per_unit_mass_inY is also called &quot;molality&quot; of X in Y, where X is a material constituent of Y." label="MolesOfOxygenPerUnitMassInSeaWater" title="Moles of Oxygen Per Unit Mass in Sea Water" uid="moles_of_oxygen_per_unit_mass_in_sea_water" units="mol kg-1"></item> 
    13160 <item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. The snow melt heat flux is the supply of latent heat which is melting snow at freezing point. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="SurfaceSnowMeltHeatFlux" title="Surface Snow Melt Heat Flux" uid="surface_snow_melt_heat_flux" units="W m-2"></item> 
     13103<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;U&quot; means the element &quot;uranium&quot; and &quot;240U&quot; is the isotope &quot;uranium-240&quot; with a half-life of 5.99e-01 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf240UInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 240U in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_240U_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1316113104<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for ethanol is C2H5OH." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfEthanolDueToEmission" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Ethanol due to Emission" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_ethanol_due_to_emission" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1316213105<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the particles. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. Aerosol particles take up ambient water (a process known as hygroscopic growth) depending on the relative humidity and the composition of the particles. &quot;Dry aerosol particles&quot; means aerosol particles without any water uptake. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Net chemical production&quot; means the net result of all chemical reactions within the atmosphere that produce or destroy a particular species. &quot;Aqueous phase net chemical production&quot; means the net result of all aqueous chemical processes in fog and clouds that produce or destroy a species, as opposed to chemical processes in the gaseous phase. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. The chemical formula for the sulfate anion is SO4(2-)." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfSulfateDryAerosolParticlesDueToAqueousPhaseNetChemicalProduction" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Sulfate Dry Aerosol Particles due to Aqueous Phase Net Chemical Production" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_sulfate_dry_aerosol_particles_due_to_aqueous_phase_net_chemical_production" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1316313106<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere, i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. The chemical formula for formic acid is HCOOH.  The IUPAC name for formic acid is methanoic acid." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMolesOfFormicAcid" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Moles of Formic Acid" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_moles_of_formic_acid" units="mol s-1"></item> 
    13164 <item description="The phrase &quot;cloud_base&quot; refers to the base of the lowest cloud. Air pressure is the force per unit area which would be exerted when the moving gas molecules of which the air is composed strike a theoretical surface of any orientation." label="AirPressureAtCloudBase" title="Air Pressure At Cloud Base" uid="air_pressure_at_cloud_base" units="Pa"></item> 
    13165 <item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The chemical formula for methyl_peroxy_radical is CH3O2. In chemistry, a 'radical' is a highly reactive, and therefore shortlived, species." label="AtmosphereMassContentOfMethylPeroxyRadical" title="Atmosphere Mass Content of Methyl Peroxy Radical" uid="atmosphere_mass_content_of_methyl_peroxy_radical" units="kg m-2"></item> 
    13166 <item description="Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X). &quot;Mass_fraction_of_nitrate&quot; means that the mass is expressed as mass of NO3. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. Aerosol particles take up ambient water (a process known as hygroscopic growth) depending on the relative humidity and the composition of the particles. &quot;Dry aerosol particles&quot; means aerosol particles without any water uptake." label="MassFractionOfNitrateDryAerosolParticlesInAir" title="Mass Fraction of Nitrate Dry Aerosol Particles in Air" uid="mass_fraction_of_nitrate_dry_aerosol_particles_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    13167 <item description="alias::moisture_content_of_soil_layer" label="MassContentOfWaterInSoilLayer" title="Mass Content of Water in Soil Layer [alias]" uid="moisture_content_of_soil_layer" units="kg m-2"></item> 
    13168 <item description="Mole fraction is used in the construction mole_fraction_of_X_in_Y, whereX is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemicalformula for methyl_peroxy_radical is CH3O2. In chemistry, a 'radical' is a highly reactive, and therefore shortlived, species." label="MoleFractionOfMethylPeroxyRadicalInAir" title="Mole Fraction of Methyl Peroxy Radical in Air" uid="mole_fraction_of_methyl_peroxy_radical_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    13169 <item description="&quot;Northward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward)." label="NorthwardTransformedEulerianMeanAirVelocity" title="Northward Transformed Eulerian Mean Air Velocity" uid="northward_transformed_eulerian_mean_air_velocity" units="m s-1"></item> 
    13170 <item description="" label="SeaIceMass" title="Sea Ice Mass" uid="sea_ice_mass" units="kg"></item> 
     13107<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Bi&quot; means the element &quot;bismuth&quot; and &quot;211Bi&quot; is the isotope &quot;bismuth-211&quot; with a half-life of 1.49e-03 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf211BiInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 211Bi in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_211Bi_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13108<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Pm&quot; means the element &quot;promethium&quot; and &quot;149Pm&quot; is the isotope &quot;promethium-149&quot; with a half-life of 2.21e+00 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf149Pm" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 149Pm" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_149Pm" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1317113109<item description="'Mole concentration' means number of moles per unit volume, also called&quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y, whereX is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical or biological species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The phrase 'expressed_as' is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  Calcite is a mineral that is a polymorph of calcium carbonate. Thechemical formula of calcite is CaCO3. Standard names also exist for aragonite, another polymorph of calcium carbonate." label="TendencyOfMoleConcentrationOfCalciteExpressedAsCarbonInSeaWaterDueToBiologicalProduction" title="Tendency of Mole Concentration of Calcite Expressed As Carbon in Sea Water due to Biological Production" uid="tendency_of_mole_concentration_of_calcite_expressed_as_carbon_in_sea_water_due_to_biological_production" units="mol m-3 s-1"></item> 
    13172 <item description="'Mole concentration' means number of moles per unit volume, also called &quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. A chemical or biological species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Dissolved inorganic phosphorus&quot; means the sum of all inorganic phosphorus in solution (including phosphate, hydrogen phosphate, dihydrogen phosphate, and phosphoric acid)." label="TendencyOfMoleConcentrationOfDissolvedInorganicPhosphorusInSeaWaterDueToBiologicalProcesses" title="Tendency of Mole Concentration of Dissolved Inorganic Phosphorus in Sea Water due to Biological Processes" uid="tendency_of_mole_concentration_of_dissolved_inorganic_phosphorus_in_sea_water_due_to_biological_processes" units="mol m-3 s-1"></item> 
    13173 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. The Lagrangian tendency of a quantity is its rate of change following the motion of the fluid, also called the &quot;material derivative&quot; or &quot;convective derivative&quot;. The Lagrangian tendency of sigma plays the role of the upward component of air velocity when the atmosphere sigma coordinate (a dimensionless atmosphere vertical coordinate) is being used as the vertical coordinate. If the vertical air velocity is upwards, it is negative when expressed as a tendency of sigma; downwards is positive. See Appendix D of the CF convention for information about dimensionless vertical coordinates." label="LagrangianTendencyOfAtmosphereSigmaCoordinate" title="Lagrangian Tendency of Atmosphere Sigma Coordinate" uid="lagrangian_tendency_of_atmosphere_sigma_coordinate" units="s-1"></item> 
     13110<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Sb&quot; means the element &quot;antimony&quot; and &quot;126mSb&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;antimony-126&quot; with a half-life of 1.32e-02 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf126MsbInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 126Msb in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_126mSb_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13111<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;I&quot; means the element &quot;iodine&quot; and &quot;134I&quot; is the isotope &quot;iodine-134&quot; with a half-life of 3.61e-02 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf134IInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 134I in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_134I_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1317413112<item description="Sea ice draft is the depth of the sea-ice lower surface below the water surface." label="SeaIceDraft" title="Sea Ice Draft" uid="sea_ice_draft" units="m"></item> 
    13175 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for methane is CH4. Methane is a member of the group of hydrocarbons known as alkanes. There are standard names for the alkane group as well as for some of the individual species. The &quot;industrial processes and combustion&quot; sector comprises fuel combustion activities related to manufacturing industries and construction, industrial processes related to mineral products, the chemical industry, metal production, the production of pulp, paper, food and drink, and non-energy industry use of lubricants and waxes. It may also include any not-classified or &quot;other&quot; combustion, which is commonly included in industry-related inventory data. &quot;Industrial processes and combustion&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 1A2, 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D and 2G as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfMethaneDueToEmissionFromIndustrialProcessesAndCombustion" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Methane due to Emission from Industrial Processes And Combustion" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_methane_due_to_emission_from_industrial_processes_and_combustion" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13176 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere,i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. The chemical formula for methane is CH4. Methane is a member of the group of hydrocarbons known as alkanes.  Thereare standard names for the alkane group as well as for some of the individual species." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMolesOfMethane" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Moles of Methane" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_moles_of_methane" units="mol s-1"></item> 
    13177 <item description="The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere, i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. &quot;Noy&quot; describes a family of chemical species. The family usually includes atomic nitrogen (N), nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5), nitric acid (HNO3), peroxynitric acid (HNO4), bromine nitrate (BrONO2) , chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) and organic nitrates (most notably peroxyacetyl nitrate, sometimes referred to as PAN, (CH3COO2NO2)). The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models.  Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute. The phrase 'expressed_as' is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A." label="AtmosphereMolesOfNoyExpressedAsNitrogen" title="Atmosphere Moles of Noy Expressed As Nitrogen" uid="atmosphere_moles_of_noy_expressed_as_nitrogen" units="mol"></item> 
    13178 <item description="Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean &quot;net downward&quot;.  When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called &quot;irradiance&quot;.  In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosine-collector light-meter and sometimes called &quot;vector irradiance&quot;.  In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics.  A phrase assuming_condition  indicates that the named quantity is the value which would obtain if all  aspects of the system were unaltered except for the assumption of the  circumstances specified by the condition.  &quot;shortwave&quot; means shortwave radiation. &quot;Diffuse&quot; radiation is radiation that has been scattered by particles in the atmosphere such as cloud droplets and aerosols." label="DiffuseDownwellingShortwaveFluxInAirAssumingClearSky" title="Diffuse Downwelling Shortwave Flux in Air Assuming Clear Sky" uid="diffuse_downwelling_shortwave_flux_in_air_assuming_clear_sky" units="W m-2"></item> 
     13113<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Pb&quot; means the element &quot;lead&quot; and &quot;213Pb&quot; is the isotope &quot;lead-213&quot; with a half-life of 6.92e-03 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf213Pb" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 213Pb" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_213Pb" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1317913114<item description="alias::surface_downwelling_spectral_photon_radiance_in_sea_water" label="SurfaceDownwellingPhotonRadiancePerUnitWavelengthInSeaWater" title="Surface Downwelling Photon Radiance Per Unit Wavelength in Sea Water [alias]" uid="surface_downwelling_spectral_photon_radiance_in_sea_water" units="mol m-2 s-1 m-1 sr-1"></item> 
    13180 <item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Amount&quot; means mass per unit area. Sublimation is the conversion of solid into vapor." label="SurfaceSnowSublimationAmount" title="Surface Snow Sublimation Amount" uid="surface_snow_sublimation_amount" units="kg m-2"></item> 
    13181 <item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean &quot;net upward&quot;. Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction towards which it is going must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead." label="SurfaceUpwellingRadianceInAir" title="Surface Upwelling Radiance in Air" uid="surface_upwelling_radiance_in_air" units="W m-2 sr-1"></item> 
    13182 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for benzene is C6H6. Benzene is the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon and has a ring structure consisting of six carbon atoms joined by alternating single and double chemical bonds. Each carbon atom is additionally bonded to one hydrogen atom. There are standard names that refer to aromatic_compounds as a group, as well as those for individual species. The &quot;waste treatment and disposal&quot; sector comprises solid waste disposal on land, wastewater handling, waste incineration and other waste disposal. &quot;Waste treatment and disposal&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 6A, 6B, 6C and 6D as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfBenzeneDueToEmissionFromWasteTreatmentAndDisposal" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Benzene due to Emission from Waste Treatment And Disposal" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_benzene_due_to_emission_from_waste_treatment_and_disposal" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1318313115<item description="The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere, i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. &quot;Brox&quot;  describes a family of chemical species consisting of inorganic bromine compounds with the exception of  hydrogen bromide (HBr) and bromine nitrate (BrONO2). &quot;Brox&quot; is the term used in standard names for all species belonging to the family that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity with a group chemical standard name can vary between models.  Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute. &quot;Inorganic bromine&quot;, sometimes referred to as Bry, describes a family of chemical species which result from the degradation of source gases containing bromine (halons, methyl bromide, VSLS) and natural inorganic bromine sources such as volcanoes, seasalt and other aerosols.  Standard names that use the term &quot;inorganic_bromine&quot; are used for quantities that contain all inorganic bromine species including HCl and ClONO2. The phrase 'expressed_as' is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A." label="AtmosphereMolesOfBroxExpressedAsBromine" title="Atmosphere Moles of Brox Expressed As Bromine" uid="atmosphere_moles_of_brox_expressed_as_bromine" units="mol"></item> 
    13184 <item description="The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere, i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. &quot;Inorganic chlorine&quot;, sometimes referred to as Cly, describes a family of chemical species which result from the degradation of source gases containing chlorine (CFCs, HCFCs, VSLS) and natural inorganic chlorine sources such as seasalt and other aerosols. &quot;Inorganic chlorine&quot; is the term used in standard names for all species belonging to the family that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models.  Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute. Standard names that use the term &quot;clox&quot; are used for quantities that contain all inorganic chlorine species except HCl and ClONO2." label="AtmosphereMolesOfInorganicChlorine" title="Atmosphere Moles of Inorganic Chlorine" uid="atmosphere_moles_of_inorganic_chlorine" units="mol"></item> 
     13116<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;In&quot; means the element &quot;indium&quot; and &quot;119In&quot; is the isotope &quot;indium-119&quot; with a half-life of 1.74e-03 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf119InInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 119In in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_119In_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1318513117<item description="Mole concentration means number of moles per unit volume, also called &quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical or biological species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'.The phrase 'expressed_as' is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A. Picophytoplankton are phytoplankton of less than 2 micrometers in size. Phytoplankton are autotrophic prokaryotic or eukaryotic algae that live near the water surface where there is sufficient light to support photosynthesis." label="MoleConcentrationOfPicophytoplanktonExpressedAsCarbonInSeaWater" title="Mole Concentration of Picophytoplankton Expressed As Carbon in Sea Water" uid="mole_concentration_of_picophytoplankton_expressed_as_carbon_in_sea_water" units="mol m-3"></item> 
    1318613118<item description="Mole fraction is used in the construction mole_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  The chemical formula of CFC12 is CF2Cl2.  The IUPAC name for CFC12 is dichloro-difluoro-methane." label="MoleFractionOfCfc12InAir" title="Mole Fraction of Cfc12 in Air" uid="mole_fraction_of_cfc12_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    13187 <item description="Mole fraction is used in the construction mole_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  The chemical formula of  halon1202  is CBr2F2.  The IUPAC name for halon 1202 is dibromo-difluoro-methane." label="MoleFractionOfHalon1202InAir" title="Mole Fraction of Halon1202 in Air" uid="mole_fraction_of_halon1202_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    1318813119<item description="alias::moles_of_halon1202_in_atmosphere" label="AtmosphereMolesOfHalon1202" title="Atmosphere Moles of Halon1202 [alias]" uid="moles_of_halon1202_in_atmosphere" units="mol"></item> 
    13189 <item description="&quot;Downward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics. The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere." label="SurfaceDownwardHeatFluxInSnow" title="Surface Downward Heat Flux in Snow" uid="surface_downward_heat_flux_in_snow" units="W m-2"></item> 
    1319013120<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Water&quot; means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean &quot;net downward&quot;. Photon radiance is the photon flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction from which it is coming must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead. A photon flux is specified in terms of numbers of photons expressed in moles." label="SurfaceDownwellingPhotonRadianceInSeaWater" title="Surface Downwelling Photon Radiance in Sea Water" uid="surface_downwelling_photon_radiance_in_sea_water" units="mol m-2 s-1 sr-1"></item> 
    1319113121<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. the surface of the earth). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. Acetone is an organic molecule with the chemical formula CH3CH3CO. The IUPAC name for acetone is propan-2-one. Acetone is a member of the group of organic compounds known as ketones. There are standard names for the ketone group as well as for some of the individual species." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfAcetoneDueToEmission" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Acetone due to Emission" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_acetone_due_to_emission" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1319213122<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for formaldehyde is CH2O. The IUPAC name for formaldehyde is methanal. The &quot;waste treatment and disposal&quot; sector comprises solid waste disposal on land, wastewater handling, waste incineration and other waste disposal. &quot;Waste treatment and disposal&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 6A, 6B, 6C and 6D as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfFormaldehydeDueToEmissionFromWasteTreatmentAndDisposal" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Formaldehyde due to Emission from Waste Treatment And Disposal" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_formaldehyde_due_to_emission_from_waste_treatment_and_disposal" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1319313123<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the particles. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. Aerosol particles take up ambient water (a process known as hygroscopic growth) depending on the relative humidity and the composition of the particles. &quot;Dry aerosol particles&quot; means aerosol particles without any water uptake. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Gaseous phase net chemical production&quot; means the net result of all gaseous chemical processes in the atmosphere that produce or destroy a species, distinct from chemical processes in the aqueous phase. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. The chemical formula for the sulfate anion is SO4(2-)." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfSulfateDryAerosolParticlesDueToGaseousPhaseNetChemicalProduction" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Sulfate Dry Aerosol Particles due to Gaseous Phase Net Chemical Production" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_sulfate_dry_aerosol_particles_due_to_gaseous_phase_net_chemical_production" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13194 <item description="The visibility is the distance at which something can be seen." label="VisibilityInAir" title="Visibility in Air" uid="visibility_in_air" units="m"></item> 
    13195 <item description="alias::change_over_time_in_atmospheric_water_content_due_to_advection" label="ChangeOverTimeInAtmosphereMassContentOfWaterDueToAdvection" title="Change Over Time in Atmosphere Mass Content of Water due to Advection [alias]" uid="change_over_time_in_atmospheric_water_content_due_to_advection" units="kg m-2"></item> 
    13196 <item description="Geopotential is the sum of the specific gravitational potential energy relative to the geoid and the specific centripetal potential energy. Geopotential height is the geopotential divided by the standard acceleration due to gravity. It is numerically similar to the altitude (or geometric height) and not to the quantity with standard name &quot;height&quot;, which is relative to the surface. &quot;Volcanic_ash&quot; means the fine-grained products of explosive volcanic eruptions, such as minerals or crystals, older fragmented rock (e.g. andesite), and glass. Particles within a volcanic ash cloud have diameters less than 2 mm. &quot;Volcanic_ash&quot; does not include non-volcanic dust." label="GeopotentialHeightAtVolcanicAshCloudTop" title="Geopotential Height At Volcanic Ash Cloud Top" uid="geopotential_height_at_volcanic_ash_cloud_top" units="m"></item> 
     13124<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Cm&quot; means the element &quot;curium&quot; and &quot;249Cm&quot; is the isotope &quot;curium-249&quot; with a half-life of 4.43e-02 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf249CmInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 249Cm in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_249Cm_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13125<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Ag&quot; means the element &quot;silver&quot; and &quot;113mAg&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;silver-113&quot; with a half-life of 7.64e-04 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf113MagInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 113Mag in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_113mAg_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1319713126<item description="Wave mean period is the mean period measured over the observation duration. The quantity with standard name sea_surface_wave_mean_period_of_highest_tenth is the mean period of the highest one-tenth of waves during the observation duration. A period is an interval of time, or the time-period of an oscillation. Wave period is the interval of time between repeated features on the waveform such as crests, troughs or upward passes through the mean level." label="SeaSurfaceWaveMeanPeriodOfHighestTenth" title="Sea Surface Wave Mean Period of Highest Tenth" uid="sea_surface_wave_mean_period_of_highest_tenth" units="s"></item> 
     13127<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Cf&quot; means the element &quot;californium&quot; and &quot;252Cf&quot; is the isotope &quot;californium-252&quot; with a half-life of 9.68e+02 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf252Cf" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 252Cf" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_252Cf" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1319813128<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for ethyne is HC2H.  Ethyne is the IUPAC name for this species, which is also commonly known as acetylene." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfEthyneDueToEmission" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Ethyne due to Emission" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_ethyne_due_to_emission" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13199 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic properties. The most common organic acids are the carboxylic acids, whose acidity is associated with their carboxyl group -COOH. In standard names &quot;organic_acids&quot; is the term used to describe the group of organic acid species that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute. The &quot;energy production and distribution&quot; sector comprises fuel combustion activities related to energy industries and fugitive emissions from fuels. It may also include any not-classified or &quot;other&quot; combustion, which is commonly included in energy-related inventory data. &quot;Energy production and distribution&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 1A1 and 1B as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfOrganicAcidsDueToEmissionFromEnergyProductionAndDistribution" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Organic Acids due to Emission from Energy Production And Distribution" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_organic_acids_due_to_emission_from_energy_production_and_distribution" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13200 <item description="'Mass fraction' is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X).  A chemical or biological species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. In an atmosphere model, stratiform cloud is that produced by large-scale convergence (not the convectionschemes).  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase. 'cloud_microphysics' is the sum of many cloud processes such as condensation, evaporation, homogeneous nucleation, heterogeneous nucleation, deposition, sublimation, the Bergeron-Findeisen process, riming, accretion, aggregationand icefall.  The precise list of processes that are included in 'cloud_microphysics' canvary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the processes included, for example, by using a comment attribute. Standard names also exist to describe the tendencies due to the separate processes.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time." label="TendencyOfMassFractionOfStratiformCloudLiquidWaterInAirDueToCloudMicrophysics" title="Tendency of Mass Fraction of Stratiform Cloud Liquid Water in Air due to Cloud Microphysics" uid="tendency_of_mass_fraction_of_stratiform_cloud_liquid_water_in_air_due_to_cloud_microphysics" units="s-1"></item> 
    13201 <item description="&quot;change_over_time_in_X&quot; means change in a quantity X over a time-interval, which should be defined by the bounds of the time coordinate. &quot;Neutral density&quot; is a variable designed so that a surface of constant neutral density everywhere has a local slope that is close to the local slope of the neutral tangent plane. At the sea surface in the equatorial Pacific neutral density is very close to the potential density anomaly. At other locations, this is not the case. For example, along a neutral density surface there is a difference of up to 0.14 kg/m^3 in the potential density anomaly at the outcrops in the Southern and Northern hemispheres. Refer to Jackett &amp; McDougall (1997; Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol 27, doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(1997)027&lt;0237:ANDVFT>2.0.CO;2) for more information." label="ChangeOverTimeInSeaWaterNeutralDensity" title="Change Over Time in Sea Water Neutral Density" uid="change_over_time_in_sea_water_neutral_density" units="kg m-3"></item> 
    13202 <item description="Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction &quot;mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y&quot;, where X is a material constituent of Y. A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as &quot;nitrogen&quot; or a phrase such as &quot;nox_expressed_as_nitrogen&quot;. &quot;Rain&quot; means drops of water falling through the atmosphere that have a diameter greater than 0.5 mm." label="MassConcentrationOfRainInAir" title="Mass Concentration of Rain in Air" uid="mass_concentration_of_rain_in_air" units="kg m-3"></item> 
    13203 <item description="Mole concentration means number of moles per unit volume, also called &quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for alpha_hexachlorocyclohexane is C6H6Cl6." label="MoleConcentrationOfAlphaHexachlorocyclohexaneInAir" title="Mole Concentration of Alpha Hexachlorocyclohexane in Air" uid="mole_concentration_of_alpha_hexachlorocyclohexane_in_air" units="mol m-3"></item> 
     13129<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Rh&quot; means the element &quot;rhodium&quot; and &quot;106Rh&quot; is the isotope &quot;rhodium-106&quot; with a half-life of 3.46e-04 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf106RhInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 106Rh in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_106Rh_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1320413130<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Wet deposition&quot; means deposition by precipitation. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. The chemical formula for formaldehyde is CH2O. The IUPAC name for formaldehyde is methanal." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfFormaldehydeDueToWetDeposition" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Formaldehyde due to Wet Deposition" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_formaldehyde_due_to_wet_deposition" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1320513131<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for hydrogen cyanide is HCN." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfHydrogenCyanideDueToEmission" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Hydrogen Cyanide due to Emission" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_hydrogen_cyanide_due_to_emission" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13206 <item description="Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, whereX is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X).  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for carbon dioxide is CO2." label="MassFractionOfCarbonDioxideInAir" title="Mass Fraction of Carbon Dioxide in Air" uid="mass_fraction_of_carbon_dioxide_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    13207 <item description="alias::mole_concentration_of_diatoms_in_sea_water_expressed_as_nitrogen" label="MoleConcentrationOfDiatomsExpressedAsNitrogenInSeaWater" title="Mole Concentration of Diatoms Expressed As Nitrogen in Sea Water [alias]" uid="mole_concentration_of_diatoms_in_sea_water_expressed_as_nitrogen" units="mol m-3"></item> 
     13132<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Kr&quot; means the element &quot;krypton&quot; and &quot;85Kr&quot; is the isotope &quot;krypton-85&quot; with a half-life of 3.95e+03 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf85KrInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 85Kr in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_85Kr_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1320813133<item description="" label="OceanVolume" title="Ocean Volume" uid="ocean_volume" units="m3"></item> 
     13134<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Pm&quot; means the element &quot;promethium&quot; and &quot;152Pm&quot; is the isotope &quot;promethium-152&quot; with a half-life of 2.84e-03 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf152PmInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 152Pm in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_152Pm_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13135<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Po&quot; means the element &quot;polonium&quot; and &quot;217Po&quot; is the isotope &quot;polonium-217&quot; with a half-life of 1.16e-04 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf217PoInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 217Po in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_217Po_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1320913136<item description="Convective precipitation is that produced by the convection schemes in an atmosphere model. Some atmosphere models differentiate between shallow and deep convection. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="ShallowConvectivePrecipitationFlux" title="Shallow Convective Precipitation Flux" uid="shallow_convective_precipitation_flux" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1321013137<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Upward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). The surface latent heat flux is the exchange of heat between the surface and the air on account of evaporation (including sublimation). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="SurfaceUpwardLatentHeatFlux" title="Surface Upward Latent Heat Flux" uid="surface_upward_latent_heat_flux" units="W m-2"></item> 
     
    1321613143<item description="Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as &quot;nitrogen&quot; or a phrase such as &quot;nox_expressed_as_nitrogen&quot;. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. Aerosol particles take up ambient water (a process known as hygroscopic growth) depending on the relative humidity and the composition of the particles. &quot;Dry aerosol particles&quot; means aerosol particles without any water uptake." label="MassConcentrationOfDustDryAerosolParticlesInAir" title="Mass Concentration of Dust Dry Aerosol Particles in Air" uid="mass_concentration_of_dust_dry_aerosol_particles_in_air" units="kg m-3"></item> 
    1321713144<item description="Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for nitrous acid is HNO2." label="MassConcentrationOfNitrousAcidInAir" title="Mass Concentration of Nitrous Acid in Air" uid="mass_concentration_of_nitrous_acid_in_air" units="kg m-3"></item> 
    13218 <item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for formaldehyde is CH2O. The IUPAC name for formaldehyde is methanal." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfFormaldehydeDueToEmission" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Formaldehyde due to Emission" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_formaldehyde_due_to_emission" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1321913145<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. the surface of the earth). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. &quot;nmvoc&quot; means non methane volatile organic compounds; &quot;nmvoc&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe the group of chemical species having this classification that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute. The &quot;forest fires&quot; sector comprises the burning (natural and human-induced) of living or dead vegetation in forests. &quot;Forest fires&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source category 5 as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfNmvocDueToEmissionFromForestFires" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Nmvoc due to Emission from Forest Fires" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_nmvoc_due_to_emission_from_forest_fires" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13146<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. Terpenes are hydrocarbons, that is, they contain only hydrogen and carbon combined in the general proportions (C5H8)n where n is an integer greater than on equal to one. The term &quot;terpenes&quot; is used in standard names to describe the group of chemical species having this common structure that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute. Standard names exist for some individual terpene species, e.g., isoprene and limonene. The &quot;savanna and grassland fires&quot; sector comprises the burning (natural and human-induced) of living or dead vegetation in non-forested areas. It excludes field burning of agricultural residues. &quot;Savanna and grassland fires&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source category 5 as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfTerpenesDueToEmissionFromSavannaAndGrasslandFires" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Terpenes due to Emission from Savanna And Grassland Fires" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_terpenes_due_to_emission_from_savanna_and_grassland_fires" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1322013147<item description="&quot;X_area_fraction&quot; means the fraction of horizontal area occupied by X. &quot;X_area&quot; means the horizontal area occupied by X within the grid cell. Sea ice area fraction is area of the sea surface occupied by sea ice. It is also called &quot;sea ice concentration&quot;." label="SeaIceAreaFraction" title="Sea Ice Area Fraction" uid="sea_ice_area_fraction" units="1"></item> 
    13221 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. Terpenes are hydrocarbons, that is, they contain only hydrogen and carbon combined in the general proportions (C5H8)n where n is an integer greater than on equal to one. The term &quot;terpenes&quot; is used in standard names to describe the group of chemical species having this common structure that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute. Standard names exist for some individual terpene species, e.g., isoprene and limonene. The &quot;savanna and grassland fires&quot; sector comprises the burning (natural and human-induced) of living or dead vegetation in non-forested areas. It excludes field burning of agricultural residues. &quot;Savanna and grassland fires&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source category 5 as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfTerpenesDueToEmissionFromSavannaAndGrasslandFires" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Terpenes due to Emission from Savanna And Grassland Fires" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_terpenes_due_to_emission_from_savanna_and_grassland_fires" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13222 <item description="The phrase &quot;cloud_base&quot; refers to the base of the lowest cloud. Convective cloud is that produced by the convection schemes in an atmosphere model. Air pressure is the force per unit area which would be exerted when the moving gas molecules of which the air is composed strike a theoretical surface of any orientation." label="AirPressureAtConvectiveCloudBase" title="Air Pressure At Convective Cloud Base" uid="air_pressure_at_convective_cloud_base" units="Pa"></item> 
    1322313148<item description="Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for dimethyl sulfide is (CH3)2S.  Dimethyl sulfide is sometimes referred to as DMS." label="MassConcentrationOfDimethylSulfideInAir" title="Mass Concentration of Dimethyl Sulfide in Air" uid="mass_concentration_of_dimethyl_sulfide_in_air" units="kg m-3"></item> 
    13224 <item description="alias::ocean_mixed_layer_thickness_defined_by_vertical_tracer_diffusivity" label="OceanMixedLayerThicknessDefinedByVerticalTracerDiffusivityDeficit" title="Ocean Mixed Layer Thickness Defined by Vertical Tracer Diffusivity Deficit [alias]" uid="ocean_mixed_layer_thickness_defined_by_vertical_tracer_diffusivity" units="m"></item> 
    13225 <item description="sensor_band_central_radiation_frequency is the central frequency of a sensor's band, calculated as the first moment of the band's normalized spectral response function." label="SensorBandCentralRadiationFrequency" title="Sensor Band Central Radiation Frequency" uid="sensor_band_central_radiation_frequency" units="s-1"></item> 
    1322613149<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. the surface of the earth). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons, i.e. they do not contain any chemical double bonds. &quot;Hydrocarbon&quot; means a compound containing hydrogen and carbon. Alkanes contain only hydrogen and carbon combined in the general proportions C(n)H(2n+2); &quot;alkanes&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe the group of chemical species having this common structure that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute. Standard names exist for some individual alkane species, e.g., methane and ethane." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfAlkanesDueToEmission" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Alkanes due to Emission" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_alkanes_due_to_emission" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1322713150<item description="The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere, i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. The chemical formula for methane is CH4. Methane is a member of the group of hydrocarbons known as alkanes.  There are standard names for the alkane group as well as for some of the individual species." label="AtmosphereMolesOfMethane" title="Atmosphere Moles of Methane" uid="atmosphere_moles_of_methane" units="mol"></item> 
    1322813151<item description="The optical thickness is the integral along the path of radiation of a volume scattering/absorption/attenuation coefficient. The radiative flux is reduced by a factor exp(-&quot;optical_thickness&quot;) on traversing the path. The atmosphere optical thickness applies to radiation passing through the entire atmosphere. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. &quot;Ambient_aerosol&quot; means that the aerosol is measured or modelled at the ambient state of pressure, temperature and relative humidity that exists in its immediate environment. &quot;Ambient aerosol particles&quot; are aerosol particles that have taken up ambient water through hygroscopic growth. The extent of hygroscopic growth depends on the relative humidity and the composition of the particles. To specify the relative humidity and temperature at which the quantity described by the standard name applies, provide scalar coordinate variables with standard names of &quot;relative_humidity&quot; and &quot;air_temperature&quot;. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. The chemical formula for the nitrate anion is NO3-." label="AtmosphereOpticalThicknessDueToNitrateAmbientAerosolParticles" title="Atmosphere Optical Thickness due to Nitrate Ambient Aerosol Particles" uid="atmosphere_optical_thickness_due_to_nitrate_ambient_aerosol_particles" units="1"></item> 
     13152<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Sn&quot; means the element &quot;tin&quot; and &quot;125Sn&quot; is the isotope &quot;tin-125&quot; with a half-life of 9.65e+00 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf125SnInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 125Sn in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_125Sn_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1322913153<item description="&quot;Land ice&quot; means glaciers, ice-caps and ice-sheets resting on bedrock and also includes ice-shelves. Runoff is the liquid water which drains from land. If not specified, &quot;runoff&quot; refers to the sum of surface runoff and subsurface drainage. Runoff flux over land ice is the difference between any available liquid water in the snowpack due to rainfall and melting minus any refreezing and liquid water retained in the snowpack. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="LandIceRunoffFlux" title="Land Ice Runoff Flux" uid="land_ice_runoff_flux" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1323013154<item description="Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, whereX is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X).  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for ethanol isC2H5OH." label="MassFractionOfEthanolInAir" title="Mass Fraction of Ethanol in Air" uid="mass_fraction_of_ethanol_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    1323113155<item description="Diffusivity is also sometimes known as the coefficient of diffusion. Diffusion occurs as a result of a gradient in the spatial distribution of mass concentration, temperature or momentum. The diffusivity may be very different in the vertical and horizontal directions. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized mesoscale eddy advection occurs on a spatial scale of many tens of kilometres and an evolutionary time of weeks. Reference: James C. McWilliams 2016, Submesoscale currents in the ocean, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, volume 472, issue 2189. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2016.0117. Parameterized mesoscale eddy advection is represented in ocean models using schemes such as the Gent-McWilliams scheme. There are also standard names for parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection which, along with parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection, contributes to the total parameterized eddy advection." label="OceanTracerDiffusivityDueToParameterizedMesoscaleEddyAdvection" title="Ocean Tracer Diffusivity due to Parameterized Mesoscale Eddy Advection" uid="ocean_tracer_diffusivity_due_to_parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection" units="m2 s-1"></item> 
     13156<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Rn&quot; means the element &quot;radon&quot; and &quot;222Rn&quot; is the isotope &quot;radon-222&quot; with a half-life of 3.82e+00 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf222RnInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 222Rn in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_222Rn_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13157<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Pa&quot; means the element &quot;protactinium&quot; and &quot;234mPa&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;protactinium-234&quot; with a half-life of 8.13e-04 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf234Mpa" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 234Mpa" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_234mPa" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1323213158<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. The surface temperature is the temperature at the interface, not the bulk temperature of the medium above or below. Unless indicated in the cell_methods attribute, a quantity is assumed to apply to the whole area of each horizontal grid box. Previously, the qualifier where_type was used to specify that the quantity applies only to the part of the grid box of the named type.  Names containing the where_type qualifier are deprecated and newly created data should use the cell_methods attribute to indicate the horizontal area to which the quantity applies." label="SurfaceTemperature" title="Surface Temperature" uid="surface_temperature" units="K"></item> 
    1323313159<item description="The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere, i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. The chemical formula for HCFC142b is CH3CClF2. The IUPAC name for HCFC142b is 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane." label="AtmosphereMolesOfHcfc142B" title="Atmosphere Moles of Hcfc142B" uid="atmosphere_moles_of_hcfc142b" units="mol"></item> 
     
    1323813164<item description="The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. &quot;Water&quot; means water in all phases." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfWaterDueToAdvection" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Water due to Advection" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_water_due_to_advection" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1323913165<item description="alias::tendency_of_atmosphere_water_vapor_content_due_to_turbulence" label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfWaterVaporDueToTurbulence" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Water Vapor due to Turbulence [alias]" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_water_vapor_content_due_to_turbulence" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13166<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Nd&quot; means the element &quot;neodymium&quot; and &quot;144Nd&quot; is the isotope &quot;neodymium-144&quot; with a half-life of 7.64e+17 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf144NdInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 144Nd in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_144Nd_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1324013167<item description="Net primary production is the excess of gross primary production (rate of synthesis of biomass from inorganic precursors) by autotrophs (&quot;producers&quot;), for example, photosynthesis in plants or phytoplankton, over the rate at which the autotrophs themselves respire some of this biomass. In the oceans, carbon production per unit volume is often found at a number of depths at a given horizontal location. That quantity can then be integrated to calculate production per unit area at the location. Standard names for production per unit area use the term &quot;productivity&quot;. The phrase &quot;expressed_as&quot; is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constiuents of A." label="NetPrimaryProductionOfBiomassExpressedAsCarbonPerUnitVolumeInSeaWater" title="Net Primary Production of Biomass Expressed As Carbon Per Unit Volume in Sea Water" uid="net_primary_production_of_biomass_expressed_as_carbon_per_unit_volume_in_sea_water" units="kg m-3 s-1"></item> 
    1324113168<item description="Transport &quot;across_line&quot; means that which crosses a particular line on the Earth's surface; formally this means the integral along the line of the normal component of the transport." label="OceanVolumeTransportAcrossLine" title="Ocean Volume Transport Across Line" uid="ocean_volume_transport_across_line" units="m3 s-1"></item> 
    1324213169<item description="Standard names for &quot;platform&quot; describe the motion and orientation of the vehicle from which observations are made e.g. aeroplane, ship or satellite. Platform zenith angle is the the angle between the line of sight to the platform and the local zenith at the observation target. This angle is measured starting from directly overhead and its range is from zero (directly overhead the observation target) to 180 degrees (directly below the observation target). Local zenith is a line perpendicular to the Earth's surface at a given location. &quot;Observation target&quot; means a location on the Earth defined by the sensor performing the observations. A standard name also exists for sensor_zenith_angle. For some viewing geometries the sensor and the platform cannot be assumed to be close enough to neglect the difference in calculated zenith angle." label="PlatformZenithAngle" title="Platform Zenith Angle" uid="platform_zenith_angle" units="degree"></item> 
     13170<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContent" title="Surface Radioactivity Content" uid="surface_radioactivity_content" units=""></item> 
    1324313171<item description="The phrase &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized eddy advection can be represented on various spatial scales and there are standard names for parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection and parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection which both contribute to the total parameterized eddy advection. Additionally, when the parameterized advective process is represented in the model as a skew-diffusion rather than an advection, then the parameterized skew diffusion should be included in this diagnostic. The convergence of a skew-flux is identical (in the continuous formulation) to the convergence of an advective flux, making their tendencies the same." label="TendencyOfSeaWaterSalinityExpressedAsSaltContentDueToParameterizedEddyAdvection" title="Tendency of Sea Water Salinity Expressed As Salt Content due to Parameterized Eddy Advection" uid="tendency_of_sea_water_salinity_expressed_as_salt_content_due_to_parameterized_eddy_advection" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1324413172<item description="Air pressure at sea level is the quantity often abbreviated as MSLP or PMSL. Air pressure is the force per unit area which would be exerted when the moving gas molecules of which the air is composed strike a theoretical surface of any orientation. &quot;Mean sea level&quot; means the time mean of sea surface elevation at a given location over an arbitrary period sufficient to eliminate the tidal signals." label="AirPressureAtMeanSeaLevel" title="Air Pressure At Mean Sea Level" uid="air_pressure_at_mean_sea_level" units="Pa"></item> 
     13173<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Po&quot; means the element &quot;polonium&quot; and &quot;212Po&quot; is the isotope &quot;polonium-212&quot; with a half-life of 3.52e-12 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf212PoInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 212Po in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_212Po_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13174<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Bk&quot; means the element &quot;berkelium&quot; and &quot;250Bk&quot; is the isotope &quot;berkelium-250&quot; with a half-life of 1.34e-01 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf250BkInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 250Bk in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_250Bk_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1324513175<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The phrase &quot;expressed_as&quot; is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. Aerosol takes up ambient water (a process known as hygroscopic growth) depending on the relative humidity and the composition of the aerosol. &quot;Dry aerosol particles&quot; means aerosol particles without any water uptake. &quot;Primary particulate organic matter &quot; means all organic matter emitted directly to the atmosphere as particles except elemental carbon. The sum of primary_particulate_organic_matter_dry_aerosol and secondary_particulate_organic_matter_dry_aerosol is particulate_organic_matter_dry_aerosol. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. the surface of the earth). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The &quot;savanna and grassland fires&quot; sector comprises the burning (natural and human-induced) of living or dead vegetation in non-forested areas. It excludes field burning of agricultural residues. &quot;Savanna and grassland fires&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source category 5 as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfParticulateOrganicMatterDryAerosolParticlesExpressedAsCarbonDueToEmissionFromSavannaAndGrasslandFires" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Particulate Organic Matter Dry Aerosol Particles Expressed As Carbon due to Emission from Savanna And Grassland Fires" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_particulate_organic_matter_dry_aerosol_particles_expressed_as_carbon_due_to_emission_from_savanna_and_grassland_fires" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1324613176<item description="alias::upwelling_spectral_radiative_flux_in_air" label="UpwellingRadiativeFluxPerUnitWavelengthInAir" title="Upwelling Radiative Flux Per Unit Wavelength in Air [alias]" uid="upwelling_spectral_radiative_flux_in_air" units="W m-2 m-1"></item> 
     13177<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Sm&quot; means the element &quot;samarium&quot; and &quot;148Sm&quot; is the isotope &quot;samarium-148&quot; with a half-life of 2.92e+18 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf148SmInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 148Sm in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_148Sm_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1324713178<item description="'Mole concentration' means number of moles per unit volume, also called&quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y, whereX is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical or biological species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The phrase 'expressed_as' is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A. Phytoplankton are autotrophic prokaryotic or eukaryotic algae that live near the water surface where there is sufficient light to support photosynthesis." label="MoleConcentrationOfPhytoplanktonExpressedAsSiliconInSeaWater" title="Mole Concentration of Phytoplankton Expressed As Silicon in Sea Water" uid="mole_concentration_of_phytoplankton_expressed_as_silicon_in_sea_water" units="mol m-3"></item> 
    13248 <item description="alias::moles_of_methyl_bromide_in_atmosphere" label="AtmosphereMolesOfMethylBromide" title="Atmosphere Moles of Methyl Bromide [alias]" uid="moles_of_methyl_bromide_in_atmosphere" units="mol"></item> 
     13179<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Xe&quot; means the element &quot;xenon&quot; and &quot;137Xe&quot; is the isotope &quot;xenon-137&quot; with a half-life of 2.71e-03 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf137XeInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 137Xe in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_137Xe_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1324913180<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  &quot;Wet deposition&quot; means deposition by precipitation." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfAmmoniaDueToWetDeposition" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Ammonia due to Wet Deposition" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_ammonia_due_to_wet_deposition" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1325013181<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  &quot;Dry deposition&quot; is the sum of turbulent deposition and gravitational settling. The chemical formula for hydrogen peroxide is H2O2." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfHydrogenPeroxideDueToDryDeposition" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Hydrogen Peroxide due to Dry Deposition" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_hydrogen_peroxide_due_to_dry_deposition" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13182<item description="alias::moles_of_methyl_bromide_in_atmosphere" label="AtmosphereMolesOfMethylBromide" title="Atmosphere Moles of Methyl Bromide [alias]" uid="moles_of_methyl_bromide_in_atmosphere" units="mol"></item> 
    1325113183<item description="The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere, i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. The chemical formula for isoprene is CH2=C(CH3)CH=CH2. The IUPAC name for isoprene is 2-methyl-buta-1,3-diene. Isoprene is a member of the group of hydrocarbons known as terpenes.  There are standard names for the terpene group as well as for some of the individual species." label="AtmosphereMolesOfIsoprene" title="Atmosphere Moles of Isoprene" uid="atmosphere_moles_of_isoprene" units="mol"></item> 
    1325213184<item description="Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. &quot;Divalent mercury&quot; means all compounds in which the mercury has two binding sites to other ion(s) in a salt or to other atom(s) in a molecule." label="MassConcentrationOfGaseousDivalentMercuryInAir" title="Mass Concentration of Gaseous Divalent Mercury in Air" uid="mass_concentration_of_gaseous_divalent_mercury_in_air" units="kg m-3"></item> 
    1325313185<item description="Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, whereX is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X).  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for methyl_peroxy_radical is CH3O2. In chemistry, a 'radical' is a highly reactive, and therefore shortlived, species." label="MassFractionOfMethylPeroxyRadicalInAir" title="Mass Fraction of Methyl Peroxy Radical in Air" uid="mass_fraction_of_methyl_peroxy_radical_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    1325413186<item description="&quot;y&quot; indicates a vector component along the grid y-axis, positive with increasing y. Salt transport refers to the mass of salt being transported." label="OceanSaltYTransport" title="Ocean Salt Y Transport" uid="ocean_salt_y_transport" units="1e-3 kg s-1"></item> 
     13187<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;La&quot; means the element &quot;lanthanum&quot; and &quot;141La&quot; is the isotope &quot;lanthanum-141&quot; with a half-life of 1.61e-01 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf141LaInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 141La in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_141La_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1325513188<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean &quot;net downward&quot;. &quot;Photosynthetic&quot; radiation is the part of the spectrum which is used in photosynthesis e.g. 400-700 nm. The range of wavelengths could be specified precisely by the bounds of a coordinate of radiation_wavelength. A photon flux is specified in terms of numbers of photons expressed in moles. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="SurfaceDownwellingPhotosyntheticPhotonFluxInSeaWater" title="Surface Downwelling Photosynthetic Photon Flux in Sea Water" uid="surface_downwelling_photosynthetic_photon_flux_in_sea_water" units="mol m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1325613189<item description="Mole concentration means number of moles per unit volume, also called &quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction &quot;mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y&quot;, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical or biological species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as &quot;nitrogen&quot; or a phrase such as &quot;nox_expressed_as_nitrogen&quot;. The phrase &quot;expressed_as&quot; is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Production of carbon&quot; means the production of biomass expressed as the mass of carbon which it contains. Net primary production is the excess of gross primary production (the rate of synthesis of biomass from inorganic precursors) by autotrophs (&quot;producers&quot;), for example,  photosynthesis in plants or phytoplankton, over the rate at which the autotrophs themselves respire some of this biomass. In the oceans, carbon production per unit volume is often found at a number of depths at a given horizontal location. That quantity can then be integrated to calculate production per unit area at the location. Standard names for production per unit area use the term &quot;productivity&quot;. Picophytoplankton are phytoplankton of less than 2 micrometers in size. Phytoplankton are autotrophic prokaryotic or eukaryotic algae that live near the water surface where there is sufficient light to support photosynthesis. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time." label="TendencyOfMoleConcentrationOfParticulateOrganicMatterExpressedAsCarbonInSeaWaterDueToNetPrimaryProductionByPicophytoplankton" title="Tendency of Mole Concentration of Particulate Organic Matter Expressed As Carbon in Sea Water due to Net Primary Production by Picophytoplankton" uid="tendency_of_mole_concentration_of_particulate_organic_matter_expressed_as_carbon_in_sea_water_due_to_net_primary_production_by_picophytoplankton" units="mol m-3 s-1"></item> 
    1325713190<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area." label="WoodCarbonContent" title="Wood Carbon Content" uid="wood_carbon_content" units="kg m-2"></item> 
     13191<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;U&quot; means the element &quot;uranium&quot; and &quot;239U&quot; is the isotope &quot;uranium-239&quot; with a half-life of 1.63e-02 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf239UInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 239U in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_239U_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13192<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Kr&quot; means the element &quot;krypton&quot; and &quot;83mKr&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;krypton-83&quot; with a half-life of 7.71e-02 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf83MkrInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 83Mkr in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_83mKr_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1325813193<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Water&quot; means water in all phases. &quot;Layer&quot; means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be &quot;model_level_number&quot;, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. Quantities defined for a soil layer must have a vertical coordinate variable with boundaries indicating the extent of the layer(s)." label="MassContentOfWaterInSoilLayer" title="Mass Content of Water in Soil Layer" uid="mass_content_of_water_in_soil_layer" units="kg m-2"></item> 
    1325913194<item description="Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, whereX is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X).  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for hydrogen peroxide is H2O2." label="MassFractionOfHydrogenPeroxideInAir" title="Mass Fraction of Hydrogen Peroxide in Air" uid="mass_fraction_of_hydrogen_peroxide_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    1326013195<item description="Mole concentration means number of moles per unit volume, also called &quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'." label="MoleConcentrationOfPhosphateInSeaWater" title="Mole Concentration of Phosphate in Sea Water" uid="mole_concentration_of_phosphate_in_sea_water" units="mol m-3"></item> 
    13261 <item description="alias::net_primary_mole_productivity_of_carbon_by_miscellaneous_phytoplankton" label="NetPrimaryMoleProductivityOfBiomassExpressedAsCarbonByMiscellaneousPhytoplankton" title="Net Primary Mole Productivity of Biomass Expressed As Carbon by Miscellaneous Phytoplankton [alias]" uid="net_primary_mole_productivity_of_carbon_by_miscellaneous_phytoplankton" units="mol m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1326213196<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. The phrase &quot;expressed_as&quot; is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;dry_deposition&quot; is the sum of turbulent deposition and gravitational settling. &quot;Nitrogen compounds&quot; summarizes all chemical species containing nitrogen atoms. Usually, particle bound and gaseous nitrogen compounds, such as atomic nitrogen (N), nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5), nitric acid (HNO3), nitrate (NO3-), peroxynitric acid (HNO4), ammonia (NH3), ammonium (NH4+), bromine nitrate (BrONO2), chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) and organic nitrates (most notably peroxyacetyl nitrate, sometimes referred to as PAN, (CH3COO2NO2)) are included. The list of individual species that are included in this quantity can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfNitrogenCompoundsExpressedAsNitrogenDueToDryDeposition" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Nitrogen Compounds Expressed As Nitrogen due to Dry Deposition" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_nitrogen_compounds_expressed_as_nitrogen_due_to_dry_deposition" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1326313197<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the particles. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. &quot;Pm10 aerosol&quot; means atmospheric particulate compounds with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 10 micrometers. Aerosol particles take up ambient water (a process known as hygroscopic growth) depending on the relative humidity and the composition of the particles. &quot;Dry aerosol particles&quot; means aerosol particles without any water uptake. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Dry deposition&quot; is the sum of turbulent deposition and gravitational settling. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfPm10SeaSaltDryAerosolParticlesDueToDryDeposition" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Pm10 Sea Salt Dry Aerosol Particles due to Dry Deposition" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_pm10_sea_salt_dry_aerosol_particles_due_to_dry_deposition" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13198<item description="The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Layer&quot; means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. Potential energy is the sum of the gravitational potential energy relative to the geoid and the centripetal potential energy. (The geopotential is the specific potential energy.)" label="TendencyOfPotentialEnergyContentOfOceanLayerDueToDiffusion" title="Tendency of Potential Energy Content of Ocean Layer due to Diffusion" uid="tendency_of_potential_energy_content_of_ocean_layer_due_to_diffusion" units="W m-2"></item> 
     13199<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Vertical mixing&quot; means any vertical transport other than by advection and parameterized eddy advection, represented by a combination of vertical diffusion, turbulent mixing and convection in ocean models. Sea water temperature is the in situ temperature of the sea water. For observed data, depending on the period during which the observation was made, the measured in situ temperature was recorded against standard &quot;scales&quot;. These historical scales include the International Practical Temperature Scale of 1948 (IPTS-48; 1948-1967), the International Practical Temperature Scale of 1968 (IPTS-68, Barber, 1969; 1968-1989) and the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90, Saunders 1990; 1990 onwards). Conversion of data between these scales follows t68 = t48 - (4.4 x 10e-6) * t48(100 - t - 48); t90 = 0.99976 * t68. Observations made prior to 1948 (IPTS-48) have not been documented and therefore a conversion cannot be certain. Differences between t90 and t68 can be up to 0.01 at temperatures of 40 C and above; differences of 0.002-0.007 occur across the standard range of ocean temperatures (-10 - 30 C). The International Equation of State of Seawater 1980 (EOS-80, UNESCO, 1981) and the Practical Salinity Scale (PSS-78) were both based on IPTS-68, while the Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10) is based on ITS-90. References: Barber, 1969, doi: 10.1088/0026-1394/5/2/001; UNESCO, 1981; Saunders, 1990, WOCE Newsletter, 10, September 1990." label="TendencyOfSeaWaterTemperatureDueToVerticalMixing" title="Tendency of Sea Water Temperature due to Vertical Mixing" uid="tendency_of_sea_water_temperature_due_to_vertical_mixing" units="K s-1"></item> 
     13200<item description="alias::net_primary_mole_productivity_of_carbon_by_miscellaneous_phytoplankton" label="NetPrimaryMoleProductivityOfBiomassExpressedAsCarbonByMiscellaneousPhytoplankton" title="Net Primary Mole Productivity of Biomass Expressed As Carbon by Miscellaneous Phytoplankton [alias]" uid="net_primary_mole_productivity_of_carbon_by_miscellaneous_phytoplankton" units="mol m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1326413201<item description="alias::tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_seasalt_dry_aerosol_particles_due_to_gravitational_settling" label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfSeaSaltDryAerosolParticlesDueToGravitationalSettling" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Sea Salt Dry Aerosol Particles due to Gravitational Settling [alias]" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_seasalt_dry_aerosol_particles_due_to_gravitational_settling" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13265 <item description="The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Layer&quot; means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. Potential energy is the sum of the gravitational potential energy relative to the geoid and the centripetal potential energy. (The geopotential is the specific potential energy.)" label="TendencyOfPotentialEnergyContentOfOceanLayerDueToDiffusion" title="Tendency of Potential Energy Content of Ocean Layer due to Diffusion" uid="tendency_of_potential_energy_content_of_ocean_layer_due_to_diffusion" units="W m-2"></item> 
    13266 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Vertical mixing&quot; means any vertical transport other than by advection and bolus advection, represented by a combination of vertical diffusion, turbulent mixing and convection in ocean models. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Sea water temperature is the in situ temperature of the sea water. For observed data, depending on the period during which the observation was made, the measured in situ temperature was recorded against standard &quot;scales&quot;. These historical scales include the International Practical Temperature Scale of 1948 (IPTS-48; 1948-1967), the International Practical Temperature Scale of 1968 (IPTS-68, Barber, 1969; 1968-1989) and the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90, Saunders 1990; 1990 onwards). Conversion of data between these scales follows t68 = t48 - (4.4 x 10e-6) * t48(100 - t - 48); t90 = 0.99976 * t68. Observations made prior to 1948 (IPTS-48) have not been documented and therefore a conversion cannot be certain. Differences between t90 and t68 can be up to 0.01 at temperatures of 40 C and above; differences of 0.002-0.007 occur across the standard range of ocean temperatures (-10 - 30 C). The International Equation of State of Seawater 1980 (EOS-80, UNESCO, 1981) and the Practical Salinity Scale (PSS-78) were both based on IPTS-68, while the Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10) is based on ITS-90. References: Barber, 1969, doi: 10.1088/0026-1394/5/2/001; UNESCO, 1981; Saunders, 1990, WOCE Newsletter, 10, September 1990." label="TendencyOfSeaWaterTemperatureDueToVerticalMixing" title="Tendency of Sea Water Temperature due to Vertical Mixing" uid="tendency_of_sea_water_temperature_due_to_vertical_mixing" units="K s-1"></item> 
    1326713202<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons as they contain chemical double bonds between adjacent carbon atoms.  Alkenes contain only hydrogen and carbon combined in the general proportions C(n)H(2n); &quot;alkenes&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe the group of chemical species having this common structure that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models.  Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute. Standard names exist for some individual alkene species, e.g., ethene and propene." label="AtmosphereMassContentOfAlkenes" title="Atmosphere Mass Content of Alkenes" uid="atmosphere_mass_content_of_alkenes" units="kg m-2"></item> 
     13203<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Tc&quot; means the element &quot;technetium&quot; and &quot;99mTc&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;technetium-99&quot; with a half-life of 2.51e-01 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf99MtcInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 99Mtc in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_99mTc_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13204<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Pu&quot; means the element &quot;plutonium&quot; and &quot;244Pu&quot; is the isotope &quot;plutonium-244&quot; with a half-life of 2.92e+10 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf244PuInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 244Pu in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_244Pu_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13205<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;In&quot; means the element &quot;indium&quot; and &quot;117In&quot; is the isotope &quot;indium-117&quot; with a half-life of 3.05e-02 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf117In" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 117In" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_117In" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1326813206<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere." label="SurfaceRoughnessLength" title="Surface Roughness Length" uid="surface_roughness_length" units="m"></item> 
    1326913207<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. The snow and ice melt heat flux is the supply of latent heat which is melting snow and ice at freezing point. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="SurfaceSnowAndIceMeltHeatFlux" title="Surface Snow And Ice Melt Heat Flux" uid="surface_snow_and_ice_melt_heat_flux" units="W m-2"></item> 
     
    1327113209<item description="'Mole concentration' means number of moles per unit volume, also called&quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y, whereX is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical or biological species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time." label="TendencyOfMoleConcentrationOfSiliconInSeaWaterDueToBiologicalProduction" title="Tendency of Mole Concentration of Silicon in Sea Water due to Biological Production" uid="tendency_of_mole_concentration_of_silicon_in_sea_water_due_to_biological_production" units="mol m-3 s-1"></item> 
    1327213210<item description="Sea water density is the in-situ density (not the potential density). If 1000 kg m-3 is subtracted, the standard name &quot;sea_water_sigma_t&quot; should be chosen instead. &quot;change_over_time_in_X&quot; means change in a quantity X over a time-interval, which should be defined by the bounds of the time coordinate." label="ChangeOverTimeInSeaWaterDensity" title="Change Over Time in Sea Water Density" uid="change_over_time_in_sea_water_density" units="kg m-3"></item> 
     13211<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Sb&quot; means the element &quot;antimony&quot; and &quot;126mSb&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;antimony-126&quot; with a half-life of 1.32e-02 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf126MsbInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 126Msb in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_126mSb_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1327313212<item description="Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. Terpenes are hydrocarbons, that is, they contain only hydrogen and carbon combined in the general proportions (C5H8)n where n is an integer greater than on equal to one. The term &quot;terpenes&quot; is used in standard names to describe the group of chemical species having this common structure that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models.  Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute.  Standard names exist for some individual terpene species, e.g., isoprene and limonene." label="MassConcentrationOfTerpenesInAir" title="Mass Concentration of Terpenes in Air" uid="mass_concentration_of_terpenes_in_air" units="kg m-3"></item> 
    1327413213<item description="Mass fraction is used in the construction &quot;mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y&quot;, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X). A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as &quot;nitrogen&quot; or a phrase such as &quot;nox_expressed_as_nitrogen&quot;. The phrase &quot;expressed_as&quot; is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. Aerosol particles take up ambient water (a process known as hygroscopic growth) depending on the relative humidity and the composition of the particles. &quot;Dry aerosol particles&quot; means aerosol particles without any water uptake. The phrase &quot;sea_salt_cation&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe collectively the group of cationic species that occur in sea salt. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Sea salt cations are mainly sodium (Na+), but also include potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg2+), calcium (Ca2+) and rarer cations. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the ions represented, for example, by using a comment attribute." label="MassFractionOfSeaSaltDryAerosolParticlesExpressedAsCationsInAir" title="Mass Fraction of Sea Salt Dry Aerosol Particles Expressed As Cations in Air" uid="mass_fraction_of_sea_salt_dry_aerosol_particles_expressed_as_cations_in_air" units="1"></item> 
     
    1328213221<item description="Mole concentration means number of moles per unit volume, also called &quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical symbol for atomic bromine is Br." label="MoleConcentrationOfAtomicBromineInAir" title="Mole Concentration of Atomic Bromine in Air" uid="mole_concentration_of_atomic_bromine_in_air" units="mol m-3"></item> 
    1328313222<item description="Mole concentration means number of moles per unit volume, also called &quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction &quot;mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y&quot;, where X is a material constituent of Y. A chemical or biological species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as &quot;nitrogen&quot; or a phrase such as &quot;nox_expressed_as_nitrogen&quot;. The phrase &quot;expressed_as&quot; is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A. The chemical formula of the carbonate anion is CO3 with an electrical charge of minus two. Calcite is a mineral that is a polymorph of calcium carbonate. The chemical formula of calcite is CaCO3. At a given salinity, the thermodynamic equilibrium is that between dissolved carbonate ion and solid calcite. Standard names also exist for aragonite, another polymorph of calcium carbonate." label="MoleConcentrationOfCarbonateExpressedAsCarbonAtEquilibriumWithPureCalciteInSeaWater" title="Mole Concentration of Carbonate Expressed As Carbon At Equilibrium With Pure Calcite in Sea Water" uid="mole_concentration_of_carbonate_expressed_as_carbon_at_equilibrium_with_pure_calcite_in_sea_water" units="mol m-3"></item> 
     13223<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Te&quot; means the element &quot;tellurium&quot; and &quot;131mTe&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;tellurium-131&quot; with a half-life of 1.25e+00 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf131MteInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 131Mte in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_131mTe_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13224<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Ba&quot; means the element &quot;barium&quot; and &quot;137mBa&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;barium-137&quot; with a half-life of 1.77e-03 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf137MbaInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 137Mba in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_137mBa_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13225<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Br&quot; means the element &quot;bromine&quot; and &quot;84mBr&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;bromine-84&quot; with a half-life of 4.16e-03 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf84MbrInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 84Mbr in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_84mBr_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1328413226<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the particles. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. the surface of the earth). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. Aerosol takes up ambient water (a process known as hygroscopic growth) depending on the relative humidity and the composition of the aerosol. &quot;Dry aerosol particles&quot; means aerosol particles without any water uptake. The &quot;maritime transport&quot; sector includes fuel combustion activities related to maritime transport. &quot;Maritime transport&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source category 1A3d as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas Inventories&quot;. Chemically, &quot;elemental carbon&quot; is the carbonaceous fraction of particulate matter that is thermally stable in an inert atmosphere to high temperatures near 4000K and can only be gasified by oxidation starting at temperatures above 340 C. It is assumed to be inert and non-volatile under atmospheric conditions and insoluble in any solvent (Ogren and Charlson, 1983)." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfElementalCarbonDryAerosolParticlesDueToEmissionFromMaritimeTransport" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Elemental Carbon Dry Aerosol Particles due to Emission from Maritime Transport" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_elemental_carbon_dry_aerosol_particles_due_to_emission_from_maritime_transport" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1328513227<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. Esters in organic chemistry are chemical compounds derived by reacting an oxoacid with a hydroxyl compound such as an alcohol or phenol. Esters are usually derived from an inorganic acid or organic acid in which at least one -OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an -O-alkyl (alkoxy) group, and most commonly from carboxylic acids and alcohols. That is, esters are formed by condensing an acid with an alcohol. In standard names &quot;esters&quot; is the term used to describe the group of ester species that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute. The &quot;waste treatment and disposal&quot; sector comprises solid waste disposal on land, wastewater handling, waste incineration and other waste disposal. &quot;Waste treatment and disposal&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 6A, 6B, 6C and 6D as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfEstersDueToEmissionFromWasteTreatmentAndDisposal" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Esters due to Emission from Waste Treatment And Disposal" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_esters_due_to_emission_from_waste_treatment_and_disposal" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     
    1328713229<item description="&quot;X_area_fraction&quot; means the fraction of horizontal area occupied by X. &quot;X_area&quot; means the horizontal area occupied by X within the grid cell. A coordinate variable of solar_zenith_angle indicating the night extent should be specified." label="AreaFractionOfNightDefinedBySolarZenithAngle" title="Area Fraction of Night Defined by Solar Zenith Angle" uid="area_fraction_of_night_defined_by_solar_zenith_angle" units="1"></item> 
    1328813230<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. Depth is the vertical distance below the surface. The phrase &quot;product_of_X_and_Y&quot; means X*Y. Sea water density is the in-situ density (not the potential density). For Boussinesq models, density is the constant Boussinesq reference density, a quantity which has the standard name reference_sea_water_density_for_boussinesq_approximation. Conservative Temperature is defined as part of the Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10) which was adopted in 2010 by the International Oceanographic Commission (IOC). Conservative Temperature is specific potential enthalpy (which has the standard name sea_water_specific_potential_enthalpy) divided by a fixed value of the specific heat capacity of sea water, namely cp_0 = 3991.86795711963 J kg-1 K-1. Conservative Temperature is a more accurate measure of the &quot;heat content&quot; of sea water, by a factor of one hundred, than is potential temperature. Because of this, it can be regarded as being proportional to the heat content of sea water per unit mass. Reference: www.teos-10.org; McDougall, 2003 doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(2003)033&lt;0945:PEACOV>2.0.CO;2." label="IntegralWrtDepthOfProductOfSeaWaterDensityAndConservativeTemperature" title="Integral Wrt Depth of Product of Sea Water Density And Conservative Temperature" uid="integral_wrt_depth_of_product_of_sea_water_density_and_conservative_temperature" units="kg degree_C m-2"></item> 
     13231<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;I&quot; means the element &quot;iodine&quot; and &quot;129I&quot; is the isotope &quot;iodine-129&quot; with a half-life of 5.81e+09 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf129IInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 129I in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_129I_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1328913232<item description="&quot;lwe&quot; means liquid water equivalent. &quot;Amount&quot; means mass per unit area. The construction lwe_thickness_of_X_amount or _content means the vertical extent of a layer of liquid water having the same mass per unit area." label="LweThicknessOfConvectiveSnowfallAmount" title="Lwe Thickness of Convective Snowfall Amount" uid="lwe_thickness_of_convective_snowfall_amount" units="m"></item> 
    1329013233<item description="&quot;x&quot; indicates a vector component along the grid x-axis, positive with increasing x. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized eddy advection can be represented on various spatial scales and there are standard names for parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection and parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection which both contribute to the total parameterized eddy advection." label="OceanHeatXTransportDueToParameterizedEddyAdvection" title="Ocean Heat X Transport due to Parameterized Eddy Advection" uid="ocean_heat_x_transport_due_to_parameterized_eddy_advection" units="W"></item> 
     
    1329413237<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. Mole concentration means number of moles per unit volume, also called &quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction &quot;mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y&quot;, where X is a material constituent of Y. A chemical or biological species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as &quot;nitrogen&quot; or a phrase such as &quot;nox_expressed_as_nitrogen&quot;. The phrase &quot;expressed_as&quot; is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Phytoplankton are autotrophic prokaryotic or eukaryotic algae that live near the water surface where there is sufficient light to support photosynthesis. &quot;Grazing of phytoplankton&quot; means the grazing of phytoplankton by zooplankton." label="TendencyOfMoleConcentrationOfParticulateOrganicMatterExpressedAsCarbonInSeaWaterDueToGrazingOfPhytoplankton" title="Tendency of Mole Concentration of Particulate Organic Matter Expressed As Carbon in Sea Water due to Grazing of Phytoplankton" uid="tendency_of_mole_concentration_of_particulate_organic_matter_expressed_as_carbon_in_sea_water_due_to_grazing_of_phytoplankton" units="mol m-3 s-1"></item> 
    1329513238<item description="In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="TranspirationFlux" title="Transpiration Flux" uid="transpiration_flux" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13239<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Br&quot; means the element &quot;bromine&quot; and &quot;84Br&quot; is the isotope &quot;bromine-84&quot; with a half-life of 2.21e-02 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf84BrInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 84Br in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_84Br_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1329613240<item description="The wave directional spectrum can be written as a  five dimensional function S(t,x,y,f,theta) where t is time, x and y are horizontal coordinates (such as longitude and latitude), f is frequency and theta is direction.  S has the standard name sea_surface_wave_directional_variance_spectral_density.  S can be integrated over direction to give S1= integral(S dtheta) and this quantity has the standard name sea_surface_wave_variance_spectral_density.  Frequency moments, M(n) of S1 can then be calculated as follows: M(n) = integral(S1 f^n df), where f^n is f to the power of n.  The second wave period, T(m2) is calculated as the square root of the ratio M(0)/M(2)." label="SeaSurfaceWaveMeanPeriodFromVarianceSpectralDensitySecondFrequencyMoment" title="Sea Surface Wave Mean Period from Variance Spectral Density Second Frequency Moment" uid="sea_surface_wave_mean_period_from_variance_spectral_density_second_frequency_moment" units="s"></item> 
    1329713241<item description="&quot;x&quot; indicates a vector component along the grid x-axis, positive with increasing x. &quot;Downward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. A downward x stress is a downward flux of momentum towards the positive direction of the model's x-axis." label="SurfaceDownwardXStressCorrection" title="Surface Downward X Stress Correction" uid="surface_downward_x_stress_correction" units="Pa"></item> 
    1329813242<item description="&quot;Amount&quot; means mass per unit area.  The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere.  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time." label="TendencyOfSeaIceAmountDueToSurfaceMelting" title="Tendency of Sea Ice Amount due to Surface Melting" uid="tendency_of_sea_ice_amount_due_to_surface_melting" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1329913243<item description="The phrase &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The phrase &quot;expressed_as_heat_content&quot; means that this quantity is calculated as the specific heat capacity times density of sea water multiplied by the potential temperature of the sea water in the grid cell. Potential temperature is the temperature a parcel of air or sea water would have if moved adiabatically to sea level pressure. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized submesoscale eddy advection occurs on a spatial scale of the order of 1 km horizontally. Reference: James C. McWilliams 2016, Submesoscale currents in the ocean, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, volume 472, issue 2189. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2016.0117. There are also standard names for parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection which, along with parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection, contributes to the total parameterized eddy advection. Additionally, when the parameterized advective process is represented in the model as a skew-diffusion rather than an advection, then the parameterized skew diffusion should be included in this diagnostic. The convergence of a skew-flux is identical (in the continuous formulation) to the convergence of an advective flux, making their tendencies the same." label="TendencyOfSeaWaterPotentialTemperatureExpressedAsHeatContentDueToParameterizedSubmesoscaleEddyAdvection" title="Tendency of Sea Water Potential Temperature Expressed As Heat Content due to Parameterized Submesoscale Eddy Advection" uid="tendency_of_sea_water_potential_temperature_expressed_as_heat_content_due_to_parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection" units="W m-2"></item> 
     13244<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Rn&quot; means the element &quot;radon&quot; and &quot;218Rn&quot; is the isotope &quot;radon-218&quot; with a half-life of 4.05e-07 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf218RnInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 218Rn in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_218Rn_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13245<item description="Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. &quot;Volcanic ash&quot; means the fine-grained products of explosive volcanic eruptions, such as minerals or crystals, older fragmented rock (e.g. andesite) and glass. Particles within a volcanic ash cloud have diameters less than 2 mm. &quot;Volcanic ash&quot; does not include non-volcanic dust." label="MassConcentrationOfVolcanicAshInAir" title="Mass Concentration of Volcanic Ash in Air" uid="mass_concentration_of_volcanic_ash_in_air" units="kg m-3"></item> 
     13246<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Cf&quot; means the element &quot;californium&quot; and &quot;250Cf&quot; is the isotope &quot;californium-250&quot; with a half-life of 4.75e+03 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf250CfInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 250Cf in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_250Cf_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1330013247<item description="A variable with the standard name of sensor_band_identifier contains strings which give the alphanumeric identifier of a sensor band. These strings have not yet been standardised. " label="SensorBandIdentifier" title="Sensor Band Identifier" uid="sensor_band_identifier" units=""></item> 
     13248<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;In&quot; means the element &quot;indium&quot; and &quot;118In&quot; is the isotope &quot;indium-118&quot; with a half-life of 5.77e-05 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf118In" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 118In" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_118In" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1330113249<item description="The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. A phrase assuming_condition indicates that the named quantity is the value which would obtain if all aspects of the system were unaltered except for the assumption of the circumstances specified by the condition. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;shortwave&quot; means shortwave radiation. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature." label="TendencyOfAirTemperatureDueToShortwaveHeatingAssumingClearSky" title="Tendency of Air Temperature due to Shortwave Heating Assuming Clear Sky" uid="tendency_of_air_temperature_due_to_shortwave_heating_assuming_clear_sky" units="K s-1"></item> 
    1330213250<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. In organic chemistry, a ketone is a compound with the structure RC(=O)R', where R and R' can be a variety of atoms and groups of atoms. It features a carbonyl group (C=O) bonded to two other carbon atoms. Acetone is the simplest example of a ketone. In standard names &quot;ketones&quot; is the term used to describe the group of ketone species that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute. The &quot;land transport&quot; sector includes fuel combustion activities related to road transportation, railways and other transportation.  &quot;Land transport&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 1A3b, 1A3c and 1A3e as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfKetonesDueToEmissionFromLandTransport" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Ketones due to Emission from Land Transport" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_ketones_due_to_emission_from_land_transport" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     
    1331113259<item description="Mole concentration means number of moles per unit volume, also called &quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for methyl bromide is CH3Br. The IUPAC name for methyl bromide is bromomethane." label="MoleConcentrationOfMethylBromideInAir" title="Mole Concentration of Methyl Bromide in Air" uid="mole_concentration_of_methyl_bromide_in_air" units="mol m-3"></item> 
    1331213260<item description="Mole fraction is used in the construction mole_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y." label="MoleFractionOfPropeneInAir" title="Mole Fraction of Propene in Air" uid="mole_fraction_of_propene_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    13313 <item description="&quot;Northward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized mesoscale eddy advection occurs on a spatial scale of many tens of kilometres and an evolutionary time of weeks. Reference: James C. McWilliams 2016, Submesoscale currents in the ocean, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, volume 472, issue 2189. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2016.0117. Parameterized eddy advection can be represented on various spatial scales and there are standard names for parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection and parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection which both contribute to the total parameterized eddy advection." label="NorthwardOceanHeatTransportDueToParameterizedEddyAdvection" title="Northward Ocean Heat Transport due to Parameterized Eddy Advection" uid="northward_ocean_heat_transport_due_to_parameterized_eddy_advection" units="W"></item> 
    1331413261<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. A phrase assuming_condition indicates that the named quantity is the value which would obtain if all aspects of the system were unaltered except for the assumption of the circumstances specified by the condition. &quot;shortwave&quot; means shortwave radiation. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean &quot;net downward&quot;. Surface downwelling shortwave is the sum of direct and diffuse solar radiation incident on the surface, and is sometimes called &quot;global radiation&quot;. When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called &quot;irradiance&quot;. In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosine-collector light-meter and sometimes called &quot;vector irradiance&quot;. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="SurfaceDownwellingShortwaveFluxInAirAssumingClearSky" title="Surface Downwelling Shortwave Flux in Air Assuming Clear Sky" uid="surface_downwelling_shortwave_flux_in_air_assuming_clear_sky" units="W m-2"></item> 
     13262<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;I&quot; means the element &quot;iodine&quot; and &quot;133I&quot; is the isotope &quot;iodine-133&quot; with a half-life of 8.71e-01 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf133I" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 133I" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_133I" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1331513263<item description="The phrase &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized submesoscale eddy advection occurs on a spatial scale of the order of 1 km horizontally. Reference: James C. McWilliams 2016, Submesoscale currents in the ocean, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, volume 472, issue 2189. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2016.0117. There are also standard names for parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection which, along with parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection, contributes to the total parameterized eddy advection. Additionally, when the parameterized advective process is represented in the model as a skew-diffusion rather than an advection, then the parameterized skew diffusion should be included in this diagnostic. The convergence of a skew-flux is identical (in the continuous formulation) to the convergence of an advective flux, making their tendencies the same." label="TendencyOfSeaWaterSalinityExpressedAsSaltContentDueToParameterizedSubmesoscaleEddyAdvection" title="Tendency of Sea Water Salinity Expressed As Salt Content due to Parameterized Submesoscale Eddy Advection" uid="tendency_of_sea_water_salinity_expressed_as_salt_content_due_to_parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13264<item description="alias::northward_eliassen_palm_flux" label="NorthwardEliassenPalmFluxInAir" title="Northward Eliassen Palm Flux in Air [alias]" uid="northward_eliassen_palm_flux" units="m3 s-2"></item> 
     13265<item description="&quot;Northward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized eddy advection can be represented on various spatial scales and there are standard names for parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection and parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection which both contribute to the total parameterized eddy advection." label="NorthwardOceanHeatTransportDueToParameterizedEddyAdvection" title="Northward Ocean Heat Transport due to Parameterized Eddy Advection" uid="northward_ocean_heat_transport_due_to_parameterized_eddy_advection" units="W"></item> 
    1331613266<item description="&quot;Upward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). The sensible heat flux, also called &quot;turbulent&quot; heat flux, is the exchange of heat caused by the motion of air. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="UpwardSensibleHeatFluxInAir" title="Upward Sensible Heat Flux in Air" uid="upward_sensible_heat_flux_in_air" units="W m-2"></item> 
    13317 <item description="alias::northward_eliassen_palm_flux" label="NorthwardEliassenPalmFluxInAir" title="Northward Eliassen Palm Flux in Air [alias]" uid="northward_eliassen_palm_flux" units="m3 s-2"></item> 
    1331813267<item description="Stratiform precipitation, whether liquid or frozen, is precipitation that formed in stratiform cloud.  &quot;lwe&quot; means liquid water equivalent." label="LweStratiformSnowfallRate" title="Lwe Stratiform Snowfall Rate" uid="lwe_stratiform_snowfall_rate" units="m s-1"></item> 
     13268<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;In&quot; means the element &quot;indium&quot; and &quot;118mIn&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;indium-118&quot; with a half-life of 3.05e-03 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf118MinInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 118Min in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_118mIn_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13269<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Pm&quot; means the element &quot;promethium&quot; and &quot;148Pm&quot; is the isotope &quot;promethium-148&quot; with a half-life of 5.38e+00 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf148PmInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 148Pm in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_148Pm_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1331913270<item description="&quot;specific&quot; means per unit mass. Specific humidity is the mass fraction of water vapor in (moist) air." label="SpecificHumidity" title="Specific Humidity" uid="specific_humidity" units="1"></item> 
    1332013271<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group - an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups - of general formula R-O-R. In standard names &quot;ethers&quot; is the term used to describe the group of ether species that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute.   The &quot;land transport&quot; sector includes fuel combustion activities related to road transportation, railways and other transportation.  &quot;Land transport&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 1A3b, 1A3c and 1A3e as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfEthersDueToEmissionFromLandTransport" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Ethers due to Emission from Land Transport" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_ethers_due_to_emission_from_land_transport" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     
    1332313274<item description="The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;specific&quot; means per unit mass. Specific humidity is the mass fraction of water vapor in (moist) air." label="TendencyOfSpecificHumidityDueToDiffusion" title="Tendency of Specific Humidity due to Diffusion" uid="tendency_of_specific_humidity_due_to_diffusion" units="s-1"></item> 
    1332413275<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The chemical formula for hypochlorous acid is HOCl." label="AtmosphereMassContentOfHypochlorousAcid" title="Atmosphere Mass Content of Hypochlorous Acid" uid="atmosphere_mass_content_of_hypochlorous_acid" units="kg m-2"></item> 
     13276<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Cs&quot; means the element &quot;cesium&quot; and &quot;136Cs&quot; is the isotope &quot;cesium-136&quot; with a half-life of 1.30e+01 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf136CsInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 136Cs in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_136Cs_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1332513277<item description="&quot;X_area_fraction&quot; means the fraction of horizontal area occupied by X. &quot;X_area&quot; means the horizontal area occupied by X within the grid cell. Cloud area fraction is also called &quot;cloud amount&quot; and &quot;cloud cover&quot;. The cloud area fraction is for the whole atmosphere column, as seen from the surface or the top of the atmosphere. The cloud area fraction in a layer of the atmosphere has the standard name cloud_area_fraction_in_atmosphere_layer. The ISCCP cloud area fraction is diagnosed from atmosphere model output by the ISCCP simulator software in such a way as to be comparable with the observational diagnostics of ISCCP (the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project)." label="IsccpCloudAreaFraction" title="Isccp Cloud Area Fraction" uid="isccp_cloud_area_fraction" units="1"></item> 
     13278<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Tc&quot; means the element &quot;technetium&quot; and &quot;101Tc&quot; is the isotope &quot;technetium-101&quot; with a half-life of 9.86e-03 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf101TcInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 101Tc in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_101Tc_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13279<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Rb&quot; means the element &quot;rubidium&quot; and &quot;86mRb&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;rubidium-86&quot; with a half-life of 7.04e-04 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf86MrbInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 86Mrb in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_86mRb_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13280<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Cm&quot; means the element &quot;curium&quot; and &quot;242Cm&quot; is the isotope &quot;curium-242&quot; with a half-life of 1.63e+02 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf242Cm" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 242Cm" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_242Cm" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
     13281<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for ethene is C2H4. Ethene is a member of the group of hydrocarbons known as alkenes.  There are standard names for the alkene group as well as for some of the individual species." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfEtheneDueToEmission" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Ethene due to Emission" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_ethene_due_to_emission" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1332613282<item description="alias::net_primary_mole_productivity_of_carbon_by_phytoplankton" label="NetPrimaryMoleProductivityOfBiomassExpressedAsCarbonByPhytoplankton" title="Net Primary Mole Productivity of Biomass Expressed As Carbon by Phytoplankton [alias]" uid="net_primary_mole_productivity_of_carbon_by_phytoplankton" units="mol m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13327 <item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for ethene is C2H4. Ethene is a member of the group of hydrocarbons known as alkenes.  There are standard names for the alkene group as well as for some of the individual species." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfEtheneDueToEmission" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Ethene due to Emission" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_ethene_due_to_emission" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1332813283<item description="Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X).  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. In an atmosphere model, stratiform cloud is that produced by large-scale convergence (not the convection schemes).  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time." label="TendencyOfMassFractionOfStratiformCloudIceInAirDueToIcefall" title="Tendency of Mass Fraction of Stratiform Cloud Ice in Air due to Icefall" uid="tendency_of_mass_fraction_of_stratiform_cloud_ice_in_air_due_to_icefall" units="s-1"></item> 
    13329 <item description="The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Northward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Northward transport by (meridional) overturning is geometrically defined as being the part due to the vertical integral of the product of zonal means of velocity and tracer. The velocity does not include &quot;bolus&quot; or Gent-McWilliams velocity." label="NorthwardOceanSaltTransportDueToOverturning" title="Northward Ocean Salt Transport due to Overturning" uid="northward_ocean_salt_transport_due_to_overturning" units="kg s-1"></item> 
     13284<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Te&quot; means the element &quot;tellurium&quot; and &quot;134Te&quot; is the isotope &quot;tellurium-134&quot; with a half-life of 2.92e-02 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf134TeInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 134Te in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_134Te_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13285<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Fr&quot; means the element &quot;francium&quot; and &quot;221Fr&quot; is the isotope &quot;francium-221&quot; with a half-life of 3.33e-03 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf221FrInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 221Fr in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_221Fr_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13286<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Br&quot; means the element &quot;bromine&quot; and &quot;84mBr&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;bromine-84&quot; with a half-life of 4.16e-03 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf84MbrInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 84Mbr in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_84mBr_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13287<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Sr&quot; means the element &quot;strontium&quot; and &quot;91Sr&quot; is the isotope &quot;strontium-91&quot; with a half-life of 3.95e-01 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf91SrInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 91Sr in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_91Sr_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13288<item description="&quot;Northward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). &quot;Salt transport&quot; means the mass of salt being transported. Northward transport by (meridional) overturning is geometrically defined as being the part due to the vertical integral of the product of zonal means of velocity and tracer. The velocity does not include the parameterized eddy velocity. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase." label="NorthwardOceanSaltTransportDueToOverturning" title="Northward Ocean Salt Transport due to Overturning" uid="northward_ocean_salt_transport_due_to_overturning" units="kg s-1"></item> 
    1333013289<item description="The &quot;reaction rate&quot; is the rate at which the reactants of a chemical reaction form the products. The rate of &quot;hydroxyl radical destruction due to reaction with nmvoc&quot; is the nmvoc reactivity with regard to reactions with OH. It is the weighted sum of the reactivity of all individual nmvoc species with OH. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. The chemical formula for the hydroxyl radical is OH. In chemistry, a &quot;radical&quot; is a highly reactive, and therefore shortlived, species. &quot;nmvoc&quot; means non methane volatile organic compounds; &quot;nmvoc&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe the group of chemical species having this classification that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute." label="RateOfHydroxylRadicalDestructionDueToReactionWithNmvoc" title="Rate of Hydroxyl Radical Destruction due to Reaction With Nmvoc" uid="rate_of_hydroxyl_radical_destruction_due_to_reaction_with_nmvoc" units="s-1"></item> 
    1333113290<item description="Transport across_line means that which crosses a particular line on the Earth's surface; formally this means the integral along the line of the normal component of the transport." label="SeaWaterTransportAcrossLine" title="Sea Water Transport Across Line" uid="sea_water_transport_across_line" units="kg s-1"></item> 
     
    1333513294<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere, i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. The chemical formula for propene is C3H6. Propene is a member of the group of hydrocarbons known as alkenes.  There are standard names for the alkene group as well as for some of the individual species." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMolesOfPropene" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Moles of Propene" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_moles_of_propene" units="mol s-1"></item> 
    1333613295<item description="Mole fraction is used in the construction &quot;mole_fraction_of_X_in_Y&quot;, where X is a material constituent of Y. A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as &quot;nitrogen&quot; or a phrase such as &quot;nox_expressed_as_nitrogen&quot;. Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons as they contain chemical double bonds between adjacent carbon atoms. &quot;Hydrocarbon&quot; means a compound containing hydrogen and carbon. Alkenes contain only hydrogen and carbon combined in the general proportions C(n)H(2n); &quot;alkenes&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe the group of chemical species having this common structure that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute. Standard names exist for some individual alkene species, e.g., ethene and propene." label="MoleFractionOfAlkenesInAir" title="Mole Fraction of Alkenes in Air" uid="mole_fraction_of_alkenes_in_air" units="1"></item> 
     13296<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Es&quot; means the element &quot;einsteinium&quot; and &quot;254Es&quot; is the isotope &quot;einsteinium-254&quot; with a half-life of 2.76e+02 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf254EsInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 254Es in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_254Es_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1333713297<item description="alias::tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_black_carbon_dry_aerosol_due_to_emission_from_savanna_and_grassland_fires" label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfElementalCarbonDryAerosolParticlesDueToEmissionFromSavannaAndGrasslandFires" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Elemental Carbon Dry Aerosol Particles due to Emission from Savanna And Grassland Fires [alias]" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_black_carbon_dry_aerosol_due_to_emission_from_savanna_and_grassland_fires" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1333813298<item description="&quot;Amount&quot; means mass per unit area. The construction thickness_of_[X_]rainfall_amount means the accumulated &quot;depth&quot; of rainfall i.e. the thickness of a layer of liquid water having the same mass per unit area as the rainfall amount." label="ThicknessOfRainfallAmount" title="Thickness of Rainfall Amount" uid="thickness_of_rainfall_amount" units="m"></item> 
     13299<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Xe&quot; means the element &quot;xenon&quot; and &quot;135mXe&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;xenon-135&quot; with a half-life of 1.08e-02 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf135MxeInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 135Mxe in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_135mXe_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13300<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Th&quot; means the element &quot;thorium&quot; and &quot;234Th&quot; is the isotope &quot;thorium-234&quot; with a half-life of 2.41e+01 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf234ThInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 234Th in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_234Th_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1333913301<item description="alias::net_primary_productivity_of_carbon_accumulated_in_wood" label="NetPrimaryProductivityOfBiomassExpressedAsCarbonAccumulatedInWood" title="Net Primary Productivity of Biomass Expressed As Carbon Accumulated in Wood [alias]" uid="net_primary_productivity_of_carbon_accumulated_in_wood" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1334013302<item description="The partial pressure of a dissolved gas in sea water is the partial pressure in air with which it would be in equilibrium. The partial pressure of a gaseous constituent of air is the pressure which it alone would exert with unchanged temperature and number of moles per unit volume. The chemical formula for carbon dioxide is CO2." label="PartialPressureOfCarbonDioxideInSeaWater" title="Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide in Sea Water" uid="partial_pressure_of_carbon_dioxide_in_sea_water" units="Pa"></item> 
     
    1334813310<item description="Mole concentration means number of moles per unit volume, also called &quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical or biological species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'.The phrase 'expressed_as' is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A. Organic detritus are particles of debris from decaying plants and animals." label="MoleConcentrationOfOrganicDetritusExpressedAsCarbonInSeaWater" title="Mole Concentration of Organic Detritus Expressed As Carbon in Sea Water" uid="mole_concentration_of_organic_detritus_expressed_as_carbon_in_sea_water" units="mol m-3"></item> 
    1334913311<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. A velocity is a vector quantity. &quot;Northward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). &quot;Geostrophic&quot; indicates that geostrophic balance is assumed, i.e. that the pressure gradient force and the Coriolis force are balanced and the large scale fluid flow is parallel to the isobars. The quantity with standard name surface_geostrophic_northward_sea_water_velocity is the sum of a variable part, surface_geostrophic_northward_sea_water_velocity_assuming_mean_sea_level_for_geoid, and a constant part due to the stationary component of ocean circulation." label="SurfaceGeostrophicNorthwardSeaWaterVelocity" title="Surface Geostrophic Northward Sea Water Velocity" uid="surface_geostrophic_northward_sea_water_velocity" units="m s-1"></item> 
     13312<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Upward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics. The phrase &quot;expressed_as&quot; is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A. The chemical formula for carbon dioxide is CO2. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. &quot;Litter&quot; is dead plant material in or above the soil. The quantity with standard name surface_upward_mass_flux_of_carbon_dioxide_expressed_as_carbon_due_to_emission_from_fires is the sum of the quantities with standard names surface_upward_mass_flux_of_carbon_dioxide_expressed_as_carbon_due_to_emission_from_vegetation_in_fires and surface_upward_mass_flux_of_carbon_dioxide_expressed_as_carbon_due_to_emission_from_litter_in_fires." label="SurfaceUpwardMassFluxOfCarbonDioxideExpressedAsCarbonDueToEmissionFromLitterInFires" title="Surface Upward Mass Flux of Carbon Dioxide Expressed As Carbon due to Emission from Litter in Fires" uid="surface_upward_mass_flux_of_carbon_dioxide_expressed_as_carbon_due_to_emission_from_litter_in_fires" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1335013313<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere, i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. The chemical formula for alpha_pinene is C10H16. The IUPAC name for alpha-pinene is (1S,5S)-2,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMolesOfAlphaPinene" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Moles of Alpha Pinene" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_moles_of_alpha_pinene" units="mol s-1"></item> 
    1335113314<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The chemical symbol for atomic nitrogen is N." label="AtmosphereMassContentOfAtomicNitrogen" title="Atmosphere Mass Content of Atomic Nitrogen" uid="atmosphere_mass_content_of_atomic_nitrogen" units="kg m-2"></item> 
     
    1336513328<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used." label="AtmosphereNumberContentOfIceCrystals" title="Atmosphere Number Content of Ice Crystals" uid="atmosphere_number_content_of_ice_crystals" units="m-2"></item> 
    1336613329<item description="Mole concentration means number of moles per unit volume, also called &quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for methyl hydroperoxide is CH3OOH." label="MoleConcentrationOfLimoneneInAir" title="Mole Concentration of Limonene in Air" uid="mole_concentration_of_limonene_in_air" units="mol m-3"></item> 
     13330<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Sb&quot; means the element &quot;antimony&quot; and &quot;130mSb&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;antimony-130&quot; with a half-life of 4.58e-03 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf130MsbInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 130Msb in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_130mSb_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13331<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;I&quot; means the element &quot;iodine&quot; and &quot;131I&quot; is the isotope &quot;iodine-131&quot; with a half-life of 8.07e+00 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf131IInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 131I in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_131I_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13332<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Ra&quot; means the element &quot;radium&quot; and &quot;227Ra&quot; is the isotope &quot;radium-227&quot; with a half-life of 2.87e-02 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf227RaInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 227Ra in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_227Ra_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1336713333<item description="Conservative Temperature is defined as part of the Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10) which was adopted in 2010 by the International Oceanographic Commission (IOC). Conservative Temperature is specific potential enthalpy (which has the standard name sea_water_specific_potential_enthalpy) divided by a fixed value of the specific heat capacity of sea water, namely cp_0 = 3991.86795711963 J kg-1 K-1. Conservative Temperature is a more accurate measure of the &quot;heat content&quot; of sea water, by a factor of one hundred, than is potential temperature. Because of this, it can be regarded as being proportional to the heat content of sea water per unit mass. Reference: www.teos-10.org; McDougall, 2003 doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(2003)033&lt;0945:PEACOV>2.0.CO;2." label="SeaWaterConservativeTemperature" title="Sea Water Conservative Temperature" uid="sea_water_conservative_temperature" units="K"></item> 
     13334<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for propene is C3H6. Propene is a member of the group of hydrocarbons known as alkenes. There are standard names for the alkene group as well as for some of the individual species. The &quot;agricultural production&quot; sector comprises the agricultural processes of enteric fermentation, manure management, rice cultivation, agricultural soils and other. It may also include any not-classified or &quot;other&quot; combustion, which is commonly included in agriculture-related inventory data. &quot;Agricultural production&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 4A, 4B, 4C, 4D and 4G as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfPropeneDueToEmissionFromAgriculturalProduction" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Propene due to Emission from Agricultural Production" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_propene_due_to_emission_from_agricultural_production" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1336813335<item description="Emissivity is the ratio of the power emitted by an object to the power that would be emitted by a perfect black body having the same temperature as the object. The emissivity is assumed to be an integral over all wavelengths, unless a coordinate of radiation_wavelength or radiation_frequency is included to specify either the wavelength or frequency. The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere.  &quot;longwave&quot; means longwave radiation." label="SurfaceLongwaveEmissivity" title="Surface Longwave Emissivity" uid="surface_longwave_emissivity" units="1"></item> 
    13369 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for propene is C3H6. Propene is a member of the group of hydrocarbons known as alkenes. There are standard names for the alkene group as well as for some of the individual species. The &quot;agricultural production&quot; sector comprises the agricultural processes of enteric fermentation, manure management, rice cultivation, agricultural soils and other. It may also include any not-classified or &quot;other&quot; combustion, which is commonly included in agriculture-related inventory data. &quot;Agricultural production&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 4A, 4B, 4C, 4D and 4G as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfPropeneDueToEmissionFromAgriculturalProduction" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Propene due to Emission from Agricultural Production" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_propene_due_to_emission_from_agricultural_production" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13336<item description="alias::tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_black_carbon_dry_aerosol_due_to_emission_from_waste_treatment_and_disposal" label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfElementalCarbonDryAerosolParticlesDueToEmissionFromWasteTreatmentAndDisposal" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Elemental Carbon Dry Aerosol Particles due to Emission from Waste Treatment And Disposal [alias]" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_black_carbon_dry_aerosol_due_to_emission_from_waste_treatment_and_disposal" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1337013337<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is asingle term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase. Deposition of nitrogen into the ocean is the sum of dry and wet depositionof nitrogen species onto the ocean surface from the atmosphere.  'Nitrogen fixation' means the production of ammonia from nitrogen gas. Organisms that fix nitrogen are termed 'diazotrophs'. Diazotrophic phytoplankton can fix atmospheric nitrogen, thus increasing the content of nitrogen in the ocean. Runoff is the liquid water which drains from land. If not specified, &quot;runoff&quot; refers to the sum of surface runoff and subsurface drainage.&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time." label="TendencyOfOceanMoleContentOfElementalNitrogenDueToDepositionAndFixationAndRunoff" title="Tendency of Ocean Mole Content of Elemental Nitrogen due to Deposition And Fixation And Runoff" uid="tendency_of_ocean_mole_content_of_elemental_nitrogen_due_to_deposition_and_fixation_and_runoff" units="mol m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1337113338<item description="&quot;shortwave&quot; means shortwave radiation. Adjusted forcing is the radiative flux change caused by an imposed change in radiative forcing agent (greenhouse gases, aerosol, solar radiation, etc.) after allowance for stratospheric temperature adjustment." label="TropopauseAdjustedShortwaveForcing" title="Tropopause Adjusted Shortwave Forcing" uid="tropopause_adjusted_shortwave_forcing" units="W m-2"></item> 
    13372 <item description="alias::tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_black_carbon_dry_aerosol_due_to_emission_from_waste_treatment_and_disposal" label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfElementalCarbonDryAerosolParticlesDueToEmissionFromWasteTreatmentAndDisposal" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Elemental Carbon Dry Aerosol Particles due to Emission from Waste Treatment And Disposal [alias]" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_black_carbon_dry_aerosol_due_to_emission_from_waste_treatment_and_disposal" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1337313339<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The chemical formula for hydrogen peroxide is H2O2." label="AtmosphereMassContentOfHydrogenPeroxide" title="Atmosphere Mass Content of Hydrogen Peroxide" uid="atmosphere_mass_content_of_hydrogen_peroxide" units="kg m-2"></item> 
     13340<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Bi&quot; means the element &quot;bismuth&quot; and &quot;209Bi&quot; is the isotope &quot;bismuth-209&quot; with a half-life of 7.29e+20 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf209BiInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 209Bi in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_209Bi_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13341<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Pa&quot; means the element &quot;protactinium&quot; and &quot;232Pa&quot; is the isotope &quot;protactinium-232&quot; with a half-life of 1.31e+00 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf232PaInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 232Pa in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_232Pa_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13342<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Co&quot; means the element &quot;cobalt&quot; and &quot;60Co&quot; is the isotope &quot;cobalt-60&quot; with a half-life of 1.93e+03 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf60CoInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 60Co in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_60Co_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13343<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Sn&quot; means the element &quot;tin&quot; and &quot;127Sn&quot; is the isotope &quot;tin-127&quot; with a half-life of 8.84e-02 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf127SnInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 127Sn in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_127Sn_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13344<item description="&quot;Height_above_X&quot; means the vertical distance above the named surface X. The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. The &quot;geopotential datum&quot; is any estimated surface of constant geopotential used as a datum i.e. a reference level; for the geoid as a datum, specific standard names are available. To specify which geoid or geopotential datum is being used as a reference level, a grid_mapping variable should be attached to the data variable as described in Chapter 5.6 of the CF Convention." label="SurfaceHeightAboveGeopotentialDatum" title="Surface Height Above Geopotential Datum" uid="surface_height_above_geopotential_datum" units="m"></item> 
    1337413345<item description="alias::lwe_thickness_of_large_scale_precipitation_amount" label="LweThicknessOfStratiformPrecipitationAmount" title="Lwe Thickness of Stratiform Precipitation Amount [alias]" uid="lwe_thickness_of_large_scale_precipitation_amount" units="m"></item> 
    13375 <item description="&quot;Height_above_X&quot; means the vertical distance above the named surface X. The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. The &quot;geopotential datum&quot; is any estimated surface of constant geopotential used as a datum i.e. a reference level; for the geoid as a datum, specific standard names are available. To specify which geoid or geopotential datum is being used as a reference level, a grid_mapping variable should be attached to the data variable as described in Chapter 5.6 of the CF Convention." label="SurfaceHeightAboveGeopotentialDatum" title="Surface Height Above Geopotential Datum" uid="surface_height_above_geopotential_datum" units="m"></item> 
    1337613346<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for methane is CH4. Methane is a member of the group of hydrocarbons known as alkanes. There are standard names for the alkane group as well as for some of the individual species. The &quot;residential and commercial combustion&quot; sector comprises fuel combustion activities related to the commercial/institutional sector, the residential sector and the agriculture/forestry/fishing sector. It may also include any not-classified or &quot;other&quot; combustion, which is commonly included in the inventory data. &quot;Residential and commercial combustion&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 1A4a, 1A4b and 1A4c as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfMethaneDueToEmissionFromResidentialAndCommercialCombustion" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Methane due to Emission from Residential And Commercial Combustion" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_methane_due_to_emission_from_residential_and_commercial_combustion" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1337713347<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The phrase &quot;expressed_as&quot; is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Dry deposition&quot; is the sum of turbulent deposition and gravitational settling. &quot;Noy&quot; describes a family of chemical species. The family usually includes atomic nitrogen (N), nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5), nitric acid (HNO3), peroxynitric acid (HNO4), bromine nitrate (BrONO2), chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) and organic nitrates (most notably peroxyacetyl nitrate, sometimes referred to as PAN, (CH3COO2NO2)). The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfNoyExpressedAsNitrogenDueToDryDeposition" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Noy Expressed As Nitrogen due to Dry Deposition" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_noy_expressed_as_nitrogen_due_to_dry_deposition" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     
    1338213352<item description="&quot;Water&quot; means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow.  &quot;Downward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward).  The surface water flux is the result of precipitation and evaporation.  The water flux into sea water is the freshwater entering as a result of precipitation, evaporation, river inflow, sea ice effects and water flux correction (if applied).  The water flux or volume transport into sea water from rivers is the inflow to the ocean, often applied to the surface in ocean models.  In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics.  The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere." label="WaterFluxIntoSeaWaterFromRiversAndSurfaceDownwardWaterFlux" title="Water Flux Into Sea Water from Rivers And Surface Downward Water Flux" uid="water_flux_into_sea_water_from_rivers_and_surface_downward_water_flux" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1338313353<item description="The flood_water_thickness is the vertical distance between the surface of the flood water and the surface of the solid ground, as measured at a given point in space. The standard name ground_level_altitude is used for a data variable giving the geometric height of the ground surface above the geoid. &quot;Flood water&quot; is water that covers land which is normally not covered by water." label="FloodWaterThickness" title="Flood Water Thickness" uid="flood_water_thickness" units="m"></item> 
     13354<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Tl&quot; means the element &quot;thallium&quot; and &quot;208Tl&quot; is the isotope &quot;thallium-208&quot; with a half-life of 2.15e-03 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf208TlInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 208Tl in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_208Tl_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13355<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Ag&quot; means the element &quot;silver&quot; and &quot;113Ag&quot; is the isotope &quot;silver-113&quot; with a half-life of 2.21e-01 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf113AgInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 113Ag in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_113Ag_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1338413356<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean &quot;net downward&quot;. &quot;Photosynthetic&quot; radiation is the part of the spectrum which is used in photosynthesis e.g. 400-700 nm. The range of wavelengths could be specified precisely by the bounds of a coordinate of radiation_wavelength. When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called &quot;irradiance&quot;. In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosine-collector light-meter and sometimes called &quot;vector irradiance&quot;. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="SurfaceDownwellingPhotosyntheticRadiativeFluxInAir" title="Surface Downwelling Photosynthetic Radiative Flux in Air" uid="surface_downwelling_photosynthetic_radiative_flux_in_air" units="W m-2"></item> 
     13357<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Xe&quot; means the element &quot;xenon&quot; and &quot;137Xe&quot; is the isotope &quot;xenon-137&quot; with a half-life of 2.71e-03 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf137Xe" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 137Xe" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_137Xe" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
     13358<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Pb&quot; means the element &quot;lead&quot; and &quot;207mPb&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;lead-207&quot; with a half-life of 9.26e-06 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf207Mpb" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 207Mpb" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_207mPb" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1338513359<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere, i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. The phrase &quot;expressed_as&quot; is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A. &quot;nmvoc&quot; means non methane volatile organic compounds; &quot;nmvoc&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe the group of chemical species having this classification that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMolesOfNmvocExpressedAsCarbon" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Moles of Nmvoc Expressed As Carbon" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_moles_of_nmvoc_expressed_as_carbon" units="mol s-1"></item> 
    1338613360<item description="The brightness temperature of a body is the temperature of a black body which radiates the same power per unit solid angle per unit area.  A phrase assuming_condition  indicates that the named quantity is the value which would obtain if all  aspects of the system were unaltered except for the assumption of the  circumstances specified by the condition.  &quot;toa&quot; means top of atmosphere." label="ToaBrightnessTemperatureAssumingClearSky" title="Toa Brightness Temperature Assuming Clear Sky" uid="toa_brightness_temperature_assuming_clear_sky" units="K"></item> 
     
    1338813362<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Layer&quot; means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. Enthalpy can be written either as (1) CpT, where Cp is heat capacity at constant pressure, T is absolute temperature, or (2) U+pV, where U is internal energy, p is pressure and V is volume." label="EnthalpyContentOfAtmosphereLayer" title="Enthalpy Content of Atmosphere Layer" uid="enthalpy_content_of_atmosphere_layer" units="J m-2"></item> 
    1338913363<item description="In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics.  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot; Iceberg thermodynamics&quot; refers to the addition or subtraction of mass due to surface and basal fluxes, i.e., due to melting, sublimation and fusion." label="HeatFluxIntoSeaWaterDueToIcebergThermodynamics" title="Heat Flux Into Sea Water due to Iceberg Thermodynamics" uid="heat_flux_into_sea_water_due_to_iceberg_thermodynamics" units="W m-2"></item> 
     13364<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Pr&quot; means the element &quot;praseodymium&quot; and &quot;144Pr&quot; is the isotope &quot;praseodymium-144&quot; with a half-life of 1.20e-02 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf144PrInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 144Pr in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_144Pr_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13365<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Ra&quot; means the element &quot;radium&quot; and &quot;228Ra&quot; is the isotope &quot;radium-228&quot; with a half-life of 2.45e+03 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf228RaInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 228Ra in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_228Ra_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13366<item description="&quot;Amount&quot; means mass per unit area." label="SeaIceAmount" title="Sea Ice Amount" uid="sea_ice_amount" units="kg m-2"></item> 
     13367<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. the surface of the earth). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. &quot;nmvoc&quot; means non methane volatile organic compounds; &quot;nmvoc&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe the group of chemical species having this classification that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute. The &quot;solvent production and use&quot; sector comprises industrial processes related to the consumption of halocarbons, SF6, solvent and other product use. &quot;Solvent production and use&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 2F and 3 as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfNmvocDueToEmissionFromSolventProductionAndUse" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Nmvoc due to Emission from Solvent Production And Use" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_nmvoc_due_to_emission_from_solvent_production_and_use" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13368<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time." label="TendencyOfOceanBarotropicStreamfunction" title="Tendency of Ocean Barotropic Streamfunction" uid="tendency_of_ocean_barotropic_streamfunction" units="m3 s-2"></item> 
     13369<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Rb&quot; means the element &quot;rubidium&quot; and &quot;87Rb&quot; is the isotope &quot;rubidium-87&quot; with a half-life of 1.71e+13 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf87RbInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 87Rb in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_87Rb_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1339013370<item description="moles_of_X_per_unit_mass_inY is also called &quot;molality&quot; of X in Y, where X is a material constituent of Y." label="MolesOfNitritePerUnitMassInSeaWater" title="Moles of Nitrite Per Unit Mass in Sea Water" uid="moles_of_nitrite_per_unit_mass_in_sea_water" units="mol kg-1"></item> 
    13391 <item description="&quot;Amount&quot; means mass per unit area." label="SeaIceAmount" title="Sea Ice Amount" uid="sea_ice_amount" units="kg m-2"></item> 
     13371<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Ru&quot; means the element &quot;ruthenium&quot; and &quot;106Ru&quot; is the isotope &quot;ruthenium-106&quot; with a half-life of 3.66e+02 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf106RuInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 106Ru in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_106Ru_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13372<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Ac&quot; means the element &quot;actinium&quot; and &quot;225Ac&quot; is the isotope &quot;actinium-225&quot; with a half-life of 1.00e+01 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf225Ac" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 225Ac" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_225Ac" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1339213373<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;shortwave&quot; means shortwave radiation. Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean &quot;net upward&quot;. When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called &quot;irradiance&quot;. In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosine-collector light-meter and sometimes called &quot;vector irradiance&quot;. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="SurfaceUpwellingShortwaveFluxInAir" title="Surface Upwelling Shortwave Flux in Air" uid="surface_upwelling_shortwave_flux_in_air" units="W m-2"></item> 
    13393 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. the surface of the earth). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. &quot;nmvoc&quot; means non methane volatile organic compounds; &quot;nmvoc&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe the group of chemical species having this classification that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute. The &quot;solvent production and use&quot; sector comprises industrial processes related to the consumption of halocarbons, SF6, solvent and other product use. &quot;Solvent production and use&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 2F and 3 as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfNmvocDueToEmissionFromSolventProductionAndUse" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Nmvoc due to Emission from Solvent Production And Use" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_nmvoc_due_to_emission_from_solvent_production_and_use" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13374<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X  with respect to time.  &quot;Dry deposition&quot;is the sum of turbulent deposition and gravitational settling." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfNitrogenDioxideDueToDryDeposition" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Nitrogen Dioxide due to Dry Deposition" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_nitrogen_dioxide_due_to_dry_deposition" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1339413375<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  &quot;troposphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X contained in the troposphere, i.e, summed over that part of the atmospheric column and over the entire globe.  The chemical formula of methyl chloride is CH3Cl. The IUPAC name for methyl chloride is chloromethane." label="TendencyOfTroposphereMolesOfMethylChloride" title="Tendency of Troposphere Moles of Methyl Chloride" uid="tendency_of_troposphere_moles_of_methyl_chloride" units="mol s-1"></item> 
    13395 <item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X  with respect to time.  &quot;Dry deposition&quot;is the sum of turbulent deposition and gravitational settling." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfNitrogenDioxideDueToDryDeposition" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Nitrogen Dioxide due to Dry Deposition" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_nitrogen_dioxide_due_to_dry_deposition" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13396 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time." label="TendencyOfOceanBarotropicStreamfunction" title="Tendency of Ocean Barotropic Streamfunction" uid="tendency_of_ocean_barotropic_streamfunction" units="m3 s-2"></item> 
    1339713376<item description="&quot;Amount&quot; means mass per unit area. The construction thickness_of_[X_]snowfall_amount means the accumulated &quot;depth&quot; of snow which fell i.e. the thickness of the layer of snow at its own density. There are corresponding standard names for liquid water equivalent (lwe) thickness.  Stratiform precipitation, whether liquid or frozen, is precipitation that formed in stratiform cloud." label="ThicknessOfStratiformSnowfallAmount" title="Thickness of Stratiform Snowfall Amount" uid="thickness_of_stratiform_snowfall_amount" units="m"></item> 
    1339813377<item description="&quot;shortwave&quot; means shortwave radiation. &quot;toa&quot; means top of atmosphere. &quot;Upward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). Net upward radiation is the difference between radiation from below (upwelling) and radiation from above (downwelling). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="ToaNetUpwardShortwaveFlux" title="Toa Net Upward Shortwave Flux" uid="toa_net_upward_shortwave_flux" units="W m-2"></item> 
     
    1340113380<item description="alias::direction_of_sea_water_velocity" label="SeaWaterToDirection" title="Sea Water to Direction [alias]" uid="direction_of_sea_water_velocity" units="degree"></item> 
    1340213381<item description="Mass fraction is used in the construction &quot;mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y&quot;, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X). A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as &quot;nitrogen&quot; or a phrase such as &quot;nox_expressed_as_nitrogen&quot;. The phrase &quot;expressed_as&quot; is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. Aerosol particles take up ambient water (a process known as hygroscopic growth) depending on the relative humidity and the composition of the particles. &quot;Dry aerosol particles&quot; means aerosol particles without any water uptake. &quot;Pm10 aerosol&quot; means atmospheric particulate compounds with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 10 micrometers. The term &quot;particulate_organic_matter_dry_aerosol&quot; means all particulate organic matter dry aerosol except elemental carbon. It is the sum of primary_particulate_organic_matter_dry_aerosol and secondary_particulate_organic_matter_dry_aerosol." label="MassFractionOfPm10ParticulateOrganicMatterDryAerosolParticlesExpressedAsCarbonInAir" title="Mass Fraction of Pm10 Particulate Organic Matter Dry Aerosol Particles Expressed As Carbon in Air" uid="mass_fraction_of_pm10_particulate_organic_matter_dry_aerosol_particles_expressed_as_carbon_in_air" units="1"></item> 
     13382<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Tc&quot; means the element &quot;technetium&quot; and &quot;102Tc&quot; is the isotope &quot;technetium-102&quot; with a half-life of 6.12e-05 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf102Tc" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 102Tc" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_102Tc" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
     13383<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Rh&quot; means the element &quot;rhodium&quot; and &quot;106mRh&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;rhodium-106&quot; with a half-life of 9.09e-02 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf106Mrh" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 106Mrh" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_106mRh" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1340313384<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  &quot;Dry deposition&quot; is the sum of turbulent deposition and gravitational settling. The chemical formula for aceto-nitrile is CH3CN. The IUPAC name for aceto-nitrile is ethanenitrile." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfAcetoNitrileDueToDryDeposition" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Aceto Nitrile due to Dry Deposition" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_aceto_nitrile_due_to_dry_deposition" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1340413385<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. Terpenes are hydrocarbons, that is, they contain only hydrogen and carbon combined in the general proportions (C5H8)n where n is an integer greater than on equal to one. The term &quot;terpenes&quot; is used in standard names to describe the group of chemical species having this common structure that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute. Standard names exist for some individual terpene species, e.g., isoprene and limonene. The &quot;forest fires&quot; sector comprises the burning (natural and human-induced) of living or dead vegetation in forests. &quot;Forest fires&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source category 5 as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfTerpenesDueToEmissionFromForestFires" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Terpenes due to Emission from Forest Fires" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_terpenes_due_to_emission_from_forest_fires" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13386<item description="alias::tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_black_carbon_dry_aerosol_due_to_emission_from_maritime_transport" label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfElementalCarbonDryAerosolParticlesDueToEmissionFromMaritimeTransport" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Elemental Carbon Dry Aerosol Particles due to Emission from Maritime Transport [alias]" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_black_carbon_dry_aerosol_due_to_emission_from_maritime_transport" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1340513387<item description="&quot;tropical_cyclone_eye_brightness_temperature&quot; means the warmest  brightness temperature value in the eye region of a tropical cyclone (0 - 24 km from the storm center) derived using the Advanced Dvorak Technique, based on satellite observations. Reference: Olander, T. L., &amp; Velden, C. S., The Advanced Dvorak Technique: Continued Development of an Objective Scheme to Estimate Tropical Cyclone Intensity Using Geostationary Infrared Satellite Imagery (2007).  American Meterorological Society Weather and Forecasting, 22, 287-298. The brightness temperature of a body is the temperature of a black body which radiates the same power per unit solid angle per unit area." label="TropicalCycloneEyeBrightnessTemperature" title="Tropical Cyclone Eye Brightness Temperature" uid="tropical_cyclone_eye_brightness_temperature" units="K"></item> 
    13406 <item description="alias::tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_black_carbon_dry_aerosol_due_to_emission_from_maritime_transport" label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfElementalCarbonDryAerosolParticlesDueToEmissionFromMaritimeTransport" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Elemental Carbon Dry Aerosol Particles due to Emission from Maritime Transport [alias]" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_black_carbon_dry_aerosol_due_to_emission_from_maritime_transport" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1340713388<item description="In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics. The atmosphere convective mass flux is the vertical transport of mass for a field of cumulus clouds or thermals, given by the product of air density and vertical velocity. Net upward convective mass flux is the difference between the updraft mass flux and the downdraft mass flux. &quot;Upward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). For an area-average, cell_methods should specify whether the average is over all the area or the area of updrafts and/or downdrafts only." label="AtmosphereNetUpwardConvectiveMassFlux" title="Atmosphere Net Upward Convective Mass Flux" uid="atmosphere_net_upward_convective_mass_flux" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13389<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Sn&quot; means the element &quot;tin&quot; and &quot;121Sn&quot; is the isotope &quot;tin-121&quot; with a half-life of 1.12e+00 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf121SnInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 121Sn in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_121Sn_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13390<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Te&quot; means the element &quot;tellurium&quot; and &quot;127Te&quot; is the isotope &quot;tellurium-127&quot; with a half-life of 3.91e-01 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf127TeInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 127Te in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_127Te_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1340813391<item description="Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for chlorine monoxide is ClO." label="MassConcentrationOfChlorineMonoxideInAir" title="Mass Concentration of Chlorine Monoxide in Air" uid="mass_concentration_of_chlorine_monoxide_in_air" units="kg m-3"></item> 
    1340913392<item description="Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for nitrogen monoxide is NO." label="MassConcentrationOfNitrogenMonoxideInAir" title="Mass Concentration of Nitrogen Monoxide in Air" uid="mass_concentration_of_nitrogen_monoxide_in_air" units="kg m-3"></item> 
    1341013393<item description="Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as &quot;nitrogen&quot; or a phrase such as &quot;nox_expressed_as_nitrogen&quot;. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. Aerosol takes up ambient water (a process known as hygroscopic growth) depending on the relative humidity and the composition of the aerosol. &quot;Dry aerosol particles&quot; means aerosol particles without any water uptake. The term &quot;particulate_organic_matter_dry_aerosol&quot; means all particulate organic matter dry aerosol except elemental carbon. It is the sum of primary_particulate_organic_matter_dry_aerosol and secondary_particulate_organic_matter_dry_aerosol." label="MassConcentrationOfParticulateOrganicMatterDryAerosolParticlesInAir" title="Mass Concentration of Particulate Organic Matter Dry Aerosol Particles in Air" uid="mass_concentration_of_particulate_organic_matter_dry_aerosol_particles_in_air" units="kg m-3"></item> 
     13394<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for benzene is C6H6. Benzene is the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon and has a ring structure consisting of six carbon atoms joined by alternating single and double chemical bonds. Each carbon atom is additionally bonded to one hydrogen atom. There are standard names that refer to aromatic_compounds as a group, as well as those for individual species. The &quot;energy production and distribution&quot; sector comprises fuel combustion activities related to energy industries and fugitive emissions from fuels. It may also include any not-classified or &quot;other&quot; combustion, which is commonly included in energy-related inventory data. &quot;Energy production and distribution&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 1A1 and 1B as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfBenzeneDueToEmissionFromEnergyProductionAndDistribution" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Benzene due to Emission from Energy Production And Distribution" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_benzene_due_to_emission_from_energy_production_and_distribution" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1341113395<item description="Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, whereX is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X).  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula of CFC115 is CClF2CF3. The IUPAC name for CFC115 is 1-chloro-1,1,2,2,2-pentafluoro-ethane." label="MassFractionOfCfc115InAir" title="Mass Fraction of Cfc115 in Air" uid="mass_fraction_of_cfc115_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    1341213396<item description="Mole fraction is used in the construction mole_fraction_of_X_in_Y, whereX is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemicalformula for beta_pinene is C10H16.  The IUPAC name for beta-pinene is (1S,5S)-6,6-dimethyl-2-methylenebicyclo[3.1.1]heptane." label="MoleFractionOfBetaPineneInAir" title="Mole Fraction of Beta Pinene in Air" uid="mole_fraction_of_beta_pinene_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    13413 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for benzene is C6H6. Benzene is the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon and has a ring structure consisting of six carbon atoms joined by alternating single and double chemical bonds. Each carbon atom is additionally bonded to one hydrogen atom. There are standard names that refer to aromatic_compounds as a group, as well as those for individual species. The &quot;energy production and distribution&quot; sector comprises fuel combustion activities related to energy industries and fugitive emissions from fuels. It may also include any not-classified or &quot;other&quot; combustion, which is commonly included in energy-related inventory data. &quot;Energy production and distribution&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 1A1 and 1B as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfBenzeneDueToEmissionFromEnergyProductionAndDistribution" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Benzene due to Emission from Energy Production And Distribution" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_benzene_due_to_emission_from_energy_production_and_distribution" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1341413397<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere, i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. The chemical formula for ethene is C2H4. Ethene is a member of the group of hydrocarbons known as alkenes.  There are standard names for the alkene group as well as for some of the individual species." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMolesOfEthene" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Moles of Ethene" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_moles_of_ethene" units="mol s-1"></item> 
    1341513398<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The chemical formula for acetic_acid is CH3COOH. The IUPAC name for acetic acid is ethanoic acid." label="AtmosphereMassContentOfAceticAcid" title="Atmosphere Mass Content of Acetic Acid" uid="atmosphere_mass_content_of_acetic_acid" units="kg m-2"></item> 
    1341613399<item description="alias::atmosphere_mass_content_of_sulfate_ambient_aerosol" label="AtmosphereMassContentOfSulfateAmbientAerosolParticles" title="Atmosphere Mass Content of Sulfate Ambient Aerosol Particles [alias]" uid="atmosphere_mass_content_of_sulfate_ambient_aerosol" units="kg m-2"></item> 
    13417 <item description="alias::atmosphere_optical_thickness_due_to_pm1_ambient_aerosol" label="AtmosphereOpticalThicknessDueToPm1AmbientAerosolParticles" title="Atmosphere Optical Thickness due to Pm1 Ambient Aerosol Particles [alias]" uid="atmosphere_optical_thickness_due_to_pm1_ambient_aerosol" units="1"></item> 
    1341813400<item description="Middle type clouds are: Altostratus, Altocumulus, Nimbostratus. &quot;X_area_fraction&quot; means the fraction of horizontal area occupied by X. Cloud area fraction is also called &quot;cloud amount&quot; and &quot;cloud cover&quot;. X_type_cloud_area_fraction is generally determined on the basis of cloud type, though Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models often calculate them based on the vertical location of the cloud." label="MediumTypeCloudAreaFraction" title="Medium Type Cloud Area Fraction" uid="medium_type_cloud_area_fraction" units="1"></item> 
    1341913401<item description="Mole fraction is used in the construction mole_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  &quot;Divalent mercury&quot; means all compounds in which the mercury has two binding sites to other ion(s) in a salt or to other atom(s) in a molecule." label="MoleFractionOfGaseousDivalentMercuryInAir" title="Mole Fraction of Gaseous Divalent Mercury in Air" uid="mole_fraction_of_gaseous_divalent_mercury_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    1342013402<item description="Sea ice salinity is the salt content of sea ice, often on the Practical Salinity Scale of 1978. However, the unqualified term 'salinity' is generic and does not necessarily imply any particular method of calculation. The units of salinity are dimensionless and normally given as 1e-3 or 0.001 i.e. parts per thousand. Practical Salinity is reported on the Practical Salinity Scale of 1978 (PSS-78), and is usually based on the electrical conductivity of sea water in observations since the 1960s." label="SeaIceSalinity" title="Sea Ice Salinity" uid="sea_ice_salinity" units="1e-3"></item> 
     13403<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;I&quot; means the element &quot;iodine&quot; and &quot;134mI&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;iodine-134&quot; with a half-life of 2.50e-03 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf134Mi" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 134Mi" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_134mI" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1342113404<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean &quot;net upward&quot;. &quot;Photosynthetic&quot; radiation is the part of the spectrum which is used in photosynthesis e.g. 400-700 nm. The range of wavelengths could be specified precisely by the bounds of a coordinate of radiation_wavelength. A photon flux is specified in terms of numbers of photons expressed in moles. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="SurfaceUpwellingPhotosyntheticPhotonFluxInAir" title="Surface Upwelling Photosynthetic Photon Flux in Air" uid="surface_upwelling_photosynthetic_photon_flux_in_air" units="mol m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13405<item description="alias::atmosphere_optical_thickness_due_to_pm1_ambient_aerosol" label="AtmosphereOpticalThicknessDueToPm1AmbientAerosolParticles" title="Atmosphere Optical Thickness due to Pm1 Ambient Aerosol Particles [alias]" uid="atmosphere_optical_thickness_due_to_pm1_ambient_aerosol" units="1"></item> 
    1342213406<item description="&quot;X_area_fraction&quot; means the fraction of horizontal area occupied by X. &quot;X_area&quot; means the horizontal area occupied by X within the grid cell. A coordinate variable of solar_zenith_angle indicating the day extent should be specified." label="AreaFractionOfDayDefinedBySolarZenithAngle" title="Area Fraction of Day Defined by Solar Zenith Angle" uid="area_fraction_of_day_defined_by_solar_zenith_angle" units="1"></item> 
    1342313407<item description="alias::integral_of_air_temperature_excess_wrt_time" label="IntegralWrtTimeOfAirTemperatureExcess" title="Integral Wrt Time of Air Temperature Excess [alias]" uid="integral_of_air_temperature_excess_wrt_time" units="K s"></item> 
     13408<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Cf&quot; means the element &quot;californium&quot; and &quot;251Cf&quot; is the isotope &quot;californium-251&quot; with a half-life of 2.92e+05 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf251CfInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 251Cf in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_251Cf_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13409<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Y&quot; means the element &quot;yttrium&quot; and &quot;95Y&quot; is the isotope &quot;yttrium-95&quot; with a half-life of 7.29e-03 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf95YInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 95Y in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_95Y_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13410<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Nd&quot; means the element &quot;neodymium&quot; and &quot;147Nd&quot; is the isotope &quot;neodymium-147&quot; with a half-life of 1.10e+01 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf147NdInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 147Nd in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_147Nd_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13411<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Sm&quot; means the element &quot;samarium&quot; and &quot;149Sm&quot; is the isotope &quot;samarium-149&quot; with a half-life of 3.65e+18 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf149SmInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 149Sm in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_149Sm_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13412<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Br&quot; means the element &quot;bromine&quot; and &quot;82Br&quot; is the isotope &quot;bromine-82&quot; with a half-life of 1.47e+00 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf82BrInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 82Br in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_82Br_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1342413413<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for butane is C4H10. Butane is a member of the group of hydrocarbons known as alkanes. There are standard names for the alkane group as well as for some of the individual species. The &quot;residential and commercial combustion&quot; sector comprises fuel combustion activities related to the commercial/institutional sector, the residential sector and the agriculture/forestry/fishing sector. It may also include any not-classified or &quot;other&quot; combustion, which is commonly included in the inventory data. &quot;Residential and commercial combustion&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 1A4a, 1A4b and 1A4c as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfButaneDueToEmissionFromResidentialAndCommercialCombustion" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Butane due to Emission from Residential And Commercial Combustion" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_butane_due_to_emission_from_residential_and_commercial_combustion" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1342513414<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The phrase &quot;expressed_as&quot; is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. the surface of the earth). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;nmvoc&quot; means non methane volatile organic compounds. &quot;nmvoc&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe the group of chemical species having this classification that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfNmvocExpressedAsCarbonDueToEmission" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Nmvoc Expressed As Carbon due to Emission" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_nmvoc_expressed_as_carbon_due_to_emission" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     
    1343013419<item description="The surface temperature is the temperature at the interface, not the bulk temperature of the medium above or below. The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. A variable whose standard name has the form number_of_days_with_X_below|above_threshold is a count of the number of days on which the condition X_below|above_threshold is satisfied. It must have a coordinate variable or scalar coordinate variable with the a standard name of X to supply the threshold(s). It must have a climatological time variable, and a cell_methods entry for within days which describes the processing of quantity X before the threshold is applied. A number_of_days is an extensive quantity in time, and the cell_methods entry for over days should be &quot;sum&quot;." label="NumberOfDaysWithSurfaceTemperatureBelowThreshold" title="Number of Days With Surface Temperature Below Threshold" uid="number_of_days_with_surface_temperature_below_threshold" units="1"></item> 
    1343113420<item description="Runoff is the liquid water which drains from land. &quot;Runoff_excluding_baseflow&quot; is the sum of surface runoff and subsurface runoff excluding baseflow.  Baseflow is subsurface runoff which takes place below the level of the water table.  &quot;Amount&quot; means mass per unit area." label="RunoffAmountExcludingBaseflow" title="Runoff Amount Excluding Baseflow" uid="runoff_amount_excluding_baseflow" units="kg m-2"></item> 
     13421<item description="&quot;Specific&quot; means per unit mass. &quot;Turbulent kinetic energy&quot; is the kinetic energy of chaotic fluctuations of the fluid flow. The dissipation of kinetic energy arises in ocean models as a result of the viscosity of sea water." label="SpecificTurbulentKineticEnergyDissipationInSeaWater" title="Specific Turbulent Kinetic Energy Dissipation in Sea Water" uid="specific_turbulent_kinetic_energy_dissipation_in_sea_water" units="W kg-1"></item> 
    1343213422<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. The chemical formula for carbon dioxide is CO2. In ocean biogeochemistry models, a &quot;natural analogue&quot; is used to simulate the effect on a modelled variable of imposing preindustrial atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, even when the model as a whole may be subjected to varying forcings. The partial pressure of a gaseous constituent of air is the pressure which it alone would exert with unchanged temperature and number of moles per unit volume. The partial pressure of a dissolved gas in sea water is the partial pressure in air with which it would be in equilibrium. The partial pressure difference between sea water and air is positive when the partial pressure of the dissolved gas in sea water is greater than the partial pressure in air." label="SurfaceCarbonDioxideNaturalAnaloguePartialPressureDifferenceBetweenSeaWaterAndAir" title="Surface Carbon Dioxide Natural Analogue Partial Pressure Difference Between Sea Water And Air" uid="surface_carbon_dioxide_natural_analogue_partial_pressure_difference_between_sea_water_and_air" units="Pa"></item> 
     13423<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Pm&quot; means the element &quot;promethium&quot; and &quot;148Pm&quot; is the isotope &quot;promethium-148&quot; with a half-life of 5.38e+00 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf148Pm" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 148Pm" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_148Pm" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1343313424<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. &quot;Divalent mercury&quot; means all compounds in which the mercury has two binding sites to other ion(s) in a salt or to other atom(s) in a molecule. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface).  &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfGaseousDivalentMercuryDueToEmission" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Gaseous Divalent Mercury due to Emission" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_gaseous_divalent_mercury_due_to_emission" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13425<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere, i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. The chemical formula for hexachlorobiphenyl is C12H4Cl6.  This structure of this species consists of two linked benzene rings, each of which is additionally bonded to three chlorine atoms." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMolesOfHexachlorobiphenyl" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Moles of Hexachlorobiphenyl" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_moles_of_hexachlorobiphenyl" units="mol s-1"></item> 
    1343413426<item description="alias::water_volume_transport_into_ocean_from_rivers" label="WaterVolumeTransportIntoSeaWaterFromRivers" title="Water Volume Transport Into Sea Water from Rivers [alias]" uid="water_volume_transport_into_ocean_from_rivers" units="m3 s-1"></item> 
    13435 <item description="&quot;Specific&quot; means per unit mass. &quot;Turbulent kinetic energy&quot; is the kinetic energy of chaotic fluctuations of the fluid flow. The dissipation of kinetic energy arises in ocean models as a result of the viscosity of sea water." label="SpecificTurbulentKineticEnergyDissipationInSeaWater" title="Specific Turbulent Kinetic Energy Dissipation in Sea Water" uid="specific_turbulent_kinetic_energy_dissipation_in_sea_water" units="W kg-1"></item> 
    13436 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere, i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. The chemical formula for hexachlorobiphenyl is C12H4Cl6.  This structure of this species consists of two linked benzene rings, each of which is additionally bonded to three chlorine atoms." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMolesOfHexachlorobiphenyl" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Moles of Hexachlorobiphenyl" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_moles_of_hexachlorobiphenyl" units="mol s-1"></item> 
    1343713427<item description="&quot;Age of stratospheric air&quot; means an estimate of the time since a parcel of stratospheric air was last in contact with the troposphere." label="AgeOfStratosphericAir" title="Age of Stratospheric Air" uid="age_of_stratospheric_air" units="s"></item> 
    1343813428<item description="alias::atmosphere_surface_drag_coefficient_of_heat" label="SurfaceDragCoefficientForHeatInAir" title="Surface Drag Coefficient For Heat in Air [alias]" uid="atmosphere_surface_drag_coefficient_of_heat" units="1"></item> 
     
    1344013430<item description="&quot;X_area_fraction&quot; means the fraction of horizontal area occupied by X. A &quot;floating ice shelf&quot;, sometimes called a &quot;floating ice sheet&quot;, indicates where an ice sheet extending from a land area flows over sea water." label="FloatingIceShelfAreaFraction" title="Floating Ice Shelf Area Fraction" uid="floating_ice_shelf_area_fraction" units="1"></item> 
    1344113431<item description="alias::gross_primary_productivity_of_carbon" label="GrossPrimaryProductivityOfBiomassExpressedAsCarbon" title="Gross Primary Productivity of Biomass Expressed As Carbon [alias]" uid="gross_primary_productivity_of_carbon" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13432<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Pu&quot; means the element &quot;plutonium&quot; and &quot;240Pu&quot; is the isotope &quot;plutonium-240&quot; with a half-life of 2.40e+06 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf240Pu" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 240Pu" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_240Pu" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1344213433<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for xylene is C6H4C2H6. In chemistry, xylene is a generic term for a group of three isomers of dimethylbenzene. The IUPAC names for the isomers are 1,2-dimethylbenzene, 1,3-dimethylbenzene and 1,4-dimethylbenzene. Xylene is an aromatic hydrocarbon. There are standard names that refer to aromatic_compounds as a group, as well as those for individual species. The &quot;industrial processes and combustion&quot; sector comprises fuel combustion activities related to manufacturing industries and construction, industrial processes related to mineral products, the chemical industry, metal production, the production of pulp, paper, food and drink, and non-energy industry use of lubricants and waxes. It may also include any not-classified or &quot;other&quot; combustion, which is commonly included in industry-related inventory data. &quot;Industrial processes and combustion&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 1A2, 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D and 2G as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfXyleneDueToEmissionFromIndustrialProcessesAndCombustion" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Xylene due to Emission from Industrial Processes And Combustion" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_xylene_due_to_emission_from_industrial_processes_and_combustion" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13443 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Horizontal mixing&quot; means any horizontal transport other than by advection and bolus advection, usually represented as horizontal diffusion in ocean models. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Sea water temperature is the in situ temperature of the sea water. For observed data, depending on the period during which the observation was made, the measured in situ temperature was recorded against standard &quot;scales&quot;. These historical scales include the International Practical Temperature Scale of 1948 (IPTS-48; 1948-1967), the International Practical Temperature Scale of 1968 (IPTS-68, Barber, 1969; 1968-1989) and the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90, Saunders 1990; 1990 onwards). Conversion of data between these scales follows t68 = t48 - (4.4 x 10e-6) * t48(100 - t - 48); t90 = 0.99976 * t68. Observations made prior to 1948 (IPTS-48) have not been documented and therefore a conversion cannot be certain. Differences between t90 and t68 can be up to 0.01 at temperatures of 40 C and above; differences of 0.002-0.007 occur across the standard range of ocean temperatures (-10 - 30 C). The International Equation of State of Seawater 1980 (EOS-80, UNESCO, 1981) and the Practical Salinity Scale (PSS-78) were both based on IPTS-68, while the Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10) is based on ITS-90. References: Barber, 1969, doi: 10.1088/0026-1394/5/2/001; UNESCO, 1981; Saunders, 1990, WOCE Newsletter, 10, September 1990." label="TendencyOfSeaWaterTemperatureDueToHorizontalMixing" title="Tendency of Sea Water Temperature due to Horizontal Mixing" uid="tendency_of_sea_water_temperature_due_to_horizontal_mixing" units="K s-1"></item> 
     13434<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Horizontal mixing&quot; means any horizontal transport other than by advection and parameterized eddy advection, usually represented as horizontal diffusion in ocean models. Sea water temperature is the in situ temperature of the sea water. For observed data, depending on the period during which the observation was made, the measured in situ temperature was recorded against standard &quot;scales&quot;. These historical scales include the International Practical Temperature Scale of 1948 (IPTS-48; 1948-1967), the International Practical Temperature Scale of 1968 (IPTS-68, Barber, 1969; 1968-1989) and the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90, Saunders 1990; 1990 onwards). Conversion of data between these scales follows t68 = t48 - (4.4 x 10e-6) * t48(100 - t - 48); t90 = 0.99976 * t68. Observations made prior to 1948 (IPTS-48) have not been documented and therefore a conversion cannot be certain. Differences between t90 and t68 can be up to 0.01 at temperatures of 40 C and above; differences of 0.002-0.007 occur across the standard range of ocean temperatures (-10 - 30 C). The International Equation of State of Seawater 1980 (EOS-80, UNESCO, 1981) and the Practical Salinity Scale (PSS-78) were both based on IPTS-68, while the Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10) is based on ITS-90. References: Barber, 1969, doi: 10.1088/0026-1394/5/2/001; UNESCO, 1981; Saunders, 1990, WOCE Newsletter, 10, September 1990." label="TendencyOfSeaWaterTemperatureDueToHorizontalMixing" title="Tendency of Sea Water Temperature due to Horizontal Mixing" uid="tendency_of_sea_water_temperature_due_to_horizontal_mixing" units="K s-1"></item> 
    1344413435<item description="Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean &quot;net downward&quot;. Radiative flux is the sum of shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes. When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called &quot;irradiance&quot;. In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosine-collector light-meter and sometimes called &quot;vector irradiance&quot;. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics. The volume scattering/absorption/attenuation coefficient is the fractional change of radiative flux per unit path length due to the stated process. Coefficients with canonical units of m2 s-1 i.e. multiplied by density have standard names with specific_ instead of volume_. The scattering/absorption/attenuation coefficient is assumed to be an integral over all wavelengths, unless a coordinate of radiation_wavelength is included to specify the wavelength. Attenuation is the sum of absorption and scattering. Attenuation is sometimes called &quot;extinction&quot;. Also called &quot;diffuse&quot; attenuation, the attenuation of downwelling radiative flux refers to the decrease with decreasing height or increasing depth of the downwelling component of radiative flux, regardless of incident direction." label="VolumeAttenuationCoefficientOfDownwellingRadiativeFluxInSeaWater" title="Volume Attenuation Coefficient of Downwelling Radiative Flux in Sea Water" uid="volume_attenuation_coefficient_of_downwelling_radiative_flux_in_sea_water" units="m-1"></item> 
    1344513436<item description="alias::water_content_of_atmosphere_layer" label="MassContentOfWaterInAtmosphereLayer" title="Mass Content of Water in Atmosphere Layer [alias]" uid="water_content_of_atmosphere_layer" units="kg m-2"></item> 
     
    1345313444<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Water&quot; means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean &quot;net downward&quot;. Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction from which it is coming must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead. A coordinate variable for radiation wavelength should be given the standard name radiation_wavelength." label="SurfaceDownwellingRadiancePerUnitWavelengthInSeaWater" title="Surface Downwelling Radiance Per Unit Wavelength in Sea Water" uid="surface_downwelling_radiance_per_unit_wavelength_in_sea_water" units="W m-2 m-1 sr-1"></item> 
    1345413445<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere, i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. The chemical formula for ammonia is NH3." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMolesOfAmmonia" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Moles of Ammonia" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_moles_of_ammonia" units="mol s-1"></item> 
     13446<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Sb&quot; means the element &quot;antimony&quot; and &quot;128mSb&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;antimony-128&quot; with a half-life of 7.23e-03 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf128MsbInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 128Msb in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_128mSb_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13447<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Tl&quot; means the element &quot;thallium&quot; and &quot;209Tl&quot; is the isotope &quot;thallium-209&quot; with a half-life of 1.53e-03 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf209TlInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 209Tl in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_209Tl_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13448<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Zn&quot; means the element &quot;zinc&quot; and &quot;72Zn&quot; is the isotope &quot;zinc-72&quot; with a half-life of 1.94e+00 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf72ZnInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 72Zn in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_72Zn_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1345513449<item description="&quot;lwe&quot; means liquid water equivalent. &quot;moisture&quot; means water in all phases contained in soil. The construction lwe_thickness_of_X_amount or _content means the vertical extent of a layer of liquid water having the same mass per unit area. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;soil content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface down to the bottom of the soil model. For the content between specified levels in the soil, standard names including content_of_soil_layer are used." label="LweThicknessOfSoilMoistureContent" title="Lwe Thickness of Soil Moisture Content" uid="lwe_thickness_of_soil_moisture_content" units="m"></item> 
    1345613450<item description="Mole fraction is used in the construction mole_fraction_of_X_in_Y, whereX is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemicalformula for ammonia is NH3." label="MoleFractionOfAmmoniaInAir" title="Mole Fraction of Ammonia in Air" uid="mole_fraction_of_ammonia_in_air" units="1"></item> 
     13451<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. the surface of the earth). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. &quot;nmvoc&quot; means non methane volatile organic compounds; &quot;nmvoc&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe the group of chemical species having this classification that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute. The &quot;waste treatment and disposal&quot; sector comprises solid waste disposal on land, wastewater handling, waste incineration and other waste disposal. &quot;Waste treatment and disposal&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 6A, 6B, 6C and 6D as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfNmvocDueToEmissionFromWasteTreatmentAndDisposal" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Nmvoc due to Emission from Waste Treatment And Disposal" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_nmvoc_due_to_emission_from_waste_treatment_and_disposal" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1345713452<item description="A phrase assuming_condition indicates that the named quantity is the value which would obtain if all aspects of the system were unaltered except for the assumption of the circumstances specified by the condition. &quot;shortwave&quot; means shortwave radiation. &quot;Upward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). Net upward radiation is the difference between radiation from below (upwelling) and radiation from above (downwelling). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="NetUpwardShortwaveFluxInAirAssumingClearSky" title="Net Upward Shortwave Flux in Air Assuming Clear Sky" uid="net_upward_shortwave_flux_in_air_assuming_clear_sky" units="W m-2"></item> 
    1345813453<item description="&quot;product_of_X_and_Y&quot; means X*Y. &quot;specific&quot; means per unit mass. Specific humidity is the mass fraction of water vapor in (moist) air. &quot;omegaX&quot; is used for brevity to mean &quot;lagrangian_tendency_of_air_pressure in standard names constructed as a combination of omega with some other quantity." label="ProductOfOmegaAndSpecificHumidity" title="Product of Omega And Specific Humidity" uid="product_of_omega_and_specific_humidity" units="Pa s-1"></item> 
     13454<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Ac&quot; means the element &quot;actinium&quot; and &quot;228Ac&quot; is the isotope &quot;actinium-228&quot; with a half-life of 2.55e-01 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf228AcInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 228Ac in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_228Ac_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1345913455<item description="The sea surface skin temperature is the temperature measured by an infrared radiometer typically operating at wavelengths in the range 3.7 - 12 micrometers. It represents the temperature within the conductive diffusion-dominated sub-layer at a depth of approximately 10 - 20 micrometers below the air-sea interface. Measurements of this quantity are subject to a large potential diurnal cycle including cool skin layer effects (especially at night under clear skies and low wind speed conditions) and warm layer effects in the daytime." label="SeaSurfaceSkinTemperature" title="Sea Surface Skin Temperature" uid="sea_surface_skin_temperature" units="K"></item> 
    13460 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. the surface of the earth). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. &quot;nmvoc&quot; means non methane volatile organic compounds; &quot;nmvoc&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe the group of chemical species having this classification that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute. The &quot;waste treatment and disposal&quot; sector comprises solid waste disposal on land, wastewater handling, waste incineration and other waste disposal. &quot;Waste treatment and disposal&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 6A, 6B, 6C and 6D as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfNmvocDueToEmissionFromWasteTreatmentAndDisposal" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Nmvoc due to Emission from Waste Treatment And Disposal" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_nmvoc_due_to_emission_from_waste_treatment_and_disposal" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1346113456<item description="alias::tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_seasalt_dry_aerosol_due_to_gravitational_settling" label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfSeaSaltDryAerosolParticlesDueToGravitationalSettling" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Sea Salt Dry Aerosol Particles due to Gravitational Settling [alias]" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_seasalt_dry_aerosol_due_to_gravitational_settling" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1346213457<item description="The optical thickness is the integral along the path of radiation of a volume scattering/absorption/attenuation coefficient. The radiative flux is reduced by a factor exp(-optical_thickness) on traversing the path. A coordinate variable of radiation_wavelength or radiation_frequency can be specified to indicate that the optical thickness applies at specific wavelengths or frequencies. &quot;Absorption optical thickness&quot; means that part of the atmosphere optical thickness that is caused by the absorption of incident radiation. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. &quot;Ambient_aerosol&quot; means that the aerosol is measured or modelled at the ambient state of pressure, temperature and relative humidity that exists in its immediate environment. &quot;Ambient aerosol particles&quot; are aerosol particles that have taken up ambient water through hygroscopic growth. The extent of hygroscopic growth depends on the relative humidity and the composition of the particles. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase." label="AtmosphereAbsorptionOpticalThicknessDueToSeaSaltAmbientAerosolParticles" title="Atmosphere Absorption Optical Thickness due to Sea Salt Ambient Aerosol Particles" uid="atmosphere_absorption_optical_thickness_due_to_sea_salt_ambient_aerosol_particles" units="1"></item> 
    1346313458<item description="Global average sea level change is due to change in volume of the water in the ocean, caused by mass and/or density change, or to change in the volume of the ocean basins, caused by tectonics etc. It is sometimes called &quot;eustatic&quot;, which is a term that also has other definitions. It differs from the change in the global average sea surface height relative to the centre of the Earth by the global average vertical movement of the ocean floor. Zero sea level change is an arbitrary level. Because global average sea level change quantifies the change in volume of the world ocean, it is not calculated necessarily by considering local changes in mean sea level." label="GlobalAverageSeaLevelChange" title="Global Average Sea Level Change" uid="global_average_sea_level_change" units="m"></item> 
     13459<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;At&quot; means the element &quot;astatine&quot; and &quot;216At&quot; is the isotope &quot;astatine-216&quot; with a half-life of 3.47e-09 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf216AtInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 216At in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_216At_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13460<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Am&quot; means the element &quot;americium&quot; and &quot;244Am&quot; is the isotope &quot;americium-244&quot; with a half-life of 4.20e-01 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf244AmInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 244Am in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_244Am_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1346413461<item description="Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction &quot;mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y&quot;, where X is a material constituent of Y. A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as &quot;nitrogen&quot; or a phrase such as &quot;nox_expressed_as_nitrogen&quot;. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. Aerosol particles take up ambient water (a process known as hygroscopic growth) depending on the relative humidity and the composition of the particles. &quot;Dry aerosol particles&quot; means aerosol particles without any water uptake. &quot;Pm2p5 aerosol&quot; means atmospheric particulate compounds with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers." label="MassConcentrationOfPm2P5SeaSaltDryAerosolParticlesInAir" title="Mass Concentration of Pm2P5 Sea Salt Dry Aerosol Particles in Air" uid="mass_concentration_of_pm2p5_sea_salt_dry_aerosol_particles_in_air" units="kg m-3"></item> 
     13462<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Hg&quot; means the element &quot;mercury&quot; and &quot;206Hg&quot; is the isotope &quot;mercury-206&quot; with a half-life of 5.57e-03 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf206HgInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 206Hg in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_206Hg_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1346513463<item description="&quot;square_of_X&quot; means X*X. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature." label="SquareOfAirTemperature" title="Square of Air Temperature" uid="square_of_air_temperature" units="K2"></item> 
    1346613464<item description="The phrase &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Eddy dianeutral mixing&quot; means dianeutral mixing, i.e. mixing across neutral directions caused by the unresolved turbulent motion of eddies of all types (e.g., breaking gravity waves, boundary layer turbulence, etc.)." label="TendencyOfSeaWaterSalinityExpressedAsSaltContentDueToParameterizedEddyDianeutralMixing" title="Tendency of Sea Water Salinity Expressed As Salt Content due to Parameterized Eddy Dianeutral Mixing" uid="tendency_of_sea_water_salinity_expressed_as_salt_content_due_to_parameterized_eddy_dianeutral_mixing" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     
    1346813466<item description="&quot;Eastward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). Wind is defined as a two-dimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)" label="EastwardWind" title="Eastward Wind" uid="eastward_wind" units="m s-1"></item> 
    1346913467<item description="&quot;X_area_fraction&quot; means the fraction of horizontal area occupied by X. Cloud area fraction is also called &quot;cloud amount&quot; and &quot;cloud cover&quot;. The cloud area fraction is for the whole atmosphere column, as seen from the surface or the top of the atmosphere. The cloud area fraction in a layer of the atmosphere has the standard name cloud_area_fraction_in_atmosphere_layer." label="IceCloudAreaFraction" title="Ice Cloud Area Fraction" uid="ice_cloud_area_fraction" units="1"></item> 
     13468<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Pr&quot; means the element &quot;praseodymium&quot; and &quot;142Pr&quot; is the isotope &quot;praseodymium-142&quot; with a half-life of 7.94e-01 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf142PrInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 142Pr in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_142Pr_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13469<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Pb&quot; means the element &quot;lead&quot; and &quot;211Pb&quot; is the isotope &quot;lead-211&quot; with a half-life of 2.51e-02 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf211PbInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 211Pb in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_211Pb_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13470<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Ge&quot; means the element &quot;germanium&quot; and &quot;75Ge&quot; is the isotope &quot;germanium-75&quot; with a half-life of 5.73e-02 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf75GeInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 75Ge in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_75Ge_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13471<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Sr&quot; means the element &quot;strontium&quot; and &quot;90Sr&quot; is the isotope &quot;strontium-90&quot; with a half-life of 1.02e+04 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf90SrInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 90Sr in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_90Sr_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1347013472<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;soil content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface down to the bottom of the soil model. For the content between specified levels in the soil, standard names including content_of_soil_layer are used.  &quot;Soil carbon&quot; is the organic matter present in soil quantified by the mass of carbon it contains. Soil carbon is returned to the atmosphere as the organic matter decays. The decay process takes varying amounts of time depending on the composition of the organic matter, the temperature and the availability of moisture. A carbon &quot;soil pool&quot; means the carbon contained in organic matter which has a characteristic period over which it decays and releases carbon into the atmosphere. &quot;Slow soil pool&quot; refers to the decay of organic matter in soil with a characteristic period of more than a hundred years under reference climate conditions of a temperature of 20 degrees Celsius and no water limitations." label="SlowSoilPoolCarbonContent" title="Slow Soil Pool Carbon Content" uid="slow_soil_pool_carbon_content" units="kg m-2"></item> 
    1347113473<item description="Stratiform precipitation, whether liquid or frozen, is precipitation that formed in stratiform cloud." label="StratiformRainfallRate" title="Stratiform Rainfall Rate" uid="stratiform_rainfall_rate" units="m s-1"></item> 
     13474<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Ge&quot; means the element &quot;germanium&quot; and &quot;78Ge&quot; is the isotope &quot;germanium-78&quot; with a half-life of 6.03e-02 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf78Ge" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 78Ge" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_78Ge" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1347213475<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. Unless indicated in the cell_methods attribute, a quantity is assumed to apply to the whole area of each horizontal grid box. Previously, the qualifier where_type was used to specify that the quantity applies only to the part of the grid box of the named type.  Names containing the where_type qualifier are deprecated and newly created data should use the cell_methods attribute to indicate the horizontal area to which the quantity applies." label="SurfaceSnowThickness" title="Surface Snow Thickness" uid="surface_snow_thickness" units="m"></item> 
    1347313476<item description="alias::tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_black_carbon_dry_aerosol_due_to_emission_from_residential_and_commercial_combustion" label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfElementalCarbonDryAerosolParticlesDueToEmissionFromResidentialAndCommercialCombustion" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Elemental Carbon Dry Aerosol Particles due to Emission from Residential And Commercial Combustion [alias]" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_black_carbon_dry_aerosol_due_to_emission_from_residential_and_commercial_combustion" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     
    1347513478<item description="alias::floating_ice_sheet_area_fraction" label="FloatingIceShelfAreaFraction" title="Floating Ice Shelf Area Fraction [alias]" uid="floating_ice_sheet_area_fraction" units="1"></item> 
    1347613479<item description="The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Vertical tracer diffusivity&quot; means the vertical component of the diffusivity of tracers, i.e. heat and salinity, due to motion which is not resolved on the grid scale of the model." label="OceanVerticalTracerDiffusivityDueToWindMixing" title="Ocean Vertical Tracer Diffusivity due to Wind Mixing" uid="ocean_vertical_tracer_diffusivity_due_to_wind_mixing" units="m2 s-1"></item> 
     13480<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Fr&quot; means the element &quot;francium&quot; and &quot;221Fr&quot; is the isotope &quot;francium-221&quot; with a half-life of 3.33e-03 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf221FrInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 221Fr in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_221Fr_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1347713481<item description="&quot;Sea water age since surface contact&quot; means the length of time elapsed since the sea water in a grid cell was last in the surface level of an ocean model." label="SeaWaterAgeSinceSurfaceContact" title="Sea Water Age Since Surface Contact" uid="sea_water_age_since_surface_contact" units="year"></item> 
    1347813482<item description="alias::surface_geostrophic_eastward_sea_water_velocity_assuming_sea_level_for_geoid" label="SurfaceGeostrophicEastwardSeaWaterVelocityAssumingMeanSeaLevelForGeoid" title="Surface Geostrophic Eastward Sea Water Velocity Assuming Mean Sea Level For Geoid [alias]" uid="surface_geostrophic_eastward_sea_water_velocity_assuming_sea_level_for_geoid" units="m s-1"></item> 
     
    1348013484<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. Dry static energy is the sum of enthalpy and potential energy (itself the sum of gravitational and centripetal potential energy). Enthalpy can be written either as (1) CpT, where Cp is heat capacity at constant pressure, T is absolute temperature, or (2) U+pV, where U is internal energy, p is pressure and V is volume." label="AtmosphereDryStaticEnergyContent" title="Atmosphere Dry Static Energy Content" uid="atmosphere_dry_static_energy_content" units="J m-2"></item> 
    1348113485<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The chemical formula for methyl hydroperoxide is CH3OOH." label="AtmosphereMassContentOfMethylHydroperoxide" title="Atmosphere Mass Content of Methyl Hydroperoxide" uid="atmosphere_mass_content_of_methyl_hydroperoxide" units="kg m-2"></item> 
     13486<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Rb&quot; means the element &quot;rubidium&quot; and &quot;86mRb&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;rubidium-86&quot; with a half-life of 7.04e-04 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf86MrbInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 86Mrb in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_86mRb_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1348213487<item description="Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for formic acid is HCOOH.  The IUPAC name for formic acid is methanoic acid." label="MassConcentrationOfFormicAcidInAir" title="Mass Concentration of Formic Acid in Air" uid="mass_concentration_of_formic_acid_in_air" units="kg m-3"></item> 
    1348313488<item description="&quot;Northward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Wind is defined as a two-dimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)" label="NorthwardWind" title="Northward Wind" uid="northward_wind" units="m s-1"></item> 
     
    1349613501<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. &quot;wrt&quot; means with respect to. &quot;toa&quot; means top of atmosphere. &quot;Longwave&quot; means longwave radiation. The TOA outgoing longwave flux is the upwelling thermal radiative flux, often called the &quot;outgoing longwave radiation&quot; or &quot;OLR&quot;. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfToaOutgoingLongwaveFlux" title="Integral Wrt Time of Toa Outgoing Longwave Flux" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_toa_outgoing_longwave_flux" units="W s m-2"></item> 
    1349713502<item description="Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical symbol for atomic nitrogen is N." label="MassConcentrationOfAtomicNitrogenInAir" title="Mass Concentration of Atomic Nitrogen in Air" uid="mass_concentration_of_atomic_nitrogen_in_air" units="kg m-3"></item> 
     13503<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;At&quot; means the element &quot;astatine&quot; and &quot;218At&quot; is the isotope &quot;astatine-218&quot; with a half-life of 2.31e-05 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf218AtInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 218At in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_218At_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1349813504<item description="" label="RainfallRate" title="Rainfall Rate" uid="rainfall_rate" units="m s-1"></item> 
     13505<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Np&quot; means the element &quot;neptunium&quot; and &quot;240mNp&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;neptunium-240&quot; with a half-life of 5.08e-03 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf240Mnp" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 240Mnp" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_240mNp" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1349913506<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. The mass is the total mass of the particles. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. Aerosol particles take up ambient water (a process known as hygroscopic growth) depending on the relative humidity and the composition of the particles. &quot;Dry aerosol particles&quot; means aerosol particles without any water uptake. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Dry deposition&quot; is the sum of turbulent deposition and gravitational settling. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfMercuryDryAerosolParticlesDueToDryDeposition" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Mercury Dry Aerosol Particles due to Dry Deposition" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_mercury_dry_aerosol_particles_due_to_dry_deposition" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1350013507<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the particles. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. Aerosol particles take up ambient water (a process known as hygroscopic growth) depending on the relative humidity and the composition of the particles. &quot;Dry aerosol particles&quot; means aerosol particles without any water uptake. &quot;Pm10 aerosol&quot; means atmospheric particulate compounds with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 10 micrometers. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. the surface of the earth). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfPm10DryAerosolParticlesDueToEmission" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Pm10 Dry Aerosol Particles due to Emission" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_pm10_dry_aerosol_particles_due_to_emission" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     
    1350613513<item description="&quot;Eastward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). &quot;Downward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). &quot;Downward eastward&quot; indicates the ZX component of a tensor. A downward eastward stress is a downward flux of eastward momentum, which accelerates the lower medium eastward and the upper medium westward." label="DownwardEastwardStressAtSeaIceBase" title="Downward Eastward Stress At Sea Ice Base" uid="downward_eastward_stress_at_sea_ice_base" units="Pa"></item> 
    1350713514<item description="Fractional saturation is the ratio of some measure of concentration to the saturated value of the same quantity." label="FractionalSaturationOfOxygenInSeaWater" title="Fractional Saturation of Oxygen in Sea Water" uid="fractional_saturation_of_oxygen_in_sea_water" units="1"></item> 
    13508 <item description="Global average sea level change is due to change in volume of the water in the ocean, caused by mass and/or density change, or to change in the volume of the ocean basins, caused by tectonics etc. It is sometimes called &quot;eustatic&quot;, which is a term that also has other definitions. It differs from the change in the global average sea surface height relative to the centre of the Earth by the global average vertical movement of the ocean floor. Zero sea level change is an arbitrary level. Phase is the initial angle of a wave modelled by a sinusoidal function. A coordinate variable of harmonic_period should be used to specify the period of the sinusoidal wave. Because global average sea level change quantifies the change in volume of the world ocean, it is not calculated necessarily by considering local changes in mean sea level." label="PhaseOfGlobalAverageSeaLevelChange" title="Phase of Global Average Sea Level Change" uid="phase_of_global_average_sea_level_change" units="degree"></item> 
     13515<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Pd&quot; means the element &quot;palladium&quot; and &quot;107Pd&quot; is the isotope &quot;palladium-107&quot; with a half-life of 2.37e+09 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf107PdInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 107Pd in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_107Pd_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13516<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Bi&quot; means the element &quot;bismuth&quot; and &quot;210Bi&quot; is the isotope &quot;bismuth-210&quot; with a half-life of 5.01e+00 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf210BiInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 210Bi in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_210Bi_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1350913517<item description="&quot;Upward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward).  Plant respiration is the sum of respiration by parts of plants both above and below the soil. Plants which photosynthesise are autotrophs i.e.&quot;producers&quot; of the biomass which they respire from inorganic precursors using sunlight for energy.  In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics.  The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere.  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase." label="SurfaceUpwardCarbonMassFluxDueToPlantRespirationForBiomassMaintenance" title="Surface Upward Carbon Mass Flux due to Plant Respiration For Biomass Maintenance" uid="surface_upward_carbon_mass_flux_due_to_plant_respiration_for_biomass_maintenance" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1351013518<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for nitrogen dioxide is NO2. The &quot;savanna and grassland fires&quot; sector comprises the burning (natural and human-induced) of living or dead vegetation in non-forested areas. It excludes field burning of agricultural residues. &quot;Savanna and grassland fires&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source category 5 as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfNitrogenDioxideDueToEmissionFromSavannaAndGrasslandFires" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Nitrogen Dioxide due to Emission from Savanna And Grassland Fires" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_nitrogen_dioxide_due_to_emission_from_savanna_and_grassland_fires" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13519<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Mo&quot; means the element &quot;molybdenum&quot; and &quot;99Mo&quot; is the isotope &quot;molybdenum-99&quot; with a half-life of 2.78e+00 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf99MoInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 99Mo in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_99Mo_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13520<item description="Global average sea level change is due to change in volume of the water in the ocean, caused by mass and/or density change, or to change in the volume of the ocean basins, caused by tectonics etc. It is sometimes called &quot;eustatic&quot;, which is a term that also has other definitions. It differs from the change in the global average sea surface height relative to the centre of the Earth by the global average vertical movement of the ocean floor. Zero sea level change is an arbitrary level. Phase is the initial angle of a wave modelled by a sinusoidal function. A coordinate variable of harmonic_period should be used to specify the period of the sinusoidal wave. Because global average sea level change quantifies the change in volume of the world ocean, it is not calculated necessarily by considering local changes in mean sea level." label="PhaseOfGlobalAverageSeaLevelChange" title="Phase of Global Average Sea Level Change" uid="phase_of_global_average_sea_level_change" units="degree"></item> 
    1351113521<item description="The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. Speed is the magnitude of velocity. Wind is defined as a two-dimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.) The wind speed is the magnitude of the wind velocity." label="TendencyOfWindSpeedDueToConvection" title="Tendency of Wind Speed due to Convection" uid="tendency_of_wind_speed_due_to_convection" units="m s-2"></item> 
    1351213522<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. &quot;Volcanic_ash&quot; means the fine-grained products of explosive volcanic eruptions, such as minerals or crystals, older fragmented rock (e.g. andesite), and glass. Particles within a volcanic ash cloud have diameters less than 2 mm. &quot;Volcanic_ash&quot; does not include non-volcanic dust. " label="AtmosphereMassContentOfVolcanicAsh" title="Atmosphere Mass Content of Volcanic Ash" uid="atmosphere_mass_content_of_volcanic_ash" units="kg m-2"></item> 
     13523<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Y&quot; means the element &quot;yttrium&quot; and &quot;91Y&quot; is the isotope &quot;yttrium-91&quot; with a half-life of 5.86e+01 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf91YInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 91Y in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_91Y_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1351313524<item description="Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for ammonia is NH3." label="MassConcentrationOfAmmoniaInAir" title="Mass Concentration of Ammonia in Air" uid="mass_concentration_of_ammonia_in_air" units="kg m-3"></item> 
    1351413525<item description="Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, whereX is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X).  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for hydrogen chloride is HCl." label="MassFractionOfHydrogenChlorideInAir" title="Mass Fraction of Hydrogen Chloride in Air" uid="mass_fraction_of_hydrogen_chloride_in_air" units="1"></item> 
     
    1351713528<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Dry deposition&quot; is the sum of turbulent deposition and gravitational settling. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. Aldehydes are organic compounds with a CHO group; &quot;aldehydes&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe the group of chemical species having this common structure that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute. Standard names exist for some individual aldehyde species, e.g., formaldehyde and acetyladehyde." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfAldehydesDueToDryDeposition" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Aldehydes due to Dry Deposition" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_aldehydes_due_to_dry_deposition" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1351813529<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. The mass is the total mass of the particles. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. Aerosol particles take up ambient water (a process known as hygroscopic growth) depending on the relative humidity and the composition of the particles. &quot;Dry aerosol particles&quot; means aerosol particles without any water uptake. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Dry deposition&quot; is the sum of turbulent deposition and gravitational settling. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfSecondaryParticulateOrganicMatterDryAerosolParticlesDueToDryDeposition" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Secondary Particulate Organic Matter Dry Aerosol Particles due to Dry Deposition" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_secondary_particulate_organic_matter_dry_aerosol_particles_due_to_dry_deposition" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13530<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Pa&quot; means the element &quot;protactinium&quot; and &quot;233Pa&quot; is the isotope &quot;protactinium-233&quot; with a half-life of 2.70e+01 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf233Pa" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 233Pa" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_233Pa" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1351913531<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. The phrase &quot;expressed_as&quot; is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. Aerosol particles take up ambient water (a process known as hygroscopic growth) depending on the relative humidity and the composition of the particles. &quot;Dry aerosol particles&quot; means aerosol particles without any water uptake. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Dry deposition&quot; is the sum of turbulent deposition and gravitational settling. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. The chemical formula for the sulfate anion is SO4(2-)." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfSulfateDryAerosolParticlesExpressedAsSulfurDueToDryDeposition" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Sulfate Dry Aerosol Particles Expressed As Sulfur due to Dry Deposition" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_sulfate_dry_aerosol_particles_expressed_as_sulfur_due_to_dry_deposition" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1352013532<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. &quot;nmvoc&quot; means non methane volatile organic compounds; &quot;nmvoc&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe the group of chemical species having this classification that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute. &quot;Biogenic&quot; means influenced, caused, or created by natural processes. The phrase &quot;expressed_as&quot; is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A." label="AtmosphereMassContentOfBiogenicNmvocExpressedAsCarbon" title="Atmosphere Mass Content of Biogenic Nmvoc Expressed As Carbon" uid="atmosphere_mass_content_of_biogenic_nmvoc_expressed_as_carbon" units="kg m-2"></item> 
    1352113533<item description="alias::atmosphere_water_vapor_content" label="AtmosphereMassContentOfWaterVapor" title="Atmosphere Mass Content of Water Vapor [alias]" uid="atmosphere_water_vapor_content" units="kg m-2"></item> 
    1352213534<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Amount&quot; means mass per unit area. &quot;Water&quot; means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. &quot;Canopy&quot; means the plant or vegetation canopy. &quot;Canopy and surface water&quot; means the sum of water on the ground and on the canopy." label="CanopyAndSurfaceWaterAmount" title="Canopy And Surface Water Amount" uid="canopy_and_surface_water_amount" units="kg m-2"></item> 
     13535<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Mo&quot; means the element &quot;molybdenum&quot; and &quot;101Mo&quot; is the isotope &quot;molybdenum-101&quot; with a half-life of 1.01e-02 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf101MoInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 101Mo in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_101Mo_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1352313536<item description="Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X). A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as &quot;nitrogen&quot; or a phrase such as &quot;nox_expressed_as_nitrogen&quot;. The phrase &quot;expressed_as&quot; is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A. &quot;nmvoc&quot; means non methane volatile organic compounds; &quot;nmvoc&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe the group of chemical species having this classification that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute. &quot;Anthropogenic&quot; means influenced, caused, or created by human activity." label="MassFractionOfAnthropogenicNmvocExpressedAsCarbonInAir" title="Mass Fraction of Anthropogenic Nmvoc Expressed As Carbon in Air" uid="mass_fraction_of_anthropogenic_nmvoc_expressed_as_carbon_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    1352413537<item description="Mole concentration means number of moles per unit volume, also called &quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction &quot;mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y&quot;, where X is a material constituent of Y. A chemical or biological species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as &quot;nitrogen&quot; or a phrase such as &quot;nox_expressed_as_nitrogen&quot;. The phrase &quot;expressed_as&quot; is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A." label="MoleConcentrationOfParticulateOrganicMatterExpressedAsSiliconInSeaWater" title="Mole Concentration of Particulate Organic Matter Expressed As Silicon in Sea Water" uid="mole_concentration_of_particulate_organic_matter_expressed_as_silicon_in_sea_water" units="mol m-3"></item> 
    1352513538<item description="&quot;Northward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="NorthwardMassFluxOfAir" title="Northward Mass Flux of Air" uid="northward_mass_flux_of_air" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13539<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Ru&quot; means the element &quot;ruthenium&quot; and &quot;105Ru&quot; is the isotope &quot;ruthenium-105&quot; with a half-life of 1.85e-01 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf105RuInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 105Ru in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_105Ru_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1352613540<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for nitrogen monoxide is NO. The &quot;agricultural production&quot; sector comprises the agricultural processes of enteric fermentation, manure management, rice cultivation, agricultural soils and other. It may also include any not-classified or &quot;other&quot; combustion, which is commonly included in agriculture-related inventory data. &quot;Agricultural production&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 4A, 4B, 4C, 4D and 4G as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfNitrogenMonoxideDueToEmissionFromAgriculturalProduction" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Nitrogen Monoxide due to Emission from Agricultural Production" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_nitrogen_monoxide_due_to_emission_from_agricultural_production" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1352713541<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Land ice&quot; means glaciers, ice-caps and ice-sheets resting on bedrock and also includes ice-shelves.  &quot;Thickness&quot; means the vertical extent of a layer.." label="TendencyOfLandIceThickness" title="Tendency of Land Ice Thickness" uid="tendency_of_land_ice_thickness" units="m s-1"></item> 
    1352813542<item description="ground_level means the land surface (beneath the snow and surface water, if any). &quot;Upward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="UpwardHeatFluxAtGroundLevelInSoil" title="Upward Heat Flux At Ground Level in Soil" uid="upward_heat_flux_at_ground_level_in_soil" units="W m-2"></item> 
    13529 <item description="alias::atmosphere_mass_content_of_dust_dry_aerosol" label="AtmosphereMassContentOfDustDryAerosolParticles" title="Atmosphere Mass Content of Dust Dry Aerosol Particles [alias]" uid="atmosphere_mass_content_of_dust_dry_aerosol" units="kg m-2"></item> 
    1353013543<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;magnitude_of_X&quot; means magnitude of a vector X. &quot;Downward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward)." label="MagnitudeOfSurfaceDownwardStress" title="Magnitude of Surface Downward Stress" uid="magnitude_of_surface_downward_stress" units="Pa"></item> 
    1353113544<item description="Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, whereX is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X).  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The term &quot;peroxy_radicals&quot; means all organic and inorganic peroxy radicals. This includes HO2 and all organic peroxyradicals, sometimes referred to as RO2. In chemistry, a 'radical' is a highly reactive, and therefore shortlived, species." label="MassFractionOfPeroxyRadicalsInAir" title="Mass Fraction of Peroxy Radicals in Air" uid="mass_fraction_of_peroxy_radicals_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    1353213545<item description="Mass fraction is used in the construction &quot;mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y&quot;, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X). A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as &quot;nitrogen&quot; or a phrase such as &quot;nox_expressed_as_nitrogen&quot;. Aerosol particles take up ambient water (a process known as hygroscopic growth) depending on the relative humidity and the composition of the particles. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. &quot;Dry aerosol particles&quot; means aerosol particles without any water uptake. &quot;Pm10 aerosol&quot; means atmospheric particulate compounds with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 10 micrometers." label="MassFractionOfPm10SeaSaltDryAerosolParticlesInAir" title="Mass Fraction of Pm10 Sea Salt Dry Aerosol Particles in Air" uid="mass_fraction_of_pm10_sea_salt_dry_aerosol_particles_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    1353313546<item description="Mole concentration means number of moles per unit volume, also called &quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction &quot;mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y&quot;, where X is a material constituent of Y. A chemical or biological species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as &quot;nitrogen&quot; or a phrase such as &quot;nox_expressed_as_nitrogen&quot;. &quot;Dissolved inorganic silicon&quot; means the sum of all inorganic silicon in solution (including silicic acid and its first dissociated anion SiO(OH)3-)." label="MoleConcentrationOfDissolvedInorganicSiliconInSeaWater" title="Mole Concentration of Dissolved Inorganic Silicon in Sea Water" uid="mole_concentration_of_dissolved_inorganic_silicon_in_sea_water" units="mol m-3"></item> 
     13547<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Sb&quot; means the element &quot;antimony&quot; and &quot;126Sb&quot; is the isotope &quot;antimony-126&quot; with a half-life of 1.24e+01 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf126SbInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 126Sb in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_126Sb_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13548<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Te&quot; means the element &quot;tellurium&quot; and &quot;133Te&quot; is the isotope &quot;tellurium-133&quot; with a half-life of 8.68e-03 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf133TeInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 133Te in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_133Te_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13549<item description="alias::atmosphere_mass_content_of_dust_dry_aerosol" label="AtmosphereMassContentOfDustDryAerosolParticles" title="Atmosphere Mass Content of Dust Dry Aerosol Particles [alias]" uid="atmosphere_mass_content_of_dust_dry_aerosol" units="kg m-2"></item> 
     13550<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;U&quot; means the element &quot;uranium&quot; and &quot;234U&quot; is the isotope &quot;uranium-234&quot; with a half-life of 9.02e+07 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf234UInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 234U in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_234U_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1353413551<item description="Wave height is defined as the vertical distance from a wave trough to the following wave crest. The height of the highest tenth is defined as the mean of the highest ten per cent of trough to crest distances measured during the observation period." label="SeaSurfaceWaveMeanHeightOfHighestTenth" title="Sea Surface Wave Mean Height of Highest Tenth" uid="sea_surface_wave_mean_height_of_highest_tenth" units="m"></item> 
     13552<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Rn&quot; means the element &quot;radon&quot; and &quot;222Rn&quot; is the isotope &quot;radon-222&quot; with a half-life of 3.82e+00 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf222RnInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 222Rn in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_222Rn_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13553<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Am&quot; means the element &quot;americium&quot; and &quot;242Am&quot; is the isotope &quot;americium-242&quot; with a half-life of 6.69e-01 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf242AmInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 242Am in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_242Am_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1353513554<item description="Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X).  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for ammonia is NH3." label="MassFractionOfAmmoniaInAir" title="Mass Fraction of Ammonia in Air" uid="mass_fraction_of_ammonia_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    1353613555<item description="Mole fraction is used in the construction mole_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y." label="MoleFractionOfGaseousElementalMercuryInAir" title="Mole Fraction of Gaseous Elemental Mercury in Air" uid="mole_fraction_of_gaseous_elemental_mercury_in_air" units="1"></item> 
     13556<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Rh&quot; means the element &quot;rhodium&quot; and &quot;106Rh&quot; is the isotope &quot;rhodium-106&quot; with a half-life of 3.46e-04 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf106RhInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 106Rh in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_106Rh_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13557<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;I&quot; means the element &quot;iodine&quot; and &quot;132I&quot; is the isotope &quot;iodine-132&quot; with a half-life of 9.60e-02 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf132IInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 132I in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_132I_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13558<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Pd&quot; means the element &quot;palladium&quot; and &quot;111mPd&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;palladium-111&quot; with a half-life of 2.29e-01 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf111Mpd" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 111Mpd" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_111mPd" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1353713559<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. the surface of the earth). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;nmvoc&quot; means non methane volatile organic compounds; &quot;nmvoc&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe the group of chemical species having this classification that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfNmvocDueToEmission" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Nmvoc due to Emission" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_nmvoc_due_to_emission" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1353813560<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. &quot;nmvoc&quot; means non methane volatile organic compounds; &quot;nmvoc&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe the group of chemical species having this classification that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute. The phrase &quot;expressed_as&quot; is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A." label="AtmosphereMassContentOfNmvocExpressedAsCarbon" title="Atmosphere Mass Content of Nmvoc Expressed As Carbon" uid="atmosphere_mass_content_of_nmvoc_expressed_as_carbon" units="kg m-2"></item> 
     13561<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;F&quot; means the element &quot;fluorine&quot; and &quot;18F&quot; is the isotope &quot;fluorine-18&quot; with a half-life of 6.98e-02 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf18FInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 18F in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_18F_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1353913562<item description="Picophytoplankton are phytoplankton of less than 2 micrometers in size. Phytoplankton are algae that grow where there is sufficient light to support photosynthesis. &quot;Iron growth limitation&quot; means the ratio of the growth rate of a species population in the environment (where there is a finite availability of iron) to the theoretical growth rate if there were no such limit on iron availability." label="IronGrowthLimitationOfPicophytoplankton" title="Iron Growth Limitation of Picophytoplankton" uid="iron_growth_limitation_of_picophytoplankton" units="1"></item> 
    1354013563<item description="X_binary_mask has 1 where condition X is met, 0 elsewhere. 1 = land, 0 = sea." label="LandBinaryMask" title="Land Binary Mask" uid="land_binary_mask" units="1"></item> 
    1354113564<item description="Mass fraction is used in the construction &quot;mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y&quot;, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X). A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as &quot;nitrogen&quot; or a phrase such as &quot;nox_expressed_as_nitrogen&quot;. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. Aerosol particles take up ambient water (a process known as hygroscopic growth) depending on the relative humidity and the composition of the particles. &quot;Dry aerosol particles&quot; means aerosol particles without any water uptake. &quot;Pm2p5 aerosol&quot; means atmospheric particulate compounds with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers." label="MassFractionOfPm2P5SeaSaltDryAerosolParticlesInAir" title="Mass Fraction of Pm2P5 Sea Salt Dry Aerosol Particles in Air" uid="mass_fraction_of_pm2p5_sea_salt_dry_aerosol_particles_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    1354213565<item description="The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Vertical tracer diffusivity&quot; means the vertical component of the diffusivity of tracers, i.e. heat and salinity, due to motion which is not resolved on the grid scale of the model.  Convective mixing in the ocean is sometimes modelled as an enhanced diffusivity." label="OceanVerticalTracerDiffusivityDueToConvection" title="Ocean Vertical Tracer Diffusivity due to Convection" uid="ocean_vertical_tracer_diffusivity_due_to_convection" units="m2 s-1"></item> 
     13566<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Po&quot; means the element &quot;polonium&quot; and &quot;217Po&quot; is the isotope &quot;polonium-217&quot; with a half-life of 1.16e-04 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf217Po" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 217Po" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_217Po" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
     13567<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for butane is C4H10. Butane is a member of the group of hydrocarbons known as alkanes. There are standard names for the alkane group as well as for some of the individual species. The &quot;agricultural production&quot; sector comprises the agricultural processes of enteric fermentation, manure management, rice cultivation, agricultural soils and other. It may also include any not-classified or &quot;other&quot; combustion, which is commonly included in agriculture-related inventory data. &quot;Agricultural production&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 4A, 4B, 4C, 4D and 4G as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfButaneDueToEmissionFromAgriculturalProduction" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Butane due to Emission from Agricultural Production" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_butane_due_to_emission_from_agricultural_production" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13568<item description="alias::moles_of_halon2402_in_atmosphere" label="AtmosphereMolesOfHalon2402" title="Atmosphere Moles of Halon2402 [alias]" uid="moles_of_halon2402_in_atmosphere" units="mol"></item> 
     13569<item description="alias::ocean_tracer_bolus_biharmonic_diffusivity" label="OceanTracerBiharmonicDiffusivityDueToParameterizedMesoscaleEddyAdvection" title="Ocean Tracer Biharmonic Diffusivity due to Parameterized Mesoscale Eddy Advection [alias]" uid="ocean_tracer_bolus_biharmonic_diffusivity" units="m4 s-1"></item> 
    1354313570<item description="&quot;product_of_X_and_Y&quot; means X*Y. Geopotential is the sum of the specific gravitational potential energy relative to the geoid and the specific centripetal potential energy. Geopotential height is the geopotential divided by the standard acceleration due to gravity. It is numerically similar to the altitude (or geometric height) and not to the quantity with standard name height, which is relative to the surface. &quot;Eastward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). Wind is defined as a two-dimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)" label="ProductOfEastwardWindAndGeopotentialHeight" title="Product of Eastward Wind And Geopotential Height" uid="product_of_eastward_wind_and_geopotential_height" units="m2 s-1"></item> 
    13544 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for butane is C4H10. Butane is a member of the group of hydrocarbons known as alkanes. There are standard names for the alkane group as well as for some of the individual species. The &quot;agricultural production&quot; sector comprises the agricultural processes of enteric fermentation, manure management, rice cultivation, agricultural soils and other. It may also include any not-classified or &quot;other&quot; combustion, which is commonly included in agriculture-related inventory data. &quot;Agricultural production&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 4A, 4B, 4C, 4D and 4G as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfButaneDueToEmissionFromAgriculturalProduction" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Butane due to Emission from Agricultural Production" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_butane_due_to_emission_from_agricultural_production" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1354513571<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group - an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups - of general formula R-O-R. In standard names &quot;ethers&quot; is the term used to describe the group of ether species that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute.   The &quot;waste treatment and disposal&quot; sector comprises solid waste disposal on land, wastewater handling, waste incineration and other waste disposal. &quot;Waste treatment and disposal&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 6A, 6B, 6C and 6D as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfEthersDueToEmissionFromWasteTreatmentAndDisposal" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Ethers due to Emission from Waste Treatment And Disposal" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_ethers_due_to_emission_from_waste_treatment_and_disposal" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1354613572<item description="Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X).  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. Evaporation is the conversion of liquid or solid into vapor.  In an atmosphere model, stratiform cloud is that produced by large-scale convergence (not the convection schemes).  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  &quot;shortwave&quot; means shortwave radiation." label="TendencyOfMassFractionOfStratiformCloudLiquidWaterInAirDueToCondensationAndEvaporationFromShortwaveHeating" title="Tendency of Mass Fraction of Stratiform Cloud Liquid Water in Air due to Condensation And Evaporation from Shortwave Heating" uid="tendency_of_mass_fraction_of_stratiform_cloud_liquid_water_in_air_due_to_condensation_and_evaporation_from_shortwave_heating" units="s-1"></item> 
    13547 <item description="alias::moles_of_halon2402_in_atmosphere" label="AtmosphereMolesOfHalon2402" title="Atmosphere Moles of Halon2402 [alias]" uid="moles_of_halon2402_in_atmosphere" units="mol"></item> 
    13548 <item description="alias::ocean_tracer_bolus_biharmonic_diffusivity" label="OceanTracerBiharmonicDiffusivityDueToParameterizedMesoscaleEddyAdvection" title="Ocean Tracer Biharmonic Diffusivity due to Parameterized Mesoscale Eddy Advection [alias]" uid="ocean_tracer_bolus_biharmonic_diffusivity" units="m4 s-1"></item> 
    1354913573<item description="&quot;Amount&quot; means mass per unit area. The construction thickness_of_[X_]rainfall_amount means the accumulated &quot;depth&quot; of rainfall i.e. the thickness of a layer of liquid water having the same mass per unit area as the rainfall amount." label="ThicknessOfConvectiveRainfallAmount" title="Thickness of Convective Rainfall Amount" uid="thickness_of_convective_rainfall_amount" units="m"></item> 
    1355013574<item description="Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean &quot;net downward&quot;. A photon flux is specified in terms of numbers of photons expressed in moles. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="DownwellingPhotonFluxInSeaWater" title="Downwelling Photon Flux in Sea Water" uid="downwelling_photon_flux_in_sea_water" units="mol m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13575<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Th&quot; means the element &quot;thorium&quot; and &quot;228Th&quot; is the isotope &quot;thorium-228&quot; with a half-life of 6.98e+02 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf228ThInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 228Th in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_228Th_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13576<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;U&quot; means the element &quot;uranium&quot; and &quot;234U&quot; is the isotope &quot;uranium-234&quot; with a half-life of 9.02e+07 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf234UInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 234U in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_234U_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13577<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Cf&quot; means the element &quot;californium&quot; and &quot;252Cf&quot; is the isotope &quot;californium-252&quot; with a half-life of 9.68e+02 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf252CfInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 252Cf in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_252Cf_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13578<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Ar&quot; means the element &quot;argon&quot; and &quot;41Ar&quot; is the isotope &quot;argon-41&quot; with a half-life of 7.64e-02 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf41ArInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 41Ar in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_41Ar_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13579<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. In organic chemistry, a ketone is a compound with the structure RC(=O)R', where R and R' can be a variety of atoms and groups of atoms. It features a carbonyl group (C=O) bonded to two other carbon atoms. Acetone is the simplest example of a ketone. In standard names &quot;ketones&quot; is the term used to describe the group of ketone species that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute. The &quot;savanna and grassland fires&quot; sector comprises the burning (natural and human-induced) of living or dead vegetation in non-forested areas. It excludes field burning of agricultural residues. &quot;Savanna and grassland fires&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source category 5 as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas Inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfKetonesDueToEmissionFromSavannaAndGrasslandFires" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Ketones due to Emission from Savanna And Grassland Fires" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_ketones_due_to_emission_from_savanna_and_grassland_fires" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1355113580<item description="Mole concentration means number of moles per unit volume, also called &quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for methyl hydroperoxide is CH3OOH." label="MoleConcentrationOfMethylHydroperoxideInAir" title="Mole Concentration of Methyl Hydroperoxide in Air" uid="mole_concentration_of_methyl_hydroperoxide_in_air" units="mol m-3"></item> 
    13552 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. In organic chemistry, a ketone is a compound with the structure RC(=O)R', where R and R' can be a variety of atoms and groups of atoms. It features a carbonyl group (C=O) bonded to two other carbon atoms. Acetone is the simplest example of a ketone. In standard names &quot;ketones&quot; is the term used to describe the group of ketone species that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute. The &quot;savanna and grassland fires&quot; sector comprises the burning (natural and human-induced) of living or dead vegetation in non-forested areas. It excludes field burning of agricultural residues. &quot;Savanna and grassland fires&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source category 5 as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas Inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfKetonesDueToEmissionFromSavannaAndGrasslandFires" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Ketones due to Emission from Savanna And Grassland Fires" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_ketones_due_to_emission_from_savanna_and_grassland_fires" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13581<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Cm&quot; means the element &quot;curium&quot; and &quot;249Cm&quot; is the isotope &quot;curium-249&quot; with a half-life of 4.43e-02 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf249CmInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 249Cm in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_249Cm_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13582<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Dy&quot; means the element &quot;dysprosium&quot; and &quot;165Dy&quot; is the isotope &quot;dysprosium-165&quot; with a half-life of 9.80e-02 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf165Dy" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 165Dy" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_165Dy" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
     13583<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Am&quot; means the element &quot;americium&quot; and &quot;243Am&quot; is the isotope &quot;americium-243&quot; with a half-life of 2.91e+06 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf243Am" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 243Am" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_243Am" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1355313584<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. Aerosol takes up ambient water (a process known as hygroscopic growth) depending on the relative humidity and the composition of the aerosol. &quot;Dry aerosol particles&quot; means aerosol particles without any water uptake. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. The sum of turbulent deposition and gravitational settling is dry deposition. Chemically, &quot;elemental carbon&quot; is the carbonaceous fraction of particulate matter that is thermally stable in an inert atmosphere to high temperatures near 4000K and can only be gasified by oxidation starting at temperatures above 340 C. It is assumed to be inert and non-volatile under atmospheric conditions and insoluble in any solvent (Ogren and Charlson, 1983)." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfElementalCarbonDryAerosolParticlesDueToGravitationalSettling" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Elemental Carbon Dry Aerosol Particles due to Gravitational Settling" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_elemental_carbon_dry_aerosol_particles_due_to_gravitational_settling" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1355413585<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for toluene is C6H5CH3. Toluene has the same structure as benzene, except that one of the hydrogen atoms is replaced by a methyl group. The systematic name for toluene is methylbenzene. The &quot;agricultural waste burning&quot; sector comprises field burning of agricultural residues. &quot;Agricultural waste burning&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source category 4F as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfTolueneDueToEmissionFromAgriculturalWasteBurning" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Toluene due to Emission from Agricultural Waste Burning" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_toluene_due_to_emission_from_agricultural_waste_burning" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1355513586<item description="&quot;Amount&quot; means mass per unit area. Zero change in land ice amount is an arbitrary level. &quot;Land ice&quot; means glaciers, ice-caps and ice-sheets resting on bedrock and also includes ice-shelves. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time." label="TendencyOfChangeInLandIceAmount" title="Tendency of Change in Land Ice Amount" uid="tendency_of_change_in_land_ice_amount" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1355613587<item description="The optical thickness is the integral along the path of radiation of a volume scattering/absorption/attenuation coefficient. The radiative flux is reduced by a factor exp(-optical_thickness) on traversing the path. A coordinate variable of radiation_wavelength or radiation_frequency can be specified to indicate that the optical thickness applies at specific wavelengths or frequencies. &quot;Absorption optical thickness&quot; means that part of the atmosphere optical thickness that is caused by the absorption of incident radiation. &quot;Aerosol&quot; means the system of suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets) and their carrier gas, the air itself. &quot;Ambient_aerosol&quot; means that the aerosol is measured or modelled at the ambient state of pressure, temperature and relative humidity that exists in its immediate environment. &quot;Ambient aerosol particles&quot; are aerosol particles that have taken up ambient water through hygroscopic growth. The extent of hygroscopic growth depends on the relative humidity and the composition of the particles. To specify the relative humidity and temperature at which the quantity described by the standard name applies, provide scalar coordinate variables with standard names of &quot;relative_humidity&quot; and &quot;air_temperature&quot;. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase." label="AtmosphereAbsorptionOpticalThicknessDueToParticulateOrganicMatterAmbientAerosolParticles" title="Atmosphere Absorption Optical Thickness due to Particulate Organic Matter Ambient Aerosol Particles" uid="atmosphere_absorption_optical_thickness_due_to_particulate_organic_matter_ambient_aerosol_particles" units="1"></item> 
     13588<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Cs&quot; means the element &quot;cesium&quot; and &quot;138Cs&quot; is the isotope &quot;cesium-138&quot; with a half-life of 2.23e-02 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf138CsInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 138Cs in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_138Cs_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1355713589<item description="&quot;lwe&quot; means liquid water equivalent. &quot;Amount&quot; means mass per unit area. The construction lwe_thickness_of_X_amount or _content means the vertical extent of a layer of liquid water having the same mass per unit area. &quot;Water&quot; means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. &quot;Canopy&quot; means the plant or vegetation canopy. The canopy water is the water on the canopy." label="LweThicknessOfCanopyWaterAmount" title="Lwe Thickness of Canopy Water Amount" uid="lwe_thickness_of_canopy_water_amount" units="m"></item> 
    1355813590<item description="alias::mole_fraction_of_nitric_acid_trihydrate_ambient_aerosol_in_air" label="MoleFractionOfNitricAcidTrihydrateAmbientAerosolParticlesInAir" title="Mole Fraction of Nitric Acid Trihydrate Ambient Aerosol Particles in Air [alias]" uid="mole_fraction_of_nitric_acid_trihydrate_ambient_aerosol_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    1355913591<item description="A quantity with standard name Xward_Yward_derivative_of_geopotential is a second spatial derivative of geopotential in the direction specified by X and Y, i.e., d2P/dXdY. Geopotential is the sum of the specific gravitational potential energy relative to the geoid and the specific centripetal potential energy. &quot;Westward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed westward (negative eastward). &quot;Northward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). &quot;component_derivative_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to distance in the component direction, which may be &quot;northward&quot;, &quot;southward&quot;, &quot;eastward&quot;, &quot;westward&quot;, &quot;x&quot; or &quot;y&quot;. The last two indicate derivatives along the axes of the grid, in the case where they are not true longitude and latitude." label="NorthwardWestwardDerivativeOfGeopotential" title="Northward Westward Derivative of Geopotential" uid="northward_westward_derivative_of_geopotential" units="s-2"></item> 
    13560 <item description="alias::significant_height_of_wind_and_swell_waves" label="SeaSurfaceWaveSignificantHeight" title="Sea Surface Wave Significant Height [alias]" uid="significant_height_of_wind_and_swell_waves" units="m"></item> 
     13592<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Co&quot; means the element &quot;cobalt&quot; and &quot;60Co&quot; is the isotope &quot;cobalt-60&quot; with a half-life of 1.93e+03 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf60Co" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 60Co" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_60Co" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1356113593<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is asingle term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Dissolved inorganic carbon&quot; describes a family of chemical species in solution, including carbon dioxide, carbonic acid and the carbonate and bicarbonate anions. &quot;Dissolved inorganic carbon&quot; is the term used in standard names for all species belonging to the family that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models.  Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute." label="TendencyOfOceanMoleContentOfDissolvedInorganicCarbonDueToBiologicalProcesses" title="Tendency of Ocean Mole Content of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon due to Biological Processes" uid="tendency_of_ocean_mole_content_of_dissolved_inorganic_carbon_due_to_biological_processes" units="mol m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1356213594<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  Potential energy is the sum of the gravitational potential energy relative to the geoid and the centripetal potential energy. (The geopotential is the specific potential energy.)  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time." label="TendencyOfOceanPotentialEnergyContent" title="Tendency of Ocean Potential Energy Content" uid="tendency_of_ocean_potential_energy_content" units="W m-2"></item> 
     13595<item description="alias::significant_height_of_wind_and_swell_waves" label="SeaSurfaceWaveSignificantHeight" title="Sea Surface Wave Significant Height [alias]" uid="significant_height_of_wind_and_swell_waves" units="m"></item> 
    1356313596<item description="alias::moles_of_hcc140a_in_atmosphere" label="AtmosphereMolesOfHcc140A" title="Atmosphere Moles of Hcc140A [alias]" uid="moles_of_hcc140a_in_atmosphere" units="mol"></item> 
     13597<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Sb&quot; means the element &quot;antimony&quot; and &quot;124Sb&quot; is the isotope &quot;antimony-124&quot; with a half-life of 6.03e+01 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf124SbInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 124Sb in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_124Sb_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1356413598<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for benzene is C6H6. Benzene is the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon and has a ring structure consisting of six carbon atoms joined by alternating single and double chemical bonds. Each carbon atom is additionally bonded to one hydrogen atom. There are standard names that refer to aromatic_compounds as a group, as well as those for individual species. The &quot;agricultural production&quot; sector comprises the agricultural processes of enteric fermentation, manure management, rice cultivation, agricultural soils and other. It may also include any not-classified or &quot;other&quot; combustion, which is commonly included in agriculture-related inventory data. &quot;Agricultural production&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 4A, 4B, 4C, 4D and 4G as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfBenzeneDueToEmissionFromAgriculturalProduction" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Benzene due to Emission from Agricultural Production" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_benzene_due_to_emission_from_agricultural_production" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1356513599<item description="&quot;toa&quot; means top of atmosphere.  &quot;Longwave&quot; means longwave radiation.  Cloud radiative effect is also commonly known as &quot;cloud radiative forcing&quot;.  It is the difference in radiative flux resulting from the presence of clouds, i.e. it is the difference between toa_outgoing_longwave_flux_assuming_clear_sky and toa_outgoing_longwave_flux." label="ToaLongwaveCloudRadiativeEffect" title="Toa Longwave Cloud Radiative Effect" uid="toa_longwave_cloud_radiative_effect" units="W m-2"></item> 
     
    1356813602<item description="&quot;X_area&quot; means the horizontal area occupied by X within the grid cell." label="LeafAreaIndex" title="Leaf Area Index" uid="leaf_area_index" units="1"></item> 
    1356913603<item description="Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. A chemical or biological species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as &quot;nitrogen&quot; or a phrase such as &quot;nox_expressed_as_nitrogen&quot;. The phrase &quot;expressed_as&quot; is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A. Chlorophylls are the green pigments found in most plants, algae and cyanobacteria; their presence is essential for photosynthesis to take place. There are several different forms of chlorophyll that occur naturally. All contain a chlorin ring (chemical formula C20H16N4) which gives the green pigment and a side chain whose structure varies. The naturally occurring forms of chlorophyll contain between 35 and 55 carbon atoms. 'Miscellaneous phytoplankton' are all those phytoplankton that are not diatoms, diazotrophs, calcareous phytoplankton, picophytoplankton or other seperately named components of the phytoplankton population. Phytoplankton are autotrophic prokaryotic or eukaryotic algae that live near the water surface where there is sufficient light to support photosynthesis." label="MassConcentrationOfMiscellaneousPhytoplanktonExpressedAsChlorophyllInSeaWater" title="Mass Concentration of Miscellaneous Phytoplankton Expressed As Chlorophyll in Sea Water" uid="mass_concentration_of_miscellaneous_phytoplankton_expressed_as_chlorophyll_in_sea_water" units="kg m-3"></item> 
     13604<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Tl&quot; means the element &quot;thallium&quot; and &quot;209Tl&quot; is the isotope &quot;thallium-209&quot; with a half-life of 1.53e-03 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf209TlInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 209Tl in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_209Tl_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13605<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Pd&quot; means the element &quot;palladium&quot; and &quot;112Pd&quot; is the isotope &quot;palladium-112&quot; with a half-life of 8.37e-01 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf112Pd" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 112Pd" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_112Pd" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
     13606<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Cm&quot; means the element &quot;curium&quot; and &quot;246Cm&quot; is the isotope &quot;curium-246&quot; with a half-life of 2.01e+06 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf246Cm" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 246Cm" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_246Cm" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1357013607<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for molecular hydrogen is H2." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfMolecularHydrogenDueToEmission" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Molecular Hydrogen due to Emission" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_molecular_hydrogen_due_to_emission" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1357113608<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for nitrogen monoxide is NO. The &quot;residential and commercial combustion&quot; sector comprises fuel combustion activities related to the commercial/institutional sector, the residential sector and the agriculture/forestry/fishing sector. It may also include any not-classified or &quot;other&quot; combustion, which is commonly included in the inventory data. &quot;Residential and commercial combustion&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 1A4a, 1A4b and 1A4c as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfNitrogenMonoxideDueToEmissionFromResidentialAndCommercialCombustion" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Nitrogen Monoxide due to Emission from Residential And Commercial Combustion" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_nitrogen_monoxide_due_to_emission_from_residential_and_commercial_combustion" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     
    1358113618<item description="The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere, i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. The chemical formula for ethene is C2H4. Ethene is a member of the group of hydrocarbons known as alkenes.  There are standard names for the alkene group as well as for some of the individual species." label="AtmosphereMolesOfEthene" title="Atmosphere Moles of Ethene" uid="atmosphere_moles_of_ethene" units="mol"></item> 
    1358213619<item description="&quot;Northward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). &quot;Downward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). &quot;Downward northward&quot; indicates the ZY component of a tensor. A downward northward stress is a downward flux of northward momentum, which accelerates the lower medium northward and the upper medium southward." label="DownwardNorthwardStressAtSeaIceBase" title="Downward Northward Stress At Sea Ice Base" uid="downward_northward_stress_at_sea_ice_base" units="Pa"></item> 
     13620<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Fr&quot; means the element &quot;francium&quot; and &quot;222Fr&quot; is the isotope &quot;francium-222&quot; with a half-life of 1.03e-02 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf222FrInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 222Fr in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_222Fr_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1358313621<item description="Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for ethene is C2H4. Ethene is a member of the group of hydrocarbons known as alkenes.  There are standard names for the alkene group as well as for some of the individual species." label="MassConcentrationOfEtheneInAir" title="Mass Concentration of Ethene in Air" uid="mass_concentration_of_ethene_in_air" units="kg m-3"></item> 
    1358413622<item description="Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical symbol for mercury is Hg." label="MassConcentrationOfGaseousElementalMercuryInAir" title="Mass Concentration of Gaseous Elemental Mercury in Air" uid="mass_concentration_of_gaseous_elemental_mercury_in_air" units="kg m-3"></item> 
    1358513623<item description="Mole fraction is used in the construction &quot;mole_fraction_of_X_in_Y&quot;, where X is a material constituent of Y. A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as &quot;nitrogen&quot; or a phrase such as &quot;nox_expressed_as_nitrogen&quot;. The chemical formula for acetaldehyde is CH3CHO. The IUPAC name for acetaldehyde is ethanal." label="MoleFractionOfAcetaldehydeInAir" title="Mole Fraction of Acetaldehyde in Air" uid="mole_fraction_of_acetaldehyde_in_air" units="1"></item> 
     13624<item description="The phrase &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The phrase &quot;expressed_as_heat_content&quot; means that this quantity is calculated as the specific heat capacity times density of sea water multiplied by the potential temperature of the sea water in the grid cell. Potential temperature is the temperature a parcel of air or sea water would have if moved adiabatically to sea level pressure. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized mesoscale eddy advection occurs on a spatial scale of many tens of kilometres and an evolutionary time of weeks. Reference: James C. McWilliams 2016, Submesoscale currents in the ocean, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, volume 472, issue 2189. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2016.0117. Parameterized mesoscale eddy advection is represented in ocean models using schemes such as the Gent-McWilliams scheme. There are also standard names for parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection which, along with parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection, contributes to the total parameterized eddy advection. Additionally, when the parameterized advective process is represented in the model as a skew-diffusion rather than an advection, then the parameterized skew diffusion should be included in this diagnostic. The convergence of a skew-flux is identical (in the continuous formulation) to the convergence of an advective flux, making their tendencies the same." label="TendencyOfSeaWaterPotentialTemperatureExpressedAsHeatContentDueToParameterizedMesoscaleEddyAdvection" title="Tendency of Sea Water Potential Temperature Expressed As Heat Content due to Parameterized Mesoscale Eddy Advection" uid="tendency_of_sea_water_potential_temperature_expressed_as_heat_content_due_to_parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection" units="W m-2"></item> 
    1358613625<item description="Mole fraction is used in the construction mole_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  The chemical formula of CFC115 is CClF2CF3.  The IUPAC name for CFC115 is 1-chloro-1,1,2,2,2-pentafluoro-ethane." label="MoleFractionOfCfc115InAir" title="Mole Fraction of Cfc115 in Air" uid="mole_fraction_of_cfc115_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    1358713626<item description="The phrase &quot;to_direction&quot; is used in the construction X_to_direction and indicates the direction towards which the velocity vector of X is headed. The direction is a bearing in the usual geographical sense, measured positive clockwise from due north." label="SeaSurfaceWaveToDirection" title="Sea Surface Wave to Direction" uid="sea_surface_wave_to_direction" units="degree"></item> 
    13588 <item description="The phrase &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The phrase &quot;expressed_as_heat_content&quot; means that this quantity is calculated as the specific heat capacity times density of sea water multiplied by the potential temperature of the sea water in the grid cell. Potential temperature is the temperature a parcel of air or sea water would have if moved adiabatically to sea level pressure. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized mesoscale eddy advection occurs on a spatial scale of many tens of kilometres and an evolutionary time of weeks. Reference: James C. McWilliams 2016, Submesoscale currents in the ocean, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, volume 472, issue 2189. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2016.0117. Parameterized mesoscale eddy advection is represented in ocean models using schemes such as the Gent-McWilliams scheme. There are also standard names for parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection which, along with parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection, contributes to the total parameterized eddy advection. Additionally, when the parameterized advective process is represented in the model as a skew-diffusion rather than an advection, then the parameterized skew diffusion should be included in this diagnostic. The convergence of a skew-flux is identical (in the continuous formulation) to the convergence of an advective flux, making their tendencies the same." label="TendencyOfSeaWaterPotentialTemperatureExpressedAsHeatContentDueToParameterizedMesoscaleEddyAdvection" title="Tendency of Sea Water Potential Temperature Expressed As Heat Content due to Parameterized Mesoscale Eddy Advection" uid="tendency_of_sea_water_potential_temperature_expressed_as_heat_content_due_to_parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection" units="W m-2"></item> 
     13627<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Ra&quot; means the element &quot;radium&quot; and &quot;229Ra&quot; is the isotope &quot;radium-229&quot; with a half-life of 1.16e-17 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf229Ra" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 229Ra" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_229Ra" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1358913628<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  &quot;Divalent mercury&quot; means all compounds in which the mercury has two binding sites to other ion(s) in a salt or to other atom(s) in a molecule.  &quot;Wet deposition&quot; means deposition by precipitation." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfGaseousDivalentMercuryDueToWetDeposition" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Gaseous Divalent Mercury due to Wet Deposition" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_gaseous_divalent_mercury_due_to_wet_deposition" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1359013629<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere, i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. The chemical symbol for radon is Rn." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMolesOfRadon" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Moles of Radon" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_moles_of_radon" units="mol s-1"></item> 
     
    1359213631<item description="&quot;X_area_fraction&quot; means the fraction of horizontal area occupied by X. &quot;X_area&quot; means the horizontal area occupied by X within the grid cell. The clear_sky area fraction is for the whole atmosphere column, as seen from the surface or the top of the atmosphere." label="ClearSkyAreaFraction" title="Clear Sky Area Fraction" uid="clear_sky_area_fraction" units="1"></item> 
    1359313632<item description="&quot;Amount&quot; means mass per unit area." label="ConvectiveSnowfallAmount" title="Convective Snowfall Amount" uid="convective_snowfall_amount" units="kg m-2"></item> 
     13633<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Ag&quot; means the element &quot;silver&quot; and &quot;115Ag&quot; is the isotope &quot;silver-115&quot; with a half-life of 1.46e-02 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf115AgInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 115Ag in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_115Ag_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13634<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;I&quot; means the element &quot;iodine&quot; and &quot;132I&quot; is the isotope &quot;iodine-132&quot; with a half-life of 9.60e-02 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf132IInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 132I in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_132I_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13635<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Pu&quot; means the element &quot;plutonium&quot; and &quot;244Pu&quot; is the isotope &quot;plutonium-244&quot; with a half-life of 2.92e+10 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf244PuInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 244Pu in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_244Pu_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13636<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere." label="SurfaceDragCoefficientForMomentumInAir" title="Surface Drag Coefficient For Momentum in Air" uid="surface_drag_coefficient_for_momentum_in_air" units="1"></item> 
     13637<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Zn&quot; means the element &quot;zinc&quot; and &quot;72Zn&quot; is the isotope &quot;zinc-72&quot; with a half-life of 1.94e+00 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf72Zn" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 72Zn" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_72Zn" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1359413638<item description="alias::mass_fraction_of_black_carbon_dry_aerosol_in_air" label="MassFractionOfElementalCarbonDryAerosolParticlesInAir" title="Mass Fraction of Elemental Carbon Dry Aerosol Particles in Air [alias]" uid="mass_fraction_of_black_carbon_dry_aerosol_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    13595 <item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere." label="SurfaceDragCoefficientForMomentumInAir" title="Surface Drag Coefficient For Momentum in Air" uid="surface_drag_coefficient_for_momentum_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    1359613639<item description="The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere, i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. The chemical formula for CFC12 is CF2Cl2.  The IUPAC name for CFC12 is dichloro-difluoro-methane." label="AtmosphereMolesOfCfc12" title="Atmosphere Moles of Cfc12" uid="atmosphere_moles_of_cfc12" units="mol"></item> 
    1359713640<item description="alias::lwe_thickness_of_atmosphere_water_vapor_content" label="LweThicknessOfAtmosphereMassContentOfWaterVapor" title="Lwe Thickness of Atmosphere Mass Content of Water Vapor [alias]" uid="lwe_thickness_of_atmosphere_water_vapor_content" units="m"></item> 
     13641<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Po&quot; means the element &quot;polonium&quot; and &quot;216Po&quot; is the isotope &quot;polonium-216&quot; with a half-life of 1.74e-06 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf216Po" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 216Po" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_216Po" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1359813642<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere, i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. The chemical formula for sulfur dioxide is SO2." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMolesOfSulfurDioxide" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Moles of Sulfur Dioxide" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_moles_of_sulfur_dioxide" units="mol s-1"></item> 
    1359913643<item description="The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere, i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. The chemical formula of CFC11 is CFCl3. The IUPAC name fof CFC11 is trichloro-fluoro-methane." label="AtmosphereMolesOfCfc11" title="Atmosphere Moles of Cfc11" uid="atmosphere_moles_of_cfc11" units="mol"></item> 
     13644<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Pu&quot; means the element &quot;plutonium&quot; and &quot;237Pu&quot; is the isotope &quot;plutonium-237&quot; with a half-life of 4.56e+01 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf237PuInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 237Pu in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_237Pu_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1360013645<item description="Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. In chemistry, a 'radical' is a highly reactive, and therefore shortlived, species." label="MassConcentrationOfNitrateRadicalInAir" title="Mass Concentration of Nitrate Radical in Air" uid="mass_concentration_of_nitrate_radical_in_air" units="kg m-3"></item> 
    1360113646<item description="The scattering angle is that between the direction of the beam of incident radiation and the direction into which it is scattered." label="ScatteringAngle" title="Scattering Angle" uid="scattering_angle" units="rad"></item> 
    1360213647<item description="&quot;x&quot; indicates a vector component along the grid x-axis, positive with increasing x. &quot;Displacement&quot; means the change in geospatial position of an object that has moved over time. If possible, the time interval over which the motion took place should be specified using a bounds variable for the time coordinate variable.  A displacement can be represented as a vector. Such a vector should however not be interpreted as describing a rectilinear, constant speed motion but merely as an indication that the start point of the vector is found at the tip of the vector after the time interval associated with the displacement variable.  A displacement does not prescribe a trajectory. Sea ice displacement can be defined as a two-dimensional vector, with no vertical component. An x displacement is calculated from the difference in the moving object's grid x coordinate between the start and end of the time interval associated with the displacement variable." label="SeaIceXDisplacement" title="Sea Ice X Displacement" uid="sea_ice_x_displacement" units="m"></item> 
     13648<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;At&quot; means the element &quot;astatine&quot; and &quot;219At&quot; is the isotope &quot;astatine-219&quot; with a half-life of 6.27e-04 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf219At" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 219At" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_219At" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1360313649<item description="&quot;Land ice&quot; means glaciers, ice-caps and ice-sheets resting on bedrock and also includes ice-shelves. &quot;ground_level&quot; means the land surface (including beneath snow, ice and surface water, if any). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics. &quot;Upward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). The quantity with standard name upward_geothermal_heat_flux_at_ground_level_in_land_ice is the upward heat flux at the interface between the ice and bedrock. It does not include any heat flux from the ocean into an ice shelf." label="UpwardGeothermalHeatFluxAtGroundLevelInLandIce" title="Upward Geothermal Heat Flux At Ground Level in Land Ice" uid="upward_geothermal_heat_flux_at_ground_level_in_land_ice" units="W m-2"></item> 
    1360413650<item description="&quot;frozen_water&quot; means ice. &quot;Volume fraction&quot; is used in the construction volume_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y." label="VolumeFractionOfFrozenWaterInSoil" title="Volume Fraction of Frozen Water in Soil" uid="volume_fraction_of_frozen_water_in_soil" units="1"></item> 
    1360513651<item description="alias::wind_mixing_energy_flux_into_ocean" label="WindMixingEnergyFluxIntoSeaWater" title="Wind Mixing Energy Flux Into Sea Water [alias]" uid="wind_mixing_energy_flux_into_ocean" units="W m-2"></item> 
    1360613652<item description="Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean &quot;net downward&quot;.  When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called &quot;irradiance&quot;.  In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosine-collector light-meter and sometimes called &quot;vector irradiance&quot;.  In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics.  A phrase assuming_condition  indicates that the named quantity is the value which would obtain if all  aspects of the system were unaltered except for the assumption of the  circumstances specified by the condition.  &quot;shortwave&quot; means shortwave radiation." label="DownwellingShortwaveFluxInAirAssumingClearSky" title="Downwelling Shortwave Flux in Air Assuming Clear Sky" uid="downwelling_shortwave_flux_in_air_assuming_clear_sky" units="W m-2"></item> 
     13653<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Ra&quot; means the element &quot;radium&quot; and &quot;225Ra&quot; is the isotope &quot;radium-225&quot; with a half-life of 1.48e+01 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf225RaInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 225Ra in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_225Ra_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1360713654<item description="Friction, leading to the dissipation of kinetic energy, arises in ocean models as a result of the viscosity of sea water.  Generally, the  lateral (xy) viscosity is given a large value to maintain the numerical stability of the model.  In contrast, the vertical viscosity is usually much smaller. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase." label="OceanKineticEnergyDissipationPerUnitAreaDueToVerticalFriction" title="Ocean Kinetic Energy Dissipation Per Unit Area due to Vertical Friction" uid="ocean_kinetic_energy_dissipation_per_unit_area_due_to_vertical_friction" units="W m-2"></item> 
     13655<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Ga&quot; means the element &quot;gallium&quot; and &quot;72Ga&quot; is the isotope &quot;gallium-72&quot; with a half-life of 5.86e-01 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf72GaInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 72Ga in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_72Ga_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13656<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Pu&quot; means the element &quot;plutonium&quot; and &quot;241Pu&quot; is the isotope &quot;plutonium-241&quot; with a half-life of 4.83e+03 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf241Pu" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 241Pu" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_241Pu" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1360813657<item description="Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, whereX is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X).  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. In an atmosphere model, stratiform cloud is that produced by large-scale convergence (not the convection schemes).  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a   single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  Heterogeneous nucleation occurs when a small particle of a substance other than water acts as a freezing or condensation nucleus." label="TendencyOfMassFractionOfStratiformCloudIceInAirDueToHeterogeneousNucleationFromCloudLiquidWater" title="Tendency of Mass Fraction of Stratiform Cloud Ice in Air due to Heterogeneous Nucleation from Cloud Liquid Water" uid="tendency_of_mass_fraction_of_stratiform_cloud_ice_in_air_due_to_heterogeneous_nucleation_from_cloud_liquid_water" units="s-1"></item> 
    1360913658<item description="'Mole concentration' means number of moles per unit volume, also called&quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y, whereX is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical or biological species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time." label="TendencyOfMoleConcentrationOfDissolvedIronInSeaWaterDueToScavengingByInorganicParticles" title="Tendency of Mole Concentration of Dissolved Iron in Sea Water due to Scavenging by Inorganic Particles" uid="tendency_of_mole_concentration_of_dissolved_iron_in_sea_water_due_to_scavenging_by_inorganic_particles" units="mol m-3 s-1"></item> 
     13659<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Sb&quot; means the element &quot;antimony&quot; and &quot;127Sb&quot; is the isotope &quot;antimony-127&quot; with a half-life of 3.80e+00 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf127SbInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 127Sb in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_127Sb_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13660<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Sn&quot; means the element &quot;tin&quot; and &quot;128Sn&quot; is the isotope &quot;tin-128&quot; with a half-life of 4.09e-02 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf128SnInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 128Sn in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_128Sn_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
    1361013661<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for carbon monoxide is CO. The &quot;residential and commercial combustion&quot; sector comprises fuel combustion activities related to the commercial/institutional sector, the residential sector and the agriculture/forestry/fishing sector. It may also include any not-classified or &quot;other&quot; combustion, which is commonly included in the inventory data. &quot;Residential and commercial combustion&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 1A4a, 1A4b and 1A4c as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfCarbonMonoxideDueToEmissionFromResidentialAndCommercialCombustion" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Carbon Monoxide due to Emission from Residential And Commercial Combustion" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_carbon_monoxide_due_to_emission_from_residential_and_commercial_combustion" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1361113662<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for propane is C3H8. Propane is a member of the group of hydrocarbons known as alkanes. There are standard names for the alkane group as well as for some of the individual species. The &quot;residential and commercial combustion&quot; sector comprises fuel combustion activities related to the commercial/institutional sector, the residential sector and the agriculture/forestry/fishing sector. It may also include any not-classified or &quot;other&quot; combustion, which is commonly included in the inventory data. &quot;Residential and commercial combustion&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source categories 1A4a, 1A4b and 1A4c as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfPropaneDueToEmissionFromResidentialAndCommercialCombustion" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Propane due to Emission from Residential And Commercial Combustion" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_propane_due_to_emission_from_residential_and_commercial_combustion" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     
    1361313664<item description="&quot;Eastward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). Transport across_unit_distance means expressed per unit distance normal to the direction of transport. Dry static energy is the sum of enthalpy and potential energy (itself the sum of gravitational and centripetal potential energy). Enthalpy can be written either as (1) CpT, where Cp is heat capacity at constant pressure, T is absolute temperature, or (2) U+pV, where U is internal energy, p is pressure and V is volume." label="EastwardAtmosphereDryStaticEnergyTransportAcrossUnitDistance" title="Eastward Atmosphere Dry Static Energy Transport Across Unit Distance" uid="eastward_atmosphere_dry_static_energy_transport_across_unit_distance" units="W m-1"></item> 
    1361413665<item description="Forecast period is the time interval between the forecast reference time and the validity time. A period is an interval of time, or the time-period of an oscillation." label="ForecastPeriod" title="Forecast Period" uid="forecast_period" units="s"></item> 
     13666<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Tc&quot; means the element &quot;technetium&quot; and &quot;102Tc&quot; is the isotope &quot;technetium-102&quot; with a half-life of 6.12e-05 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf102TcInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 102Tc in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_102Tc_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
     13667<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Xe&quot; means the element &quot;xenon&quot; and &quot;134mXe&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;xenon-134&quot; with a half-life of 3.36e-06 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf134MxeInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 134Mxe in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_134mXe_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1361513668<item description="A velocity is a vector quantity. &quot;Northward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Land ice velocity is defined as a two-dimensional vector, with no vertical component. &quot;Land ice&quot; means glaciers, ice-caps and ice-sheets resting on bedrock and also includes ice-shelves." label="NorthwardLandIceVelocity" title="Northward Land Ice Velocity" uid="northward_land_ice_velocity" units="m s-1"></item> 
     13669<item description="&quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Br&quot; means the element &quot;bromine&quot; and &quot;82mBr&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;bromine-82&quot; with a half-life of 4.24e-03 days." label="RadioactivityConcentrationOf82MbrInAir" title="Radioactivity Concentration of 82Mbr in Air" uid="radioactivity_concentration_of_82mBr_in_air" units="Bq m-3"></item> 
     13670<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for ethane is C2H6. Ethane is a member of the group of hydrocarbons known as alkanes. There are standard names for the alkane group as well as for some of the individual species. The &quot;savanna and grassland fires&quot; sector comprises the burning (natural and human-induced) of living or dead vegetation in non-forested areas. It excludes field burning of agricultural residues. &quot;Savanna and grassland fires&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source category 5 as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfEthaneDueToEmissionFromSavannaAndGrasslandFires" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Ethane due to Emission from Savanna And Grassland Fires" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_ethane_due_to_emission_from_savanna_and_grassland_fires" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13671<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Zr&quot; means the element &quot;zirconium&quot; and &quot;95Zr&quot; is the isotope &quot;zirconium-95&quot; with a half-life of 6.52e+01 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf95Zr" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 95Zr" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_95Zr" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1361613672<item description="The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature." label="TendencyOfAirTemperatureDueToDiabaticProcesses" title="Tendency of Air Temperature due to Diabatic Processes" uid="tendency_of_air_temperature_due_to_diabatic_processes" units="K s-1"></item> 
    13617 <item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including &quot;content_of_atmosphere_layer&quot; are used. The mass is the total mass of the molecules. The specification of a physical process by the phrase &quot;due_to_&quot; process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for ethane is C2H6. Ethane is a member of the group of hydrocarbons known as alkanes. There are standard names for the alkane group as well as for some of the individual species. The &quot;savanna and grassland fires&quot; sector comprises the burning (natural and human-induced) of living or dead vegetation in non-forested areas. It excludes field burning of agricultural residues. &quot;Savanna and grassland fires&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe a collection of emission sources. A variable which has this value for the standard_name attribute should be accompanied by a comment attribute which lists the source categories and provides a reference to the categorization scheme, for example, &quot;IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) source category 5 as defined in the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories&quot;." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfEthaneDueToEmissionFromSavannaAndGrasslandFires" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Ethane due to Emission from Savanna And Grassland Fires" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_ethane_due_to_emission_from_savanna_and_grassland_fires" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1361813673<item description="&quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  The construction &quot;atmosphere_moles_of_X&quot; means the total number of moles of X in the entire atmosphere, i.e. summed over the atmospheric column and over the entire globe. The chemical symbol for atomic nitrogen is N." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMolesOfAtomicNitrogen" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Moles of Atomic Nitrogen" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_moles_of_atomic_nitrogen" units="mol s-1"></item> 
    1361913674<item description="alias::integral_of_sea_water_practical_salinity_wrt_depth" label="IntegralWrtDepthOfSeaWaterPracticalSalinity" title="Integral Wrt Depth of Sea Water Practical Salinity [alias]" uid="integral_of_sea_water_practical_salinity_wrt_depth" units="m"></item> 
     
    1362113676<item description="Mole concentration means number of moles per unit volume, also called &quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical symbol for mercury is Hg." label="MoleConcentrationOfGaseousElementalMercuryInAir" title="Mole Concentration of Gaseous Elemental Mercury in Air" uid="mole_concentration_of_gaseous_elemental_mercury_in_air" units="mol m-3"></item> 
    1362213677<item description="'sea_water_pH_reported_on_total_scale' is the measure of acidity of seawater, defined as the negative logarithm of the concentration of dissolved hydrogen ions plus bisulfate ions in a sea water medium; it can be measured or calculated; when measured the scale is defined according to a series of buffers prepared in artificial seawater containing bisulfate.  The quantity may be written as pH(total) = -log([H+](free) + [HSO4-])." label="SeaWaterPhReportedOnTotalScale" title="Sea Water Ph Reported on Total Scale" uid="sea_water_ph_reported_on_total_scale" units="1"></item> 
     13678<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Y&quot; means the element &quot;yttrium&quot; and &quot;90mY&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;yttrium-90&quot; with a half-life of 1.33e-01 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf90My" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 90My" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_90mY" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1362313679<item description="&quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area.  The &quot;atmosphere content&quot; of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a  single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity  named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;tendency_of_X&quot; means derivative of X with respect to time.  &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for methanol is CH3OH." label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfMethanolDueToEmission" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Methanol due to Emission" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_methanol_due_to_emission" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     13680<item description="&quot;Upward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="UpwardHeatFluxInSeaWaterDueToConvection" title="Upward Heat Flux in Sea Water due to Convection" uid="upward_heat_flux_in_sea_water_due_to_convection" units="W m-2"></item> 
    1362413681<item description="alias::tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_particulate_organic_matter_dry_aerosol_expressed_as_carbon_due_to_emission_from_land_transport" label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfParticulateOrganicMatterDryAerosolParticlesExpressedAsCarbonDueToEmissionFromLandTransport" title="Tendency of Atmosphere Mass Content of Particulate Organic Matter Dry Aerosol Particles Expressed As Carbon due to Emission from Land Transport [alias]" uid="tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_particulate_organic_matter_dry_aerosol_expressed_as_carbon_due_to_emission_from_land_transport" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    13625 <item description="&quot;Upward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="UpwardHeatFluxInSeaWaterDueToConvection" title="Upward Heat Flux in Sea Water due to Convection" uid="upward_heat_flux_in_sea_water_due_to_convection" units="W m-2"></item> 
    1362613682<item description="Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean &quot;net downward&quot;. Photon radiance is the photon flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction from which it is coming must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead. A photon flux is specified in terms of numbers of photons expressed in moles." label="DownwellingPhotonRadianceInSeaWater" title="Downwelling Photon Radiance in Sea Water" uid="downwelling_photon_radiance_in_sea_water" units="mol m-2 s-1 sr-1"></item> 
    1362713683<item description="alias::grid_northward_wind" label="YWind" title="Y Wind [alias]" uid="grid_northward_wind" units="m s-1"></item> 
     
    1362913685<item description="Mole concentration means number of moles per unit volume, also called &quot;molarity&quot;, and is used in the construction mole_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for aceto-nitrile is CH3CN. The IUPAC name for aceto-nitrile is ethanenitrile." label="MoleConcentrationOfAcetoNitrileInAir" title="Mole Concentration of Aceto Nitrile in Air" uid="mole_concentration_of_aceto_nitrile_in_air" units="mol m-3"></item> 
    1363013686<item description="Mole fraction is used in the construction mole_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons, i.e. they do not contain any chemical double bonds. Alkanes contain only hydrogen and carbon combined in the general proportions C(n)H(2n+2); &quot;alkanes&quot; is the term used in standard names to describe the group of chemical species having this common structure that are represented within a given model. The list of individual species that are included in a quantity having a group chemical standard name can vary between models. Where possible, the data variable should be accompanied by a complete description of the species represented, for example, by using a comment attribute. Standard names exist for some individual alkane species, e.g., methane and ethane." label="MoleFractionOfAlkanesInAir" title="Mole Fraction of Alkanes in Air" uid="mole_fraction_of_alkanes_in_air" units="1"></item> 
     13687<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Pm&quot; means the element &quot;promethium&quot; and &quot;152mPm&quot; is the metastable state of the isotope &quot;promethium-152&quot; with a half-life of 1.25e-02 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf152Mpm" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 152Mpm" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_152mPm" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
     13688<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. &quot;Content&quot; indicates a quantity per unit area. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Pu&quot; means the element &quot;plutonium&quot; and &quot;245Pu&quot; is the isotope &quot;plutonium-245&quot; with a half-life of 4.16e-01 days." label="SurfaceRadioactivityContentOf245Pu" title="Surface Radioactivity Content of 245Pu" uid="surface_radioactivity_content_of_245Pu" units="Bq m-2"></item> 
    1363113689<item description="&quot;Upward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward).  The phrase 'expressed_as' is used in the construction A_expressed_as_B, where B is a chemical constituent of A. It means that the quantity indicated by the standard name is calculated solely with respect to the B contained in A, neglecting all other chemical constituents of A. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics.  The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere.  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase.  &quot;Emission&quot; means emission from a primary source located anywhere within the atmosphere, including at the lower boundary (i.e. earth's surface). &quot;Emission&quot; is a process entirely distinct from &quot;re-emission&quot; which is used in some standard names. The chemical formula for carbon dioxide is CO2." label="SurfaceUpwardMassFluxOfCarbonDioxideExpressedAsCarbonDueToEmissionFromGrazing" title="Surface Upward Mass Flux of Carbon Dioxide Expressed As Carbon due to Emission from Grazing" uid="surface_upward_mass_flux_of_carbon_dioxide_expressed_as_carbon_due_to_emission_from_grazing" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
    1363213690<item description="The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. The water_flux_out_of_sea_water_due_to_newtonian_relaxation is the freshwater leaving as a result of the Newtonian relaxation of the sea surface salinity. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="WaterFluxOutOfSeaWaterDueToNewtonianRelaxation" title="Water Flux Out of Sea Water due to Newtonian Relaxation" uid="water_flux_out_of_sea_water_due_to_newtonian_relaxation" units="kg m-2 s-1"></item> 
     
    1363413692<item description="cloud_top refers to the top of the highest cloud. brightness_temperature of a body is the temperature of a black body which radiates the same power per unit solid angle per unit area. A coordinate variable of radiation_wavelength, sensor_band_central_radiation_wavelength, or radiation_frequency may be specified to indicate that the brightness temperature applies at specific wavelengths or frequencies." label="BrightnessTemperatureAtCloudTop" title="Brightness Temperature At Cloud Top" uid="brightness_temperature_at_cloud_top" units="K"></item> 
    1363513693<item description="Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean &quot;net downward&quot;.  When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called &quot;irradiance&quot;.  In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosine-collector light-meter and sometimes called &quot;vector irradiance&quot;.  In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics.  &quot;shortwave&quot; means shortwave radiation." label="DownwellingShortwaveFluxInSeaWater" title="Downwelling Shortwave Flux in Sea Water" uid="downwelling_shortwave_flux_in_sea_water" units="W m-2"></item> 
     13694<item description="The phrase &quot;integral_wrt_X_of_Y&quot; means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase &quot;wrt&quot; means &quot;with respect to&quot;. &quot;Radioactivity&quot; means the number of radioactive decays of a material per second. &quot;Radioactivity concentration&quot; means radioactivity per unit volume of the medium. &quot;Ce&quot; means the element &quot;cerium&quot; and &quot;146Ce&quot; is the isotope &quot;cerium-146&quot; with a half-life of 9.86e-03 days." label="IntegralWrtTimeOfRadioactivityConcentrationOf146CeInAir" title="Integral Wrt Time of Radioactivity Concentration of 146Ce in Air" uid="integral_wrt_time_of_radioactivity_concentration_of_146Ce_in_air" units="Bq s m-3"></item> 
    1363613695<item description="Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X).  A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. The chemical formula for alpha_hexachlorocyclohexane is C6H6Cl6." label="MassFractionOfAlphaHexachlorocyclohexaneInAir" title="Mass Fraction of Alpha Hexachlorocyclohexane in Air" uid="mass_fraction_of_alpha_hexachlorocyclohexane_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    1363713696<item description="Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of X to the mass of Y (including X)." label="MassFractionOfCloudIceInAir" title="Mass Fraction of Cloud Ice in Air" uid="mass_fraction_of_cloud_ice_in_air" units="1"></item> 
    1363813697<item description="&quot;shortwave&quot; means shortwave radiation. &quot;Upward&quot; indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). Net upward radiation is the difference between radiation from below (upwelling) and radiation from above (downwelling). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="NetUpwardShortwaveFluxInAir" title="Net Upward Shortwave Flux in Air" uid="net_upward_shortwave_flux_in_air" units="W m-2"></item> 
     13698<item description="alias::upward_air_velocity_expressed_as_tendency_of_sigma" label="LagrangianTendencyOfAtmosphereSigmaCoordinate" title="Lagrangian Tendency of Atmosphere Sigma Coordinate [alias]" uid="upward_air_velocity_expressed_as_tendency_of_sigma" units="s-1"></item> 
    1363913699<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. A velocity is a vector quantity. &quot;x&quot; indicates a vector component along the grid x-axis, positive with increasing x. &quot;Geostrophic&quot; indicates that geostrophic balance is assumed, i.e. that the pressure gradient force and the Coriolis force are balanced and the large scale fluid flow is parallel to the isobars. The quantity with standard name surface_geostrophic_sea_water_x_velocity is the sum of a variable part, surface_geostrophic_sea_water_x_velocity_assuming_mean_sea_level_for_geoid, and a constant part due to the stationary component of ocean circulation." label="SurfaceGeostrophicSeaWaterXVelocity" title="Surface Geostrophic Sea Water X Velocity" uid="surface_geostrophic_sea_water_x_velocity" units="m s-1"></item> 
    13640 <item description="alias::upward_air_velocity_expressed_as_tendency_of_sigma" label="LagrangianTendencyOfAtmosphereSigmaCoordinate" title="Lagrangian Tendency of Atmosphere Sigma Coordinate [alias]" uid="upward_air_velocity_expressed_as_tendency_of_sigma" units="s-1"></item> 
    1364113700<item description="The surface called &quot;surface&quot; means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. A phrase assuming_condition indicates that the named quantity is the value which would obtain if all aspects of the system were unaltered except for the assumption of the circumstances specified by the condition. &quot;shortwave&quot; means shortwave radiation. Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean &quot;net upward&quot;. When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called &quot;irradiance&quot;. In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosine-collector light-meter and sometimes called &quot;vector irradiance&quot;. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, &quot;flux&quot; implies per unit area, called &quot;flux density&quot; in physics." label="SurfaceUpwellingShortwaveFluxInAirAssumingClearSky" title="Surface Upwelling Shortwave Flux in Air Assuming Clear Sky" uid="surface_upwelling_shortwave_flux_in_air_assuming_clear_sky" units="W m-2"></item> 
    1364213701<item description="alias::tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_content_of_particulate_organic_matter_dry_aerosol_expressed_as_carbon_due_to_emission_from_residential_and_commercial_combustion" label="TendencyOfAtmosphereMassContentOfParticu